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11.3. DOE R&D Advantages

Considering that the building block of nitrogen fertilizers is ammonia, which in turn is synthesized from hydrogen and nitrogen, DOE's R&D programs in the area of low-cost and efficient clean hydrogen production and air separation (which produces nitrogen as a major by-product), can be thought to be the fundamental R&D that will have the incidental benefits of improving cost-effectiveness of fertilizer production as one of many downstream benefits. Given that fertilizer synthesis technology is mature, technological advance to lower cost of its primary feedstocks is the route towards overall improvement in this area.



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