Carbon management can be achieved by permanently storing captured carbon in natural systems or other resources via carbon mineralization processes. Carbon mineralization is the process in which carbon dioxide (CO2) precipitates into carbonate minerals when exposed to silicate minerals enriched with calcium (Ca) or magnesium (Mg), non-silicate mineral reactants, or enzyme catalysis with appropriate cations (e.g., CO2 laden with brines). Natural resources for carbon mineralization which are highly reactive with CO2 include natural brines and mafic/ultramafic rocks and minerals. In addition, waters produced during subsurface mineral or element extraction processes and other alkaline industrial waste products are similar in composition to ultramafic minerals (e.g., wollastonite) and would directly or indirectly react with CO2 to yield carbon-trapping minerals or would otherwise support mineralization of CO2. These types of carbon mineralization processes offer a means to store CO2 in various geologic settings, including within significant basalt formations.
The Carbon Mineralization Program is dedicated to developing resource assessments for carbon management focusing on:
Projects in the Carbon Mineralization Program support the resource assessments by: