Search Publications

Search Publications


Back Button

Welcome to the Energy Analysis Search Publications page. Hundreds of Energy Analysis related publications can be found in this repository. To get started, begin filtering the results below by using the quick filters located on the Search Publications Landing Page or search within filtered results by using the search box below. 


Sort Preference:


Search Terms
Technology Focus: carbon storage

FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model (2017)

Date: 9/30/2017
Contact: Timothy Grant

The FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model estimates costs to store a tonne of CO2 in a saline reservoir. The model estimates costs associated with a project, using simplified geo-engineering equations to calculate reservoir values needed to determine injection well costs, monitoring costs, financial responsibility costs, etc. All of these costs are summed over the life of a CO2 storage project and discounted to a NPV of near zero to determine the first-year break-even cost to store a tonne of CO2. The FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model (2017): User's Manual provides some details on the use of this model.


Supplementary File for FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model – Baseline Modeling Results

Date: 9/30/2017
Contact: David Morgan

This spreadsheet is a supplementary file to the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model and is populated after running the Multiple Formation Evaluation macro within the model. A summary of the results (e.g. break-even analysis and total amount of CO2 stored) for all selected formations within the FE/NETL CO2 Storage Cost Model’s geologic database is provided in each of the five worksheets (Res_Bas1, Res_CatP1, Res_CatV1, Res_FRWat1, and Res_SUStg1) within this file. Each time the Multiple Formation Evaluation macro is run, five new worksheets will be inserted into this workbook with the same number. If other runs are performed, five new worksheets will populate with another number. The model and this file are programmed to recognize each other. For proper function, download this file, save it in the same folder as the model, and make sure its name matches the name posted on the ‘Key_Inputs’ worksheet in Cell D28 within the model.


FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model (2017): User’s Manual

Date: 9/30/2017
Contact: Timothy Grant

The Fossil Energy (FE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Saline Storage Cost Model is an Excel-based tool that estimates the first-year break-even price of storing CO2 in a deep saline aquifer from the perspective of the owner of a CO2 storage site through its four modules (Project Management, Financial, Activity Cost, and Geologic). The purpose of this manual is to assist the modeler in understanding the functions of the Storage Cost Model. This manual will outline the major outputs, present a general understanding of how the outputs are calculated, and provide a more detailed understanding of how a modeler can edit the inputs to affect outputs for evaluating an onshore storage project.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CCS

Date: 4/5/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at a?California Air Resources Board workshop in April, 2015 and provided the technical details behind and results from an LCA of carbon capture and sequestration from fossil power systems such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC),?renewable fuel systems, and ethanol production.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CCUS - Goal and Scope Definition

Date: 11/12/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at an International Energy Agency Meeting in London in November, 2015, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 1b: Bituminous Coal (IGCC) to Electricity Revision 2b – Year Dollar Update

Date: 7/31/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report presents the cost and performance results of an assessment of seven integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. The primary value of this report lies not in the absolute accuracy of the capital cost estimates for the individual cases (estimated to be -15 percent/ 30), but in the application of a consistent approach to allow meaningful comparisons of relative costs among the cases evaluated. This report, Volume 1b, retains the IGCC design and performance updates from the November 2010 release of Volume 1 (Revision 2)1, but updates the IGCC costs for all cases to 2011 year dollars. Volume 1a covers the cost and performance update of all pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) cases. Section 4 has a revision control table listing the updates applied to this report.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 1a: Bituminous Coal (PC) and Natural Gas to Electricity Revision 3

Date: 7/6/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, all with and without carbon capture and storage. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Fossil Energy R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. This is believed to provide the most comprehensive set of cost and performance data using bituminous coal available in the public literature to date. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building utility projects.


CO2 Storage Lecture - Carnegie Mellon University (2015)

Date: 2/17/2015
Contact: Timothy Grant

An update of last year's presentation, this power-point presentation provides a basic introduction to storage of captured CO2, modeling parameters driving costs modeled by the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, associated Class VI regulations and supporting illustrations from some Class VI permit applications and an update of Class VI permit activity.


Which Reservoir for Low Cost Capture, Transportation, and Storage?

Date: 11/1/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

Quality and location of a carbon dioxide (CO2) storage reservoir are critical for low cost carbon capture and storage (CCS). This analysis models the combination of capture, transportation, and storage costs to estimate a total cost of CCS. Cost of capture at the source is available for annual rates between 4.1 and 0.7 million tonnes of CO2. Cost of transportation is modeled for the distance between the source and the storage reservoir. Cost of CO2 storage is modeled for four representative reservoirs, two Rose Run and two Mt Simon reservoirs, each reservoir in a dome or regional dip structural setting.


Baseline Analysis of Crude Methanol Production from Coal and Natural Gas

Date: 10/15/2014
Contact: William Summers

Gasification of coal, in addition to generating syngas for power production, has the potential to produce a diverse array of high-value products. It is a challenge to understand the optimal use of this domestic coal resource amidst the potential technology options, product slates (including co-production of power), and competing feedstocks (natural gas, petroleum). This analysis seeks to begin addressing that challenge by focusing on one primary product, methanol, which also serves as a readily-transportable intermediate to many other products including olefins, gasoline, and di-methyl ether (DME).


FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model: Model Description and Baseline Results

Date: 7/18/2014
Contact: David Morgan

A report that describes the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, and presents the assumptions and results for the Baseline Case. The Baseline Case provides an estimate of storage costs based on currently available technology.


FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model: Description and User's Manual

Date: 7/11/2014
Contact: David Morgan

A report that describes the FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model, discusses user input to the model and provides example output from the model.


FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model

Date: 7/11/2014
Contact: David Morgan

The FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based tool that calculates the net present value for a project that transports liquid CO2 by pipeline. The model includes the capital costs, operating costs, financing costs and revenues for the project. The model can calculate the break-even first year price (or cost) for transporting a tonne of CO2 by finding the price that yields a net present value of zero for the project. The user provides a variety of inputs including the annual mass of CO2 to be transported, the pipeline length, the years of operation and financial parameters.


FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model: Model Overview

Date: 7/11/2014
Contact: David Morgan

A presentation that provides an overview of the FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model


CO2-EOR Offshore Resource Assessment

Date: 6/1/2014
Contact: Evelyn Dale

The Gulf of Mexico accounts for about 20 percent of total domestic crude oil production. Since reaching a peak of 1.54 million barrels a day in 2003, Gulf of Mexico’s OCS oil production has declined to 1.23 MMB/D, as of mid-2013. While there is optimism that new discoveries in the deep and ultra-deep waters of the GOM OCS will reverse this decline, another option seems to offer even more promise -- the application of CO2 enhanced oil recovery.


Produced Waters: Expansion of the CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model - Development of Cost Data for Water Production, Utilization, and Disposal

Date: 5/23/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

This slide deck presentation discusses production/withdrawal of CO2 storage reservoir formation waters and surface treatment of these waters for utilization and/or disposal.  Cost data is provided for treatment and disposal methods discussed.


Acquisition and Development of Selected Cost Data for Saline Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Date: 5/14/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

This report presents cost data and recommends cost estimation methods for costs associated with CO2 injection and surface facility management, including well equipment, onsite booster compression.  Where water is produced for pressure management in saline aquifers, costs for water production, water injection, and associated surface treatment and wellhead equipment (along with associated piping and facilities) is provided.  Comparable cost estimation recommendations are provided for CO2-EOR operations, including the costs associated with oil and water management and production, and CO2 recycling.


A Review of the CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure in the U.S.

Date: 4/21/2014
Contact: Donald Remson

This report provides an overview of the state of CO2 pipeline infrastructure, both the existing and the current planned expansion based on industry announcements. In addition, EP-NEMS, a modified version of EIA's 2014 NEMS model, was used to run three cases in order to provide a snapshot of potential CO2 pipeline expansion under various carbon policy scenarios. The three scenarios studied were a reference case, an extended policies case (Cap40), and a carbon price case (CP25). The report also contains an overview of the current permitting, regulations, and policies involved with CO2 pipeline infrastructure.


Near-Term Projections of CO2 Utilization for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 4/1/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 a total of 113 CO2-EOR projects inject 3.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) (60 million metric tons (MMmt) per year) of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the United States. The associated crude oil production in 2012 was 282,000 barrels per day. Based on the increased volumes of CO2 supplies, the completion of major CO2 pipelines, and the announced new, large-scale CO2-EOR floods, production of crude oil from CO2-EOR floods is forecast to grow significantly, reaching 615,000 barrels per day from at least 124 active CO2 floods by year 2020. While the Permian Basin remains the largest CO2-EOR oil producer, much of the growth occurs in the Gulf Coast, the Rockies, and the Mid-Continent.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the United States. Volume II: Exploration of CO2 Systems

Date: 3/26/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

A study of the genesis and tectonic setting of subsurface CO2 systems in the United States indicates that undiscovered CO2 reservoirs could contribute materially to CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery. Five geographic areas are estimated to contain 42 Tcf of risked technically recoverable CO2 resource (TRR). Two lead areas near the Permian Basin, Val Verde and San Juan, contain 34 Tcf CO2 risked TRR, an amount roughly equivalent to the remaining TRR in discovered reservoirs that are currently supplying the region. The number of lead areas studied was limited and the aggregate TRR estimates are not comprehensive.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the Contiguous United States. Volume 1: Discovered Reservoirs

Date: 3/5/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

Twenty-one CO2 fields in the contiguous states contain an estimated 311 Tcf of CO2 gas-initially-in-place (GIIP). Of that, 168 Tcf (54 percent) is estimated to be accessible and technically recoverable. The estimated economically recoverable resource (ERR) is 96.4 Tcf, based on a CO2 price of 1.06 $/mcf ($20/tonne) at the field gate. Cumulative production to date is 18.9 Tcf, leaving 77.5 Tcf remaining or net ERR. The Big Piney-LaBarge field in Wyoming contains an estimated net ERR of 52 Tcf, 67 percent of the total for the United States. The remaining ERR in reservoirs that feed into the Permian Basin and Gulf Coast is on the order of 10-20 years of supply.


Next Generation Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 3/1/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

Presentation slide deck from the CO2 Utilization Congress. Draws on recent NETL analyses and other sources to present: (1) a primer on CO2 EOR, (2) an overview of the current status of CO2 EOR in North America, (3) a description of next generation CO2 EOR technology, and (4) an estimate of the size of the resource in the United States.


CO2 Storage: A lecture presented at Carnegie Mellon University (2014)

Date: 2/25/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

This power-point presentation provides a basic introduction to storage of captured CO2, modeling parameters driving costs modeled by the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, associated Class VI regulations and supporting illustrations from some Class VI permit applications.


Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

Date: 2/12/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

The purpose of this guideline is to provide an estimate of the cost of CO2 transport and storage (T&S) in a deep saline aquifer for the plant locations in the four geologic basins where coal is soured and used in the energy system studies sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).


Cost and Performance Metrics Used to Assess Carbon Utilization and Storage Technologies

Date: 2/11/2014
Contact: Gregory Hackett

The report presents a diverse set of twelve metrics grouped under the subheadings of performance, cost, emissions, market, and safety that have been developed for use in comparing and/or screening CO2 utilization projects and technologies. Utilization technologies could involve the chemical conversion of CO2 into valued products such as polycarbonate plastics, or the integration of CO2 into products such as cement or concrete.


Novel CO2 Utilization Concepts: Working Paper

Date: 11/1/2013
Contact: Robert James

Final Report on CO2 Utilization Concepts, detailing screening and detailed studies of concepts using CO2 for product generation, giving results of CO2 use and cost of production.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 9/27/2013
Contact: William Summers

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture

Date: 9/19/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.


An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.


Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Coal Fleet: Impacts of R&D and CO2 EOR Revenue

Date: 6/26/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

In a 2nd generation CO2 capture market (2030) with no carbon regulations, compare business-as-usual to CO2 retrofits for enhanced oil recovery. Specifically, this presentation discusses the CCRD database design and operational details, discusses the improvements of 2nd generation capture technology, and how EOR revenue promotes more competitive dispatch.


Current and Future Technologies for Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plants

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Walter Shelton

The purpose of this study is to present the cost and performance of natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants using state-of-the-art (SOA) and advanced gas turbines, both non-capture configurations and with post Adv. Combustion Systems carbon capture based on an advanced solvent process. The NGCC cases included in this study consist of four gas turbine designs: F-frame (GE 7FA.05), H-frame (based on Siemens H), advanced J-frame (based on MHI J), and a conceptual advanced future design (designated as X-frame). Each turbine is modeled in three process configurations: without CO2 capture, with CO2 capture, and with CO2 capture and exhaust gas recycle (EGR).


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool Report

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Report)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life cycle analysis of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant develops an inventory of emissions results and calculates life cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Model)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Presentation)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Fact Sheet)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Evaluation of Options to Handle CO2 Capture, Transport and Sequestration Disruptions: Amine-, Oxycombustion-, and IGCC-based Plant Design Issues

Date: 5/10/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

The purpose of this guideline is to provide an understanding of the potential for disruptions in the carbon dioxide capture and storage process and the consequences for fossil power plants.


Summary of Costs Associated with Seismic Data Acquisition and Processing

Date: 4/12/2013
Contact: David Morgan

A summary of cost data for seismic data acquisition and processing used in the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model. Cost data are presented for 2-D seismic, 3-D seismic, vertical seismic profiling, crosswell seismic and microseismic technologies.


A Forecast of Crude Oil Production from Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States through 2018

Date: 3/1/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery operations in the United States is expected to increase 64% between 2012 and 2018, from 3.3 BCFd to 5.4 BCFd. The CO2 utilization rate (URNet the amount of CO2 supplied per incremental barrel of crude oil produced) can be used to estimate crude oil production based on CO2 supply rate. Based on compiled historical data we estimate the following regional CO2 Utilization rates: Permian basin, 8,500 scf/bbl, Rocky mountain, 8,000 scf/bbl, Gulf Coast, 25,000 scf/bbl. Applying these rates to the regional forecast for CO2 supply we forecast production from CO2 EOR in the United States in 2018 will be 500,000 bpd.


North American CO2 Supply and Developments

Date: 1/9/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil. The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region. Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.


FE/NETL CTS-Saline Cost Model (Presentation)

Date: 10/17/2012
Contact: Timothy Grant

This presentation illustrates the basic framework of the FE/NETL CTS-Saline Cost Model. A test matrix was developed to test the model under different storage project scenarios. The results of this test matrix are presented. Also, an illustrative example is provided of how the cost model can be used to estimate the cost-reducing potential of NETL's R&D work in carbon storage.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) - LCA XII Presentation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases

Date: 8/23/2012
Contact: Timothy Fout

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 6/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 6/29/2012
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 5/11/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Thomas Tarka

The conversion of domestic resources such as coal and biomass into diesel fuel is a near-term technology pathway to address the energy security, economic sustainability, and Climate Change Risk Mitigation concerns which currently face our nation. This study evaluates the economic viability and environmental impact of producing diesel fuel via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Two facility design approaches – focused on fuels production and the co-production of fuels and electricity, respectively – were evaluated for the conversion of domestic resources such as coal or a mixture of coal and biomass.


A Note on Sources of CO2 Supply for Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

Date: 4/1/2012
Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper presents compiled information on sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in the United States. CO2 supply in 2010 was 58 MtCO2. Production from natural sources accounted for 85% of the 2010 CO2 supply. Natural gas processing accounted for 13% of 2010 supply. The forecast rate of CO2 supply in 2015 is 93 MtCO2/yr, a 60% increase over the 2010 level. Hydrocarbon conversion facilities with CO2 capture account for 36% of the projected growth between 2010 and 2015. NOTE: This article was published in Apr 2012 SPE Economics & Management.


NEMS-CCUS: A Model and Framework for Comprehensive Assessment of CCUS and Infrastructure

Date: 2/7/2012
Contact: Charles Zelek

This paper presents a recent application of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded NEMS-CCUS (National Energy Modeling System - CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage) Model which enables the simulation of CO2 pipelines and pipeline networks across the forty-eight contiguous states. The model was used to assess the role of CO2 capture, utilization and storage in both carbon tax and clean energy standard (CES) cases. The paper was presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference held in Orlando, Florida, USA, February 7–9, 2012.


NETL CO2 Injection and Storage Cost Model

Date: 2/7/2012
Contact: Timothy Grant

The basic framework for this model provides costs for compliance with various sections of EPA's Class VI regulation and Subpart RR of the GHG Reporting Program. Cost analysis at two levels is provided by this model: site specific where the modeler can enter their own reservoir and cost data and regional in the form of cost supply curves. This model includes costs from initial regional geologic evaluation through site characterization, permitting, injection/MVA operations, post-injection site care to final site closure and transfer to long-term stewardship. A geologic and cost database was developed to support this model.


Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-by-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions

Date: 2/6/2012
Contact: Charles Zelek

"Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-by-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions: There Can be No Learning if There is No Doing" Historical data has shown that as new technologies penetrate the market, costs are often reduced with each doubling in capacity because of economies of scale, experience, and other factors typically represented by learning curves. Learning curves are used by many models to forecast future capital costs for energy technologies including carbon capture. Caution should be taken when using learning curves to predict future capital costs because of the wide variation in learning rates and inability to separate the impacts of R&D. It is important to note that while learning-by-doing can bring costs down once a technology deploys, R&D is still necessary for the technology to become cost competitive prior to commercialization.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: Gregory Hackett

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Timothy Fout

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: F-T Based SPK-1 Case Study (Report)

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), NETL conducted an LCA (LCA) of 10 fuel production pathways using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These pathways use varying combinations of coal and swithgrass feedstocks and two options for carbon management (sequestration or enhanced oil recovery). Only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are inventoried. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrate that higher percentages of biomass result in lower life cycle GHG emissions when using switchgrass. The choice of carbon management strategy has an effect on the results.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements - 2011 Update

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using EIA AEO 2011 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements.


Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011

Date: 9/29/2011
Contact: William Summers

In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.


Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion as a Near-Term CO2 Mitigation Strategy

Date: 9/14/2011
Contact: Eric Grol

Circulating fluidized bed combustion systems have the potential to meet strict air quality guidelines currently being proposed (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate). In addition, their fuel-flexibility can also allow for co-firing carbon neutral opportunity fuels, such as biomass, therefore reducing the CO2 footprint in the near-term. Building these plants with attention to the design considerations that will be needed to accommodate eventual CO2 capture (capture-ready) can also help future integration of full-scale capture.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 9/12/2011
Contact: Gregory Hackett

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: F-T Based SPK-1 Case Study (Presentation)

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal to Electricity

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity contains three separate reports including 28 cases: integrated gasification combined cycle plants (Volume 3a), combustion plants (Volume 3b), and natural gas combined cycle plants (Volume 3c). This study establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. Most of the coal fired plants are studied using both Rosebud Montana Powder River Basin Coal (PRB) at a Montana site at an elevation of 3,400 feet and North Dakota Lignite (NDL) at a mine-mouth North Dakota site at an elevation of 1,900 feet. NGCC plants are also studied at both locations. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market condi


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study (Model)

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), NETL conducted an LCA of 10 fuel production pathways using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These pathways use varying combinations of coal and swithgrass feedstocks and two options for carbon management (sequestration or enhanced oil recovery). Only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are inventoried. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrate that higher percentages of biomass result in lower life cycle GHG emissions when using switchgrass. The choice of carbon management strategy has an effect on the results.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs. This is a life cycle environmental and cost analysis of ethanol using starch and cellulosic feedstocks. It provides a life cycle comparison of three tiers of technology, three types of biomass feedstocks, and two fuel-blending compositions for a total of 18 distinct pathways. When ethanol is blended with gasoline at an 85/15 ratio between ethanol and gasoline, the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are highly variable due to different feedstock types and ethanol production technologies. The biochemical conversion of cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol has the lowest GHG emissions in this analysis, because of the energy recovered at the ethanol plant.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia (Presentation)

Date: 7/5/2011
Contact: William Summers

Presentation of Volume 2: This report establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. This is believed to provide the most comprehensive set of cost and performance data available in the public literature to date. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building projects.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia (Report)

Date: 7/5/2011
Contact: William Summers

This report establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. This is believed to provide the most comprehensive set of cost and performance data available in the public literature to date. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building projects.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Presentation)

Date: 7/1/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity contains three separate reports including 28 cases: integrated gasification combined cycle plants (Volume 3a), combustion plants (Volume 3b), and natural gas combined cycle plants (Volume 3c). This study establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. Most of the coal fired plants are studied using both Rosebud Montana Powder River Basin Coal (PRB) at a Montana site at an elevation of 3,400 feet and North Dakota Lignite (NDL) at a mine-mouth North Dakota site at an elevation of 1,900 feet. NGCC plants are also studied at both locations. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for coal-fueled plants


A Benefits Analysis of the Existing Plants Emissions and Capture (EPEC) Program

Date: 6/28/2011
Contact: Charles Zelek

This paper presents an analysis of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, and Capture (EPEC) program. The overall goal of NETL’s EPEC program is to develop carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies that limit the increase in the cost of electricity generation to 35 percent of that generated by an equivalent greenfield plant without CCUS. The analysis was made using NETL’s Carbon Transport and Storage (CTS) model integrated into the Energy Information Administration (EIA) National Energy Modeling Software (NEMS).


Improving Domestic Energy Security and Lowering CO2 Emissions with 'Next Generation' CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 6/1/2011
Contact: Chris Nichols

NETL has revised its national resource assessment for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). Under a current technology scenario, 1,200 reservoirs in the lower 48 states are amenable to CO2 EOR. At an assumed crude oil market price of $85 per barrel, these reservoirs represent 24 billion barrels of economic reserves. Under a next generation scenario the economic supply from CO2 EOR increases to 60 billion barrels. The resource assessment unveils a strong dependence on CO2 capture technology, as the equivalent of 60 - 90 GW of coal-fired plants with 90% capture will be needed to supply EOR floods.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The design and cost bases for this pathway study closely follows the bases applied in the NETL, 2010, Bituminous Baseline report so that direct performance and cost comparisons can be made with the conventional fossil-fuel power plant results estimated in that report. Performance and cost projections for a baseline integrated Gasification Systems combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, a baseline natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant, and prior coal-based integrated Gasification Systems fuel cell (IGFC) pathways, are compared with the results for the NGFC pathways. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3c: Natural Gas Combined Cycle at Elevation

Date: 3/25/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases

Date: 3/25/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 2/25/2011
Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology. The IGFC plants in this study apply advanced, planar, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology with separate anode and cathode off-gas steams, and incorporate anode off-gas oxy-combustion for nearly complete carbon capture. The SOFC simulations utilize the expected operating conditions and performance capabilities of this solid oxide fuel cell technology, ope


A Comparative Assessment of CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Oil Recovery and Saline Aquifer Seque

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

A comparative assessment of CO2 sequestration through enhanced oil recovery and saline aquifer sequestration.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Presentation

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of electric vehicles (EVs), which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report (Revised 2011)

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Carbon Capture Approaches for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Systems

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Walter Shelton

This study develops ASPEN PLUS simulation models and cost estimates for Natural Gas Combined Cycle plants with CO2 capture. Three approaches for carbon capture are examined: pre-Adv. Combustion Systems, post-Adv. Combustion Systems and oxy-Adv. Combustion Systems. In pre-Adv. Combustion Systems carbon capture, the carbon in the fuel is converted to CO2 and removed before the Adv. Combustion Systems process, whereas in post-Adv. Combustion Systems, the more dilute CO2 is separated from the flue gas at a lower pressure. Oxy-Adv. Combustion Systems technologies use nearly pure oxygen as the oxidant so that the flue gas consists primarily of CO2 and water vapor. Case results are compared with a reference plant based on an 7F frame Adv. Combustion Systems turbine.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology, Revision 3

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Chris Nichols

This report describes the development of a database and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis of a defined population of coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to model the cost and assist in the assessment of the feasibility of retrofitting these plants with CO2 capture technology. In addition, an assessment of the impacts on generation, CO2 emission, and fuel consumption should all units be brought up to the average efficiency of the top decile of efficient units by nameplate was made. This report covers data sources, methodology employed, modeling and results. An appendix containing a catalog of aerial imagery used for this analysis is available as a separate document. Click here to see Appendix 3.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Report

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of EVs, which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 11/1/2010
Contact: James Fisher

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/1/2010
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (zip file)

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant

Date: 1/12/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology and the Potential for Improvements in Efficiency, Appendix 3

Date: 9/11/2009
Contact: Chris Nichols

This appendix contains the catalog of all imagery used in the GIS analysis portion of the report.