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Analysis Focus: Energy Security; Grid Reliability; Fossil Fuel Extraction/Refining; Non-power Products Co-Products; Energy Storage, Transmission and Distribution; Other Energy (non-FE);

Reliability and the Oncoming Wave of Retiring Baseload Units, Volume I: The Critical Role of Thermal Units During Extreme Weather Events

Date: 3/13/2018
Contact: Peter Balash

This study examines the cold weather event now known as the Bomb Cyclone that blanketed much of the eastern half of the United States from Dec 27, 2017 through Jan 8, 2018. Analyses focus on six areas of organized markets administered by independent system operators in the US Eastern Interconnection and Texas. This report finds: (1) Combined, fossil and nuclear energy plants provided 89% of electricity during peak demand across all the ISOs; (2) Coal provided the most resilient form of generation in PJM; (3) The value of fuel-based power generation resilience in PJM during this event was estimated at $3.5 billion; (4) Natural gas price spikes, increased demand, and pipeline constraints led to significant fuel oil burn in the US Northeast; (5) Renewables imposed a resilience penalty on the system as output decreased as demand increased; (6) Underestimation of coal and nuclear retirements could give rise to reliability concerns and an inability to meet projected electricity demand.


Info Sheet: Pittsburgh 2013 Energy Baseline: Consumption, Trends & Opportunities

Date: 12/22/2017
Contact: Thomas Tarka

This Information Sheet summaries the findings of NETL's Pittsburgh 2013 Energy Baseline study. The study examines energy consumption patterns within the Pittsburgh metropolitan area to establish a baseline for energy consumption and associated air emissions. Monthly electricity and natural gas consumption for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors is reported at the zip code-level, utilizing 2013 utility data (the last complete year available). Electricity load profiles for the Duquesne Light service territory are also reported, examining hourly, daily, and monthly load trends. These data were then utilized to identify trends in consumption, emissions associated with different sectors and fuel types, and potential opportunities for improvement.


Ensuring Reliable Natural Gas-Fired Power Generation with Fuel Contracts and Storage

Date: 11/17/2017
Contact: John Brewer

This report finds that natural gas-fired power plants purchase fuel both on the spot market and through firm supply contracts; there do not appear to be clear drivers propelling power plants toward one or the other type. Most natural gas-fired power generators are located near major natural gas transmission pipelines, and most natural gas contracts are currently procured on the spot market. Although there is some regional variation in the type of contract used, a strong regional pattern does not emerge. Whether gas prices are higher with spot or firm contracts varies by both region and year.


Pittsburgh 2013 Energy Baseline: Consumption, Trends & Opportunities

Date: 11/3/2017
Contact: Thomas Tarka

This study examines energy consumption patterns within the Pittsburgh metropolitan area to establish a baseline for energy consumption and associated air emissions. Monthly electricity and natural gas consumption for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors is reported at the zip code-level, utilizing 2013 utility data (the last complete year available). Electricity load profiles for the Duquesne Light service territory are also reported, examining hourly, daily, and monthly load trends. These data were then utilized to identify trends in consumption, emissions associated with different sectors and fuel types, and potential opportunities for improvement.


Review of EIA/NEMS Cost and Economics Model for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 7/6/2017
Contact: Charles Zelek

The purpose of this analytic memorandum is to: 1) document the cost equations used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA)/National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for estimating the costs of conducting field-scale CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects in various regions of the United States (U.S.), 2) transmit Advanced Resources International’s (ARI) review of the cost equations contained in the EIA/NEMS cost and economics model for CO2-EOR, 3) compare the cost equations for CO2-EOR in NEMS with the cost equations for CO2-EOR in ARI’s cost and economics model, and 4) identify opportunities for improving the NEMS cost and economics model for CO2-EOR. 


Tracking New Energy Infrastructure with Fuel Stockpiles Supplement

Date: 12/31/2016
Contact: John Brewer

This report provides a perspective on energy infrastructure under development as of the end of 2016, focusing on those making significant progress toward achieving commercial operation. Infrastructures covered in this report include power plants, electric transmission, natural gas pipelines and liquefied natural gas terminals. Additionally, this report includes a supplemental illustrating the stockpiled volumes of coal, natural gas, and petroleum.


Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction and Power Generation

Date: 8/30/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is an update to the NETL 2014 life cycle analysis report of environmental profile for natural gas production and delivery in the United States. This report expands the scope of the environmental profile to include a broad range of impacts and updates the greenhouse gas (GHG) profile to reflect year 2012 production statistics and emission factors based on the current state of science as in 2015. The national methane emission rate is 1.6 percent and ranges between 1.2 and 2.2 percent. This national emission rate is a production weighted composite of 31 different combinations of extraction technologies and regions. The report also evaluates the life cycle environmental profile for producing electricity from natural gas. On 100- and 20-year time frames, the life cycle GHG emissions for baseload electricity from the existing fleet of natural gas fired power plants are 514 and 613 kg CO2e/MWh, respectively.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal Exports from the Powder River Basin

Date: 6/15/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the 2016 Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Conference in June, 2016, and provided the complete technical details behind and the full life cycle impacts of exporting coal from the Powder River Basin in the U.S. to electricity markets in Asia. Key takeaways are the relative large contribution of the transportation of the coal when traveling distance.


ISO New England Dual Fuel Study

Date: 4/22/2016
Contact: John Brewer

This report examines technical, regulatory, and market issues associated with operating power plants primarily fueled with natural gas, on a secondary fuel, such as fuel oil or liquefied natural gas (LNG). In addition, a regional case study was completed to identify the current and near-term potential for dual fuel operation in New England, along with a market impact analysis of potential cost savings during an extreme weather event. The New England Independent System Operator (ISO-NE) was selected as the study area based on a preponderance of natural gas-fired generators contributing to the regional generating capacity mix (nearly 50 percent natural gas), limited natural gas supply infrastructure, and the potential for natural gas delivery disruptions due to cold weather events, exacerbated by the lack of bulk natural gas storage in the region.


Coal-Hybrid Power Systems for the Future

Date: 2/4/2016
Contact: Thomas Tarka

New coal-fired generation must be able to operate flexibly, at high efficiency, and be able to meet new performance standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By creating an integrated energy complex that co-locates a state-of-the-art coal-fired power plant with renewable energy sources and (potentially) energy storage, coal generation can meet new emissions targets and provide high-capacity factor, reliable energy. Several scenarios are examined to determine optimal configurations and the impacts of integrating different renewable or natural gas power generation with a coal-fired power generation.


Coal-Hybrid Power Systems for the Future Presentation

Date: 12/9/2015
Contact: Robert James

The presentation was presented at the Coal-Gen 2015 Conference on 12/9/15. Coal power generation and consumption have both been on a downward trend for the last six years, based on reduced overall demand and having been supplanted by natural gas-fired power generation. This paper exhibits hybrid energy system concepts that will enable coal to be competitive in today’s electric power market on both a cost and emissions basis. These hybrid system pathways will utilize renewables, biomass, and even waste streams to help coal plants generate power more efficiently, more cost effectively, and with lower emissions than current state-of-the-art.


Approaches to Developing a Cradle-to-Grave Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Petroleum Fuels Produced in the U.S. with an Outlook to 2040

Date: 10/7/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The U.S. crude consumption mix has changed dramatically since the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) first performed a comprehensive LCA of petroleum derived fuels (NETL, 2008). According to the Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook, domestic production will account for nearly 60% of U.S. crude consumption by 2015 (EIA, 2015). This study examines the life cycle GHG footprint of diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel projected to 2040. The results of this analysis encompass a cradle-to-grave inventory of GHG emissions by utilizing open-source models (Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) and Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM)) paired with Monte Carlo simulation to account for changes to crude extraction, transport and refining as well as forecast uncertainty from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook (El-Houjeiri et al, 2013; Abella & Bergerson, 2012). Study results are documented in a forthcoming peer reviewed journal article.


Managing Uncertainty in Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Energy Systems: Two Case Studies

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Two case studies are presented that show how Monte Carlo can reduce uncertainty in LCA results. The first case study is based on NETL's upstream natural gas model. Parameterized life cycle models provide flexibility in the specification of uncertainty ranges around parameters. The second case study demonstrates the ways in which too many parameters can confound the interpretation of results when a different question is being asked, namely picking the “better” scenario. The uncertainty can be reduced by identifying the common parameters between scenarios and holding those values constant while Monte Carlo simulation is applied to the remaining parameters. While this negatively affects the absolute values generate by the models, it provides a more direct comparison between the scenarios and allows us to focus on the parameters that differentiate options and identify true opportunities for improvement. This document of study results was presented at the LCA XV Conference in October, 2015


U.S. Coal Exports – Life Cycle GHG comparison of PRB coal to foreign export competitors in the Asian Market

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this study was to compare environmental implications of exporting United States (U.S.) coal resources to Asian markets with respect to alternative global sources of steam coal. This study seeks to evaluate and understand potential environmental consequences of exporting PRB coal compared to global alternative sources of coal. This study was informed by a 10-person industry based Technical Steering Committee to improve the quality of the analysis. The key question addressed by the study: Is there a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. Given the uncertainty in the model parameter values, there is not a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. This document was presented at the LCAXV conference in October, 2015.


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility. NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model Documentation

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility.NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Transport Reactor Integrated Gasifier (TRIG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 20 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier (EFG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 10 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Profile of Resource Adequacy in the MISO Region

Date: 3/17/2015
Contact: John Brewer

MISO is facing a number of generation resource challenges, ranging from large amounts of retirements, behind schedule retrofit projects, and internal resources committed to exporting power to PJM's capacity market. This report identifies potential issues with generator retirements and retrofits, as well as potential transmission issues, including the impact of imports and exports in a short-term outlook for resource adequacy in the MISO region, including specific concerns with the generation capacity expected to be available in the MISO North and Central regions from 2014 to 2016, as well as additional risks from proposed environmental regulations.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the model is to perform scenario analysis to optimize GHG performance under varies CBTL configurations.  This model expands upon the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model by providing the user the ability to choose from three coal types (Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud sub-bituminous coal, or North Dakota Lignite) and three biomass types (Southern pine, switchgrass, or municipal solid waste). The model will also allow the user to adjust the fraction of the captured CO2 that is vented and adjust the overall efficiency of the plant.  The model includes environmental performance data for CBTL plants modeled under the CCAT case studies and two additional NETL studies: Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact and Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 4: Coal-to-Liquids via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool Documentation

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is the user documentation for the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model submitted under a separate approval routing. The documentation is intended to accompany the model. The documentation explains how to the use the model. The documentation does not contain any energy analysis findings. NETL completed this model/report as part of a study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


CBTL Jet Fuel Model

Date: 2/27/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

An Excel-based model was developed to allow in-depth user access to the technological process, economic, and life cycle environmental results that were completed in support of this study, for each of the different CBTL jet fuel production scenarios (total of 49 unique result sets when counting both TRIG and EFG scenarios). The CBTL Jet Fuel Model incorporates a stochastic analysis of modeled results, drawing on input statistical distributions for the 17 environmental and 40 economic parameters. A stochastic analysis was performed by using the Palisade Corporation’s @RISK Excel add-in. NETL completed a CRADA with Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry 2015

Date: 2/26/2015
Contact: Gavin Pickenpaugh

This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more. Juxtapositions between the U.S. and other countries' coal industries are provided. In addition to providing a current snapshot of the U.S. coal industry, this work portrays both historical and projected aspects of the coal industry.


Coal Fleet Transition: Retirement Impacts in the Eastern Interconnection

Date: 2/22/2015
Contact: Chris Nichols

This report examines the impact of announced retirements on the mix of available generating capacity, prices, resource availability, and air emissions in the Eastern Interconnection. The report uses a security constrained economic dispatch (SCED) model - Ventyx's PROMOD IV 11.1 - of the bulk electric system (BES) to model the interconnection.


Natural Gas and Electric Interdependencies Case Study: Near-Term Infrastructure Needs in PJM

Date: 2/12/2015
Contact: Justin Adder

Low natural gas prices, capacity market uncertainty, and large quantities of coal-fired capacity retirements are leading to a significant growth in PJM Interconnection, LLC (PJM) capacity from natural gas. This report summarizes the information developed for a case study of the PJM Regional Transmission Organization’s (RTO) infrastructure to determine the impact on the system from this shift from coal to natural gas. This report also evaluates the current and forecasted planned-certain capacity mix and the current and forecasted natural gas infrastructure to understand the potential risk areas with the shift from coal to gas. Previously posted version revised to add all contributing authors, correct formatting issues, and remove uncited and duplicate references.


Issues in Focus: The Role of Natural Gas Storage in Maintaining Reliability on the Electric Power System

Date: 1/21/2015
Contact: Justin Adder

As natural gas provides an increasing percentage of the nation’s electric power, the electric power system may become more vulnerable to certain types of reliability risks. Unlike other power generation sources – such as coal or nuclear – gas-fired power plants rely on just-in-time delivery of natural gas. Congestion and outages along the pipelines and/or compressor stations that supply gas-fired electric generating units can cause service interruptions. This Issue in Focus details the role of natural gas storage in maintaining reliability of the electric power system. This analysis is one of a series of Issues in Focus for natural gas/electricity interdependencies.


Issue Paper: Electricity System Adequacy - Challenges Facing the Nuclear Power Industry

Date: 11/6/2014
Contact: John Brewer

One in a series of Issue Papers addressing Electricity System Adequacy, this report focuses on Challenges Facing the Nuclear Power Industry. Early proclamations of a nuclear renaissance yield to predictions of the industry's decline, while proposed carbon regulations offer potential optimism to use nuclear as a clean energy source. Yet, nuclear plants are currently "at-risk" of early retirement (for economic reasons) due to electricity market design issues and competition with low priced natural gas. Concerns are identified as baseload generation shifts from coal and nuclear to increasing natural gas and renewables which may impact on the reliability of the power system.


Making Room for Coal Generation Under the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Rule

Date: 10/7/2014
Contact: Joel Theis

In addition to CCS being identified as BSER in NSPS, the IPCC and IEA have asserted CCS is needed in order to achieve GHG goals. Applying an ITC to coal generation could enable coal generation with CCS to be viable in electric power markets. Competitive forces that could help enable coal with CCS include higher natural gas demand driving NG prices higher; identified alternative structures for capacity markets to meet the financial requirements of various resources for resource mix and diversity purposes; different capacity auction commitment periods; and multi-lateral contracts to spread risks across RTO members. Higher demand for new NGCCs could increase capital cost growth more than for IGCC-CCS or ADVPC-CCS with R&D gained efficiencies.


Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry 2014

Date: 12/20/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more.


Energy Related Flow Diagrams

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

This document contains several energy related flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams). For a Sankey diagram, the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow quantity. The following energy related diagrams included in the document are: U.S. energy use, international oil flows, international and domestic coal import/exports, and international natural gas flows.


Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry 2013

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more. Juxtapositions between the U.S. and other countries' coal industries are provided. In addition to providing a current snapshot of the U.S. coal industry, this work portrays both historical and projected aspects of the coal industry.


An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.


Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Coal Fleet: Impacts of R&D and CO2 EOR Revenue

Date: 6/26/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

In a 2nd generation CO2 capture market (2030) with no carbon regulations, compare business-as-usual to CO2 retrofits for enhanced oil recovery. Specifically, this presentation discusses the CCRD database design and operational details, discusses the improvements of 2nd generation capture technology, and how EOR revenue promotes more competitive dispatch.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


Conventional Generation Asset Management with Renewable Portfolio Standards Using Real Options

Date: 5/1/2013
Contact: Peter Balash

The transition to a more renewable generation mix under a competitive electricity market will require individual power producers to use sophisticated tools to value conventional generators. Owners will need to understand what market prices signal new investments, temporarily suspending operation, reactivating mothballed generators or permanently abandoning a plant. Net present valuation from a traditional discounted cash flow analysis is limited in capturing the value of generation technologies, and it does not provide an optimal investment criterion. We present and evaluate a closed-form decision support framework using a Spark Spread Real Options approach to value generation assets and to capture optimal market price signals that minimizes financial risks of individual power producers under a transition towards a more renewable energy fleet.


Power Market Primers

Date: 4/23/2013
Contact: John Brewer

This report is a series of primers on Independent System Operators (ISO) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO). They explore the history, workings, and types of electricity markets comprising the seven regional transmission organizations in the U.S. The primers are accompanied by a Glossary for Power Market Primers in which many of the technical terms used in these primers are defined. The zip file allows interested users the ability to review the entire Power Market report or download individual primers in this series.


North American CO2 Supply and Developments

Date: 1/9/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil. The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region. Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.


LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


The Role of Coal in a Smart Grid Environment

Date: 11/1/2011
Contact: Joel Theis

This report discusses how the traditional role of coal might change in a "Smart Grid” environment. We examine new roles that might leverage the advantages and mitigate the challenges for coal generation. Topics include: i) How baseload demand might change as Smart Grid technologies are adopted, ii) ways that coal might service this changing baseload including centralized generation, distributed generation (DG), and combined heat and power (CHP), and, iii) the potential for coal to provide ancillary services and reserves. A "Smart Grid City of the Future” model is developed to demonstrate operational and economic characteristics of coal generation technologies. The revision involves changing the payback period from four years to six years for the Smart Grid City analysis.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 9/12/2011
Contact: Gregory Hackett

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

Date: 6/1/2011
Contact: John Brewer

Uniquely correlating the increased number of larger and longer-lasting frequency excursions in North American Interconnections with electricity market design and frequency control regulations, the report connects direct (technical) and indirect (non-technical) causes, both the physics of the problem and the regulatory environment (i.e., regulations, standards, and policies). The physical laws governing the frequency stability phenomenon and system control efforts are responsible for maintaining the nominal system frequency. However, the regulatory environment impacts policy on market design, affecting frequency stability and policies directly affecting frequency control practices. The report covers both technical and policy aspects to improve frequency stability.


Technical and Economic Analysis of Various Power Generation Resources Coupled with CAES Systems

Date: 5/17/2011
Contact: Ryan Egidi

Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is an energy storage application with the potential to supplement intermittent power sources, such as wind and solar generators, and to enable better load following for more constant power sources such as coal combustion generators. To better understand CAES’s potential to provide practical energy storage for intermittent and constant-output power sources in the U.S., three practical considerations important to CAES planning and operations were analyzed: 1. Siting decisions 2. Development of optimal charge-discharge strategies 3. Design and operating factors that affect efficiency. These three analyses form the major sections of this study.


Power Systems Financial Model User's Guide

Date: 5/9/2011
Contact: William Summers

The NETL Power System Financial Model, Version 6.6, is an Excel based Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model that calculates the investment decision criteria used by energy project developers to evaluate the financial performance of power systems, including (but not limited to) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle, and various coal conversion systems, including co-production of liquid fuel and power. The model can also be used for renewable power generation.


Power Systems Financial Model Version 6.6.4

Date: 5/9/2011
Contact: William Summers

The NETL Power System Financial Model, Version 6.6, is an Excel based Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model that calculates the investment decision criteria used by energy project developers to evaluate the financial performance of power systems, including (but not limited to) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle, and various coal conversion systems, including co-production of liquid fuel and power. The model can also be used for renewable power generation.


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: John Brewer

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers (one-for-one reduction). NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


Electric Power System Asset Optimization (Report)

Date: 3/7/2011
Contact: Joel Theis

This report examines the current state of utility asset optimization within the framework of a vertically integrated utility and presents evidence on why assets are not fully optimized today. It then discusses how Smart Grid processes, technologies, and applications could be leveraged to improve today’s asset management programs enabling a significant improvement in the utilization of both system assets and human resources.


Electric Power System Asset Optimization (Presentation)

Date: 3/4/2011
Contact: Joel Theis

This presentation summarizes the finding for the report, Electric Power System Asset Optimization, which investigates asset optimization within the framework of a vertically integrated utility and presents evidence on why assets are not fully optimized today. It then discusses how Smart Grid processes, technologies, and applications could be leveraged to improve today’s asset management programs enabling a significant improvement in the utilization of both system assets and human resources.


Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes Smart Grid’s impact on the environment and identifies additional research to clarify the complex relationship between Smart Grid, applications enabled by Smart Grid and environmental impact. Major impacts on environmental emissions enabled by Smart Grid include load reduction/shift from demand response and demand side management; electric vehicle charging and electrification of transportation sector; shift in generation mix toward intermittent renewables; shift toward distributed generation located closer to load and improved transmission and distribution operations.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Presentation

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of electric vehicles (EVs), which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid - Presentation

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes Smart Grid’s impact on the environment and identifies additional research to clarify the complex relationship between Smart Grid, applications enabled by Smart Grid and environmental impact. Major impacts on environmental emissions enabled by Smart Grid include load reduction/shift from demand response and demand side management; electric vehicle charging and electrification of transportation sector; shift in generation mix toward intermittent renewables; shift toward distributed generation located closer to load and improved transmission and distribution operations.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Report

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of EVs, which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.