Search Publications

Search Publications


Back Button

Welcome to the Energy Analysis Search Publications page. Hundreds of Energy Analysis related publications can be found in this repository. To get started, begin filtering the results below by using the quick filters located on the Search Publications Landing Page or search within filtered results by using the search box below. 


Sort Preference:


Search Terms
Analysis Focus: Energy Security

Tracking New Energy Infrastructure with Fuel Stockpiles Supplement

Date: 12/31/2016
Contact: John Brewer

This report provides a perspective on energy infrastructure under development as of the end of 2016, focusing on those making significant progress toward achieving commercial operation. Infrastructures covered in this report include power plants, electric transmission, natural gas pipelines and liquefied natural gas terminals. Additionally, this report includes a supplemental illustrating the stockpiled volumes of coal, natural gas, and petroleum.


Approaches to Developing a Cradle-to-Grave Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Petroleum Fuels Produced in the U.S. with an Outlook to 2040

Date: 10/7/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The U.S. crude consumption mix has changed dramatically since the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) first performed a comprehensive LCA of petroleum derived fuels (NETL, 2008). According to the Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook, domestic production will account for nearly 60% of U.S. crude consumption by 2015 (EIA, 2015). This study examines the life cycle GHG footprint of diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel projected to 2040. The results of this analysis encompass a cradle-to-grave inventory of GHG emissions by utilizing open-source models (Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) and Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM)) paired with Monte Carlo simulation to account for changes to crude extraction, transport and refining as well as forecast uncertainty from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook (El-Houjeiri et al, 2013; Abella & Bergerson, 2012). Study results are documented in a forthcoming peer reviewed journal article.


Managing Uncertainty in Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Energy Systems: Two Case Studies

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Two case studies are presented that show how Monte Carlo can reduce uncertainty in LCA results. The first case study is based on NETL's upstream natural gas model. Parameterized life cycle models provide flexibility in the specification of uncertainty ranges around parameters. The second case study demonstrates the ways in which too many parameters can confound the interpretation of results when a different question is being asked, namely picking the “better” scenario. The uncertainty can be reduced by identifying the common parameters between scenarios and holding those values constant while Monte Carlo simulation is applied to the remaining parameters. While this negatively affects the absolute values generate by the models, it provides a more direct comparison between the scenarios and allows us to focus on the parameters that differentiate options and identify true opportunities for improvement. This document of study results was presented at the LCA XV Conference in October, 2015


U.S. Coal Exports – Life Cycle GHG comparison of PRB coal to foreign export competitors in the Asian Market

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this study was to compare environmental implications of exporting United States (U.S.) coal resources to Asian markets with respect to alternative global sources of steam coal. This study seeks to evaluate and understand potential environmental consequences of exporting PRB coal compared to global alternative sources of coal. This study was informed by a 10-person industry based Technical Steering Committee to improve the quality of the analysis. The key question addressed by the study: Is there a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. Given the uncertainty in the model parameter values, there is not a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. This document was presented at the LCAXV conference in October, 2015.


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility. NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model Documentation

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility.NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Transport Reactor Integrated Gasifier (TRIG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 20 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier (EFG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 10 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the model is to perform scenario analysis to optimize GHG performance under varies CBTL configurations.  This model expands upon the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model by providing the user the ability to choose from three coal types (Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud sub-bituminous coal, or North Dakota Lignite) and three biomass types (Southern pine, switchgrass, or municipal solid waste). The model will also allow the user to adjust the fraction of the captured CO2 that is vented and adjust the overall efficiency of the plant.  The model includes environmental performance data for CBTL plants modeled under the CCAT case studies and two additional NETL studies: Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact and Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 4: Coal-to-Liquids via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool Documentation

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is the user documentation for the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model submitted under a separate approval routing. The documentation is intended to accompany the model. The documentation explains how to the use the model. The documentation does not contain any energy analysis findings. NETL completed this model/report as part of a study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


CBTL Jet Fuel Model

Date: 2/27/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

An Excel-based model was developed to allow in-depth user access to the technological process, economic, and life cycle environmental results that were completed in support of this study, for each of the different CBTL jet fuel production scenarios (total of 49 unique result sets when counting both TRIG and EFG scenarios). The CBTL Jet Fuel Model incorporates a stochastic analysis of modeled results, drawing on input statistical distributions for the 17 environmental and 40 economic parameters. A stochastic analysis was performed by using the Palisade Corporation’s @RISK Excel add-in. NETL completed a CRADA with Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry 2014

Date: 12/20/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more.


Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry 2013

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more. Juxtapositions between the U.S. and other countries' coal industries are provided. In addition to providing a current snapshot of the U.S. coal industry, this work portrays both historical and projected aspects of the coal industry.


An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.


North American CO2 Supply and Developments

Date: 1/9/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil. The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region. Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.