Field Demonstration of the Krauklis Seismic Wave in a Novel MVA Method for Geologic CO2 Storage


Simplified K-wave system illustration showing two well pairs (one “source” well and two “receiver” wells) (image courtesy of Seismos, Inc.).
Simplified K-wave system illustration showing two well pairs (one “source” well and two “receiver” wells) (image courtesy of Seismos, Inc.).
University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC)
Website:  University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center
Award Number:  FE0028659
Project Duration:  10/01/2016 – 12/31/2020
Total Award Value:  $3,697,024
DOE Share:  $2,475,424
Performer Share:  $1,221,600
Technology Area:  Monitoring, Verification, Accounting, and Assessment
Key Technology:  MVAA: Subsurface Monitoring
Location:  Grand Forks, North Dakota

Project Description

This project will deploy and validate a new low-impact method for incrementally monitoring injected CO2 from the surface. The method is noninvasive and employs a new subsurface signal, the Krauklis wave (K-wave), which has unique propagation and frequency characteristics. The system has the potential to mitigate several shortcomings of traditional seismic monitoring methods, such as high cost, disruptive surface impacts, and long intervals between surveys, while providing timely information to the field operator in the form of periodically updated flood-front maps. This project is validating a prototype of the system during a two-year field test at the Bell Creek oil field in Montana where CO2 injection is occurring as part of an enhanced oil recovery effort. The K-wave technology is being applied to approximately 30 selected wells within the oil field. A portion of the study area has been under CO2 injection and the remaining area will undergo injection during the study. The results will be compared to conventional seismic data for validation.

Project Benefits

The flood-front maps generated through this method can be used to improve CO2 sweep efficiency and CO2 storage efficiency, meet regulatory compliance, and realize economic value by improving pattern management and increasing oil recovery. The proposed research supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Storage Program’s goal to develop and validate technologies to ensure 99 percent storage permanence. Other goals supported by the proposed research include developing technologies to improve reservoir storage efficiency while ensuring containment effectiveness.

Contact Information

Federal Project Manager 
William Aljoe:
Technology Manager 
Traci Rodosta:
Principal Investigator 
Shaughn Burnison:

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