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Adverse Impact Reduction Handbook Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach 1.1Introduction The United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated several studies on low impact natural gas and oil (LINGO) development. This particular LINGO project presents research concerning environmental impacts resulting from onshore oil and gas exploration and production and their corresponding mitigation strategies