Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Validation Phase

Validation Phase

The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSP) Validation Phase focused on evaluating the most promising regional opportunities to deploy carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies through a number of small-scale field projects (injection of less than 500,000 metric tons of CO2 per year). The Validation Phase field test efforts were designed to demonstrate that regional storage formations have the capability to store CO2 and provide the foundation for larger volume, commercial-scale projects.

The field projects focused on developing a better understanding of CO2 storage in different types of geologic depositional environment storage reservoir classes. Understanding these different storage classes provides insight into how the systems influence fluid flow within these systems. These storage reservoirs contain fluids that may include natural gas, oil, or saline water—any of which may impact CO2 storage. The data gathered during these small-scale projects provided valuable information regarding specific formations that have not been evaluated for the purpose of CO2 storage. Specific objectives of small-scale field projects in the RCSP Validation Phase included:

  • Confirm storage resources and injectivity established for target reservoirs.

  • Validate the effectiveness of simulation models and MVA technologies to predict and measure CO2 movement in the geologic formations and confirm the integrity of the seals.

  • Develop guidelines for well completion, operations, and abandonment in order to maximize CO2 storage potential and mitigate release.

  • Satisfy the regulatory permitting requirements for small-scale CCS projects.

  • Gather field data to improve estimates for storage capacity that could be used to update regional and national storage resource estimates.

The Validation Phase accounted for 19 total small-scale field projects. These projects helped to facilitate future CCS opportunities in North America and provided a foundation for implementation of the large-scale field tests in the Development Phase. More than 1 million metric tons of CO2 were injected by the 19 RCSP Validation Phase Field projects.

Field Test Locations for the RCSP Validation Phase
(Click on the specific RCSP Region name icon to attain the Validation Phase Fact Sheet)

Number on Map Project Name RCSP Project Type Injection Formations (Reservoir) CO2 Injected
(metric tons)
April 2012
1 Walulla Basalt Pilot Study BSCSP Basalt Interflow Zones, Grande Ronde Basalt 1,000*
2 Loudon Single Well Huff N Puff Project MGSC Huff N Puff EOR Cypress and Mississippi Weiler Sandstone 39
3 Mumford Hills Project MGSC Enhanced Oil Recovery Clore Sandstone 6,300
4 Sugar Creek Project MGSC Enhanced Oil Recovery Jackson Sandstone 6,560
5 Tanquary Well Project MGSC Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Springfield Coal 91
6 Appalachian Basin Geologic Test at the R.E. Power Plant: Fegenco Fell MRCSP Saline Storage Clinton Sandstone
Salina Formation
Oriskany Sand Stone
7 Duke Energy – East Bend Well Site MRCSP Saline Storage Mt. Simon 910
8 Michigan Basin Geologic Test MRCSP Saline Storage Bass Island Dolomite 60,000
9 Zama Acid Gas EOR, CO2 Storage, and Monitoring Project PCOR Enhanced Oil Recovery Middle Devonian Keg River Formation 133,550 acid gas
10 Lignite CCS Project PCOR ECBM Lignite Seams in Ft. Union Formation 80
11 Northwest McGregor EOR Huff N Puff Project PCOR Huff N Puff EOR Mission Canyon Limestone 400
12 Gulf Coast Stacked Storage Project SECARB Enhanced Oil Recovery Tuscaloosa Formation 627,744
13 Plant Daniel Project SECARB Saline Storage Massive Sand, Lower Tuscaloosa 2,740
14 Central Appalachian Basin Coal Test SECARB Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Pocahontas and Lee Formation 907
15 Black Warrior Project SECARB Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Pottsville Formation (coal zones) 252
16 Aneth EOR Sequestration Test SWP Enhanced Oil Recovery Desert Creek and Ismay Formation 292,000
17 SACROC CO2 Injection Project SWP Enhanced Oil Recovery Horseshoe Atoll and Pennsylvanian Reef/Bank Play 157,000
18 Pump Canyon CO2-ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration SWP Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Fruitland Coal Formation 16,700
19 Arizona Utilities CO2 Storage Pilot WESTCARB Saline Storage Martin and Naco Formations -

*Injection Planned

The geologic data acquired through these studies was instrumental in further refining the regional CO2 storage resource calculations within each RCSP. The completed tests have provided valuable information to better understand each region's geologic CO2 storage potential and determine specific areas within each RCSP that are in need of future research.

Other activities included refining regional characterizations, public outreach and education, and regulatory compliance issues for the respective field projects. The knowledge gained from these validation procedures and tests is being used to develop commercially viable technologies that will be integral to a carbon management strategy. The results of the field tests prove that the regional capacity and injectivity exists for commercialization.

Lessons learned from these validation phase projects are being integrated into the large-scale projects in the Development Phase, which includes more detailed characterization, injection, and monitoring of larger volumes of CO2 in subsurface formations. DOE is compiling the lessons learned from the RCSPs in a series of best practices manuals.