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Welcome to the Energy Analysis Search Publications page. Hundreds of Energy Analysis related publications can be found in this repository. To get started, begin filtering the results below by using the quick filters located on the Search Publications Landing Page or search within filtered results by using the search box below. 


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Analysis Focus: Coal Combustion Power Plants; Coal Gasification Power Plants; NG-based Power Plants; Jobs/Employment; Market Analysis; Fuel Supply & Prices; GHG Mitigation; Environment (Non-GHG); Energy Security; Grid Reliability; Fossil Fuel Extraction/Refining; Non-power Products Co-Products; Energy Storage, Transmission and Distribution; Other Energy (non-FE);

Techno-economic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Direct-Fired Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle

Date: 5/10/2017
Contact: Nathan Weiland

This presentation describes recent systems studies of a coal-fueled, oxy-fired direct supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycle, which inherently captures carbon for storage (CCS). In this plant, coal is gasified in an entrained flow gasifier, the syngas is cleaned and burned with oxygen and diluent sCO2 in the cycle’s oxy-combustor. This is followed by turbine expansion and recuperation of thermal energy in the exhaust. After water is condensed from the working fluid, some of the CO2 is exhausted for CCS, and the balance is compressed and heated in the recuperator for return to the combustor. The conceptual design and system model for the plant are discussed, including thermal integration between the sCO2 cycle and the gasifier, and optimization of the overall plant configuration and operating conditions. The capital cost, operating expenses, and cost of electricity (COE) are also estimated. Results show improved efficiency and COE relative to IGCC plants with CCS.


Tracking New Energy Infrastructure with Fuel Stockpiles Supplement

Date: 12/31/2016
Contact: John Brewer

This report provides a perspective on energy infrastructure under development as of the end of 2016, focusing on those making significant progress toward achieving commercial operation. Infrastructures covered in this report include power plants, electric transmission, natural gas pipelines and liquefied natural gas terminals. Additionally, this report includes a supplemental illustrating the stockpiled volumes of coal, natural gas, and petroleum.


Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction and Power Generation

Date: 8/30/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is an update to the NETL 2014 life cycle analysis report of environmental profile for natural gas production and delivery in the United States. This report expands the scope of the environmental profile to include a broad range of impacts and updates the greenhouse gas (GHG) profile to reflect year 2012 production statistics and emission factors based on the current state of science as in 2015. The national methane emission rate is 1.6 percent and ranges between 1.2 and 2.2 percent. This national emission rate is a production weighted composite of 31 different combinations of extraction technologies and regions. The report also evaluates the life cycle environmental profile for producing electricity from natural gas. On 100- and 20-year time frames, the life cycle GHG emissions for baseload electricity from the existing fleet of natural gas fired power plants are 514 and 613 kg CO2e/MWh, respectively.


Is net carbon negative crude achievable with CO2 enhanced oil recovery?

Date: 6/15/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the 2016 Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Conference in June, 2016, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal Exports from the Powder River Basin

Date: 6/15/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the 2016 Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Conference in June, 2016, and provided the complete technical details behind and the full life cycle impacts of exporting coal from the Powder River Basin in the U.S. to electricity markets in Asia. Key takeaways are the relative large contribution of the transportation of the coal when traveling distance.


Performance of an Integrated Gasification Direct-Fired Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle

Date: 5/23/2016
Contact: Nathan Weiland

This presentation discusses development and performance results of a coal gasification system integrated with a direct-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycle.  In this plant, coal is first gasified and cleaned in order to avoid introducing sulfur and particulate matter into the sCO2 cycle, with the sCO2 cycle’s oxy-combustor burning the cleaned syngas with oxygen in a recycled sCO2 stream.  The plant is inherently amenable to carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes, as it produces a high pressure exhaust stream that is largely comprised of CO2. The baseline direct sCO2 cycle performance is discussed and compared to IGCC and oxy-coal AUSC reference plants with CCS.  The sensitivity of the sCO2 cycle’s performance to various operating parameters is also discussed, as well as the effect of various heat integration options on thermal efficiency, operability, and cost.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 4/12/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at North American Energy Ministers Trilateral Climate Change and Energy meeting on Advancing the Deployment of CCUS in Mexico City in April, 2016, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CCS

Date: 4/5/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at a?California Air Resources Board workshop in April, 2015 and provided the technical details behind and results from an LCA of carbon capture and sequestration from fossil power systems such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC),?renewable fuel systems, and ethanol production.


Performance Baseline for Direct-Fired sCO2 Cycles

Date: 3/28/2016
Contact: Nathan Weiland

NETL has conducted an evaluation of the performance and emissions for a direct coal-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power plant, which has recently received interest as a potentially lower-cost, fossil-fuelled power source with inherent amenability to carbon capture. This study describes a baseline coal-fired cycle configuration, where coal is first gasified and cleaned in order to avoid introducing sulfur and particulate matter into the sCO2 cycle, with the sCO2 cycle’s oxy-combustor operating on syngas. The baseline sCO2 plant design yields a net plant thermal efficiency of 37.7% (HHV), with 98.1% CO2 capture at 99.4% purity. This compares favorably to the reference IGCC plant, which has a 31.2% net HHV thermal efficiency, and 90.1% CO2 capture rate at 99.99% purity. The sensitivity of the sCO2 plant’s performance to its process variables is discussed, as well as their effect on plant operability and cost surrogate variables.


Performance Baseline for Direct-Fired sCO2 Cycles - Presentation

Date: 3/28/2016
Contact: Nathan Weiland

NETL has conducted an evaluation of the performance and emissions for a direct coal-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power plant, which has recently received interest as a potentially lower-cost, fossil-fuelled power source with inherent amenability to carbon capture. This study describes a baseline coal-fired cycle configuration, where coal is first gasified and cleaned in order to avoid introducing sulfur and particulate matter into the sCO2 cycle, with the sCO2 cycle’s oxy-combustor operating on syngas. The baseline sCO2 plant design yields a net plant thermal efficiency of 37.7% (HHV), with 98.1% CO2 capture at 99.4% purity. This compares favorably to the reference IGCC plant, which has a 31.2% net HHV thermal efficiency, and 90.1% CO2 capture rate at 99.99% purity. The sensitivity of the sCO2 plant’s performance to its process variables is discussed, as well as their effect on plant operability and cost surrogate variables.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Natural Gas and Power Production

Date: 2/23/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the EPRI Winter Meeting, Natural Gas Interest Group in February, 2016 and provided the technical details behind and results from the life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of natural gas extraction across the United States and its use in power production relative to coal-fired power.


Coal-Hybrid Power Systems for the Future

Date: 2/4/2016
Contact: Thomas Tarka

New coal-fired generation must be able to operate flexibly, at high efficiency, and be able to meet new performance standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By creating an integrated energy complex that co-locates a state-of-the-art coal-fired power plant with renewable energy sources and (potentially) energy storage, coal generation can meet new emissions targets and provide high-capacity factor, reliable energy. Several scenarios are examined to determine optimal configurations and the impacts of integrating different renewable or natural gas power generation with a coal-fired power generation.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of ROZ – CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 1/12/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at USAE ROZ Workshop in January, 2016, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


Coal-Hybrid Power Systems for the Future Presentation

Date: 12/9/2015
Contact: Robert James

The presentation was presented at the Coal-Gen 2015 Conference on 12/9/15. Coal power generation and consumption have both been on a downward trend for the last six years, based on reduced overall demand and having been supplanted by natural gas-fired power generation. This paper exhibits hybrid energy system concepts that will enable coal to be competitive in today’s electric power market on both a cost and emissions basis. These hybrid system pathways will utilize renewables, biomass, and even waste streams to help coal plants generate power more efficiently, more cost effectively, and with lower emissions than current state-of-the-art.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CCUS - Goal and Scope Definition

Date: 11/12/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at an International Energy Agency Meeting in London in November, 2015, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


LCA XV NETL Overview

Date: 10/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options requires the comparison of those options on a common basis, which includes not only the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, but of infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user. Further, environmental costs and benefits must be weighed against economic analyses with identical boundaries. At the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, life cycle analysis (LCA) is used as tool and framework for performing these types of evaluations. This overview will describe the LCA process at NETL, including unique application of stochastic methods to environmental and economic analyses, and show highlights from several recent studies such as a complete inventory of natural gas extraction, and a comparison of advanced power technology options.


Approaches to Developing a Cradle-to-Grave Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Petroleum Fuels Produced in the U.S. with an Outlook to 2040

Date: 10/7/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The U.S. crude consumption mix has changed dramatically since the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) first performed a comprehensive LCA of petroleum derived fuels (NETL, 2008). According to the Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook, domestic production will account for nearly 60% of U.S. crude consumption by 2015 (EIA, 2015). This study examines the life cycle GHG footprint of diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel projected to 2040. The results of this analysis encompass a cradle-to-grave inventory of GHG emissions by utilizing open-source models (Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) and Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM)) paired with Monte Carlo simulation to account for changes to crude extraction, transport and refining as well as forecast uncertainty from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook (El-Houjeiri et al, 2013; Abella & Bergerson, 2012). Study results are documented in a forthcoming peer reviewed journal article.


Design of a Commercial Scale Oxy-Coal Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle

Date: 10/7/2015
Contact: Nathan Weiland

This presentation provides an overview of NETL’s analyses of the supercritical CO2 (SCO2) recompression Brayton cycle for application to commercial scale power plants with CO2 capture. This cycle has the potential to achieve over 50% efficiency due to the recuperation of heat from the SCO2 turbine exhaust, while the high SCO2 density may yield reductions in plant footprint and capital cost. Prior work has found that a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) with enhanced combustion air preheating would be a suitable indirect heat source for a SCO2 power cycle. This work investigates several options for efficiently integrating an oxy-fired CFB with an indirect SCO2 cycle, including thermal integration with the air separation unit, and utilization of combustor exhaust heat to thermally balance the low temperature recuperator. The sensitivity of plant performance to various cycle parameters is investigated, and the effect of design choices on the plant’s capital cost is discussed.


Managing Uncertainty in Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Energy Systems: Two Case Studies

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Two case studies are presented that show how Monte Carlo can reduce uncertainty in LCA results. The first case study is based on NETL's upstream natural gas model. Parameterized life cycle models provide flexibility in the specification of uncertainty ranges around parameters. The second case study demonstrates the ways in which too many parameters can confound the interpretation of results when a different question is being asked, namely picking the “better” scenario. The uncertainty can be reduced by identifying the common parameters between scenarios and holding those values constant while Monte Carlo simulation is applied to the remaining parameters. While this negatively affects the absolute values generate by the models, it provides a more direct comparison between the scenarios and allows us to focus on the parameters that differentiate options and identify true opportunities for improvement. This document of study results was presented at the LCA XV Conference in October, 2015


U.S. Coal Exports – Life Cycle GHG comparison of PRB coal to foreign export competitors in the Asian Market

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this study was to compare environmental implications of exporting United States (U.S.) coal resources to Asian markets with respect to alternative global sources of steam coal. This study seeks to evaluate and understand potential environmental consequences of exporting PRB coal compared to global alternative sources of coal. This study was informed by a 10-person industry based Technical Steering Committee to improve the quality of the analysis. The key question addressed by the study: Is there a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. Given the uncertainty in the model parameter values, there is not a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. This document was presented at the LCAXV conference in October, 2015.


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility. NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model Documentation

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility.NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Transport Reactor Integrated Gasifier (TRIG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 20 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier (EFG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 10 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Supplement: Sensitivity to CO2 Capture Rate in Coal-Fired Power Plants (June 2015)

Date: 6/22/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report evaluated the effect of lower CO2 capture rates on plant performance and cost for both IGCC and PC power plants.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Natural Gas and Power Production

Date: 6/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the 2015 Energy Information Administration (EIA) Energy Conference. It discusses the importance of understanding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power and natural gas sectors, and then goes into more detail on the life cycle GHG emissions from natural gas and from power generation in general.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the model is to perform scenario analysis to optimize GHG performance under varies CBTL configurations.  This model expands upon the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model by providing the user the ability to choose from three coal types (Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud sub-bituminous coal, or North Dakota Lignite) and three biomass types (Southern pine, switchgrass, or municipal solid waste). The model will also allow the user to adjust the fraction of the captured CO2 that is vented and adjust the overall efficiency of the plant.  The model includes environmental performance data for CBTL plants modeled under the CCAT case studies and two additional NETL studies: Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact and Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 4: Coal-to-Liquids via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool Documentation

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is the user documentation for the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model submitted under a separate approval routing. The documentation is intended to accompany the model. The documentation explains how to the use the model. The documentation does not contain any energy analysis findings. NETL completed this model/report as part of a study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


CBTL Jet Fuel Model

Date: 2/27/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

An Excel-based model was developed to allow in-depth user access to the technological process, economic, and life cycle environmental results that were completed in support of this study, for each of the different CBTL jet fuel production scenarios (total of 49 unique result sets when counting both TRIG and EFG scenarios). The CBTL Jet Fuel Model incorporates a stochastic analysis of modeled results, drawing on input statistical distributions for the 17 environmental and 40 economic parameters. A stochastic analysis was performed by using the Palisade Corporation’s @RISK Excel add-in. NETL completed a CRADA with Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


CO2 Storage Lecture - Carnegie Mellon University (2015)

Date: 2/17/2015
Contact: Timothy Grant

An update of last year's presentation, this power-point presentation provides a basic introduction to storage of captured CO2, modeling parameters driving costs modeled by the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, associated Class VI regulations and supporting illustrations from some Class VI permit applications and an update of Class VI permit activity.


Guidance for NETL’s Oxycombustion R&D Program: Chemical Looping Combustion Reference Plant Designs and Sensitivity Studies

Date: 12/19/2014
Contact: Robert Stevens

An emerging, coal-fired power plant technology, chemical looping combustion (CLC), is assessed in this report. CLC technology is, in essence, an oxycombustion technology being developed with focus on its potential for improved performance and reduced cost. Its benefits are measured against performance and cost of the conventional pulverized coal (PC) power plant using amine-based CO2 absorption for post-combustion carbon capture. This study develops National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) reference CLC plant configurations and assumptions that are used to evaluate CLC system performance and cost.


Which Reservoir for Low Cost Capture, Transportation, and Storage?

Date: 11/1/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

Quality and location of a carbon dioxide (CO2) storage reservoir are critical for low cost carbon capture and storage (CCS). This analysis models the combination of capture, transportation, and storage costs to estimate a total cost of CCS. Cost of capture at the source is available for annual rates between 4.1 and 0.7 million tonnes of CO2. Cost of transportation is modeled for the distance between the source and the storage reservoir. Cost of CO2 storage is modeled for four representative reservoirs, two Rose Run and two Mt Simon reservoirs, each reservoir in a dome or regional dip structural setting.


Macro Results from the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model

Date: 7/21/2014
Contact: David Morgan

A supplementary file for the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model spreadsheet file. The FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model spreadsheet contains an Excel macro that calculates the break-even first year price (or cost) for injection formations selected by the user from the injection formation database in the model. Each time the macro is run, the results for all selected formations are stored in a separate sheet within this supplementary file. For the macro to work correctly, this supplementary file must be stored in the folder where the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model spreadsheet file is stored.


FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model: Model Description and Baseline Results

Date: 7/18/2014
Contact: David Morgan

A report that describes the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, and presents the assumptions and results for the Baseline Case. The Baseline Case provides an estimate of storage costs based on currently available technology.


FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model

Date: 7/11/2014
Contact: David Morgan

The FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based tool that calculates the net present value for a project that transports liquid CO2 by pipeline. The model includes the capital costs, operating costs, financing costs and revenues for the project. The model can calculate the break-even first year price (or cost) for transporting a tonne of CO2 by finding the price that yields a net present value of zero for the project. The user provides a variety of inputs including the annual mass of CO2 to be transported, the pipeline length, the years of operation and financial parameters.


FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model: Description and User's Manual

Date: 7/11/2014
Contact: David Morgan

A report that describes the FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model, discusses user input to the model and provides example output from the model.


FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model: Model Overview

Date: 7/11/2014
Contact: David Morgan

A presentation that provides an overview of the FE/NETL CO2 Transport Cost Model


Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 4/25/2014
Contact: William Summers

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) conducts systems analysis studies that require a large number of inputs, from ambient conditions to parameters for Aspen Plus (Aspen) process blocks.  The sheer number of assumptions required makes it impractical to document all of them in each issued report.  The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions.


Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 4/1/2014
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units. The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.


Near-Term Projections of CO2 Utilization for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 4/1/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 a total of 113 CO2-EOR projects inject 3.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) (60 million metric tons (MMmt) per year) of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the United States. The associated crude oil production in 2012 was 282,000 barrels per day. Based on the increased volumes of CO2 supplies, the completion of major CO2 pipelines, and the announced new, large-scale CO2-EOR floods, production of crude oil from CO2-EOR floods is forecast to grow significantly, reaching 615,000 barrels per day from at least 124 active CO2 floods by year 2020. While the Permian Basin remains the largest CO2-EOR oil producer, much of the growth occurs in the Gulf Coast, the Rockies, and the Mid-Continent.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the United States. Volume II: Exploration of CO2 Systems

Date: 3/26/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

A study of the genesis and tectonic setting of subsurface CO2 systems in the United States indicates that undiscovered CO2 reservoirs could contribute materially to CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery. Five geographic areas are estimated to contain 42 Tcf of risked technically recoverable CO2 resource (TRR). Two lead areas near the Permian Basin, Val Verde and San Juan, contain 34 Tcf CO2 risked TRR, an amount roughly equivalent to the remaining TRR in discovered reservoirs that are currently supplying the region. The number of lead areas studied was limited and the aggregate TRR estimates are not comprehensive.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the Contiguous United States. Volume 1: Discovered Reservoirs

Date: 3/5/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

Twenty-one CO2 fields in the contiguous states contain an estimated 311 Tcf of CO2 gas-initially-in-place (GIIP). Of that, 168 Tcf (54 percent) is estimated to be accessible and technically recoverable. The estimated economically recoverable resource (ERR) is 96.4 Tcf, based on a CO2 price of 1.06 $/mcf ($20/tonne) at the field gate. Cumulative production to date is 18.9 Tcf, leaving 77.5 Tcf remaining or net ERR. The Big Piney-LaBarge field in Wyoming contains an estimated net ERR of 52 Tcf, 67 percent of the total for the United States. The remaining ERR in reservoirs that feed into the Permian Basin and Gulf Coast is on the order of 10-20 years of supply.


Next Generation Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 3/1/2014
Contact: Chris Nichols

Presentation slide deck from the CO2 Utilization Congress. Draws on recent NETL analyses and other sources to present: (1) a primer on CO2 EOR, (2) an overview of the current status of CO2 EOR in North America, (3) a description of next generation CO2 EOR technology, and (4) an estimate of the size of the resource in the United States.


CO2 Storage: A lecture presented at Carnegie Mellon University (2014)

Date: 2/25/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

This power-point presentation provides a basic introduction to storage of captured CO2, modeling parameters driving costs modeled by the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, associated Class VI regulations and supporting illustrations from some Class VI permit applications.


Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

Date: 2/12/2014
Contact: Timothy Grant

The purpose of this guideline is to provide an estimate of the cost of CO2 transport and storage (T&S) in a deep saline aquifer for the plant locations in the four geologic basins where coal is soured and used in the energy system studies sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).


Understanding the Life Cycle Environmental Footprint of the Natural Gas Value Chain

Date: 2/1/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This is a presentation given to the North Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), Gas Subcommittee meeting on February 9, 2014. The agenda includes the importance of understanding methane emissions from the natural gas sector, the Department of Energy Office's role in reducing methane emissions from the natural gas value chain, and a primer on life cycle analysis and understanding the life cycle environmental footprint of the natural gas value chain


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 1/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0 determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Cost of Capturing CO2 from Industrial Sources

Date: 1/10/2014
Contact: William Summers

This National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) study evaluates the costs associated with capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial processes. Only those processes with effluent streams containing CO2 concentrations higher than those found in flue gas from coal-fired power plants (CFPP, ~17 mole %) were considered. Nine processes were categorized based on CO2 purity. The high purity sources (greater than 90 volume %) include: Ethanol, Ammonia, Natural Gas Processing, Ethylene Oxide (EO), Coal-to-Liquids (CTL), and Gas-to-Liquids (GTL). The low purity sources (less than 90 volume %) include: Hydrogen (Refinery), Steel, and Cement. The two parameters that have the greatest effect on cost (calculated as the breakeven selling price in $/tonne CO2) is the CO2 concentration and scale of the effluent stream. The higher the CO2 concentration (precluding the need for separation and purification) and the larger the effluent stream (economies of scale), the lower the respective cost.


NETL Studies on the Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Power Plant Fleet

Date: 1/9/2014
Contact: Gregory Hackett

FE funds technologies applicable to both greenfield and retrofit applications for CO2 capture. This presentation provides the highlights from various retrofit studies including: (1) Quality Guidelines on retrofit difficulty cost factors, (2) Reference PC and NGCC plants retrofitted with post-combustion capture, and (3) Extrapolation of PC retrofit study results to the entire U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet to examine the costs of capture for each unit and determines how EOR and 2nd Generation capture technologies might incentivize CO2 capture.


Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry 2014

Date: 12/20/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more.


Using Life Cycle Analysis to Inform Energy Policy

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

NETL uses LCA to understand the environmental burdens of energy systems and to inform policy makers. LCA is well suited for energy analysis, but its answers can change depending on what questions are being asked. NETL approaches all LCAs using a consistent method, which ensures comparability among LCAs. The granularity and flexibility of NETL's models makes it possible to identify key contributors to the environmental burdens of a system, as well as the ability to understand how results can change with changes to a given input parameter. In addition to understanding the attributes of a given energy technology, NETL can also perform consequential modeling that allows an understanding of how a given energy technology can affect the performance of other energy technologies. The effect of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) on conventional crude oil extraction is one example of such consequential analysis.


Energy Related Flow Diagrams

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

This document contains several energy related flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams). For a Sankey diagram, the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow quantity. The following energy related diagrams included in the document are: U.S. energy use, international oil flows, international and domestic coal import/exports, and international natural gas flows.


LCA and the U.S. Natural Gas Resource

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

From a life cycle perspective, baseload power is NETL's preferred basis for comparing energy sources. For fossil energy systems, the emissions from power plants account for the majority of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, focusing on the activities that precede the power plant is still necessary in order to identify near-term opportunities for GHG emission reductions. NETL's upstream natural gas model allows detailed modeling of the extraction, processing, and pipeline transmission of natural gas. This model can identify key contributors to the GHG emissions from the natural gas supply chain, and has parameters that can be used to assess opportunities for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows that current domestic natural gas extraction, processing, and pipeline technologies leak 1.2% of the methane that is extracted at the wellhead. Improved practices, such as those in the latest New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), can reduce this upstream methane leakage rate.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations - Revision 1

Date: 11/29/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Performance and Cost of a Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant with Complete Internal Reforming

Date: 11/27/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

The performance and cost of a natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power system with complete internal reformation (IR) is presented in this report. The report presents an update to a previous NGFC Pathway Study that includes carbon capture and storage (2011). IR utilizes heat generated in the fuel cell stack directly for the endothermic reformation reaction, improving system efficiency. NGFC systems with complete IR form the ultimate embodiment of the current fuel cell technology development program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, which is consistent with the commercialization strategies being pursued in the stationary power generation sector.


Novel CO2 Utilization Concepts: Working Paper

Date: 11/1/2013
Contact: Robert James

Final Report on CO2 Utilization Concepts, detailing screening and detailed studies of concepts using CO2 for product generation, giving results of CO2 use and cost of production.


Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry 2013

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more. Juxtapositions between the U.S. and other countries' coal industries are provided. In addition to providing a current snapshot of the U.S. coal industry, this work portrays both historical and projected aspects of the coal industry.


Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 9/29/2013
Contact: Charles Zelek

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis shows that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 9/27/2013
Contact: William Summers

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture - Rev 1

Date: 9/19/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

The objective of this study was to establish the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical (SC) pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity, Revision 2a, September 2013

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

Objective is to establish baseline performance and cost estimates for today’s fossil energy plants, it is necessary to look at the current state of technology. Such a baseline can be used to benchmark the progress of the Fossil Energy RD&D portfolio. This study provides an accurate, independent assessment of the cost and performance for Pulverized Coal (PC) Combustion, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), and Natural Gas Combined Cycles (NGCC), all with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration assuming that the plants use technology available today.


Analysis of Natural Gas-to-Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

This study models a gas-to-liquids (GTL) system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. Specifically, the system produces 15,500 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline, and 34,500 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The study provides an updated evaluation of cost, technical, and environmental performance. With an estimated total as-spent capital cost of 4.3 billion dollars (3.7 &spamp;ndash; 5.6 billion dollars) or $86,188 ($73,260 - $112,045) per bbl of daily production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, such a facility would be commercially viable should the market conditions (liquid fuel and natural gas prices) remain as favorable or better throughout the life of the project than during the middle of May 2013. The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline when based on current practices in the natural gas industry are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO


An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.


Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Coal Fleet: Impacts of R&D and CO2 EOR Revenue

Date: 6/26/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

In a 2nd generation CO2 capture market (2030) with no carbon regulations, compare business-as-usual to CO2 retrofits for enhanced oil recovery. Specifically, this presentation discusses the CCRD database design and operational details, discusses the improvements of 2nd generation capture technology, and how EOR revenue promotes more competitive dispatch.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


Current and Future Technologies for Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plants

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Walter Shelton

The purpose of this study is to present the cost and performance of natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants using state-of-the-art (SOA) and advanced gas turbines, both non-capture configurations and with post Adv. Combustion Systems carbon capture based on an advanced solvent process. The NGCC cases included in this study consist of four gas turbine designs: F-frame (GE 7FA.05), H-frame (based on Siemens H), advanced J-frame (based on MHI J), and a conceptual advanced future design (designated as X-frame). Each turbine is modeled in three process configurations: without CO2 capture, with CO2 capture, and with CO2 capture and exhaust gas recycle (EGR).


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool Report

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Model)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Conventional Generation Asset Management with Renewable Portfolio Standards Using Real Options

Date: 5/1/2013
Contact: Peter Balash

The transition to a more renewable generation mix under a competitive electricity market will require individual power producers to use sophisticated tools to value conventional generators. Owners will need to understand what market prices signal new investments, temporarily suspending operation, reactivating mothballed generators or permanently abandoning a plant. Net present valuation from a traditional discounted cash flow analysis is limited in capturing the value of generation technologies, and it does not provide an optimal investment criterion. We present and evaluate a closed-form decision support framework using a Spark Spread Real Options approach to value generation assets and to capture optimal market price signals that minimizes financial risks of individual power producers under a transition towards a more renewable energy fleet.


Power Market Primers

Date: 4/23/2013
Contact: John Brewer

This report is a series of primers on Independent System Operators (ISO) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO). They explore the history, workings, and types of electricity markets comprising the seven regional transmission organizations in the U.S. The primers are accompanied by a Glossary for Power Market Primers in which many of the technical terms used in these primers are defined. The zip file allows interested users the ability to review the entire Power Market report or download individual primers in this series.


Summary of Costs Associated with Seismic Data Acquisition and Processing

Date: 4/12/2013
Contact: David Morgan

A summary of cost data for seismic data acquisition and processing used in the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model. Cost data are presented for 2-D seismic, 3-D seismic, vertical seismic profiling, crosswell seismic and microseismic technologies.


Advanced Sensors and Controls - Techno-Economic Analysis for Existing Coal Generating Units

Date: 3/8/2013
Contact: Charles Zelek

NETL collected data from previous coal-fired power plant sensors and controls projects and used this data to establish cost and performance ranges to determine the economic opportunity for future advanced sensors and controls retrofits. Unit-level economic analyses were performed on coal-fired power plants in the U.S. by calculating the net present value (NPV) of cash flows that occur after the installation of new advanced sensors and controls technologies in 2020. The results indicate that all 863 coal-fired units in the U.S. would meet a 24-month payback requirement under the assumption that availability and heat rate would improve consistent with prior sensors and controls projects.


A Forecast of Crude Oil Production from Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States through 2018

Date: 3/1/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery operations in the United States is expected to increase 64% between 2012 and 2018, from 3.3 BCFd to 5.4 BCFd. The CO2 utilization rate (URNet the amount of CO2 supplied per incremental barrel of crude oil produced) can be used to estimate crude oil production based on CO2 supply rate. Based on compiled historical data we estimate the following regional CO2 Utilization rates: Permian basin, 8,500 scf/bbl, Rocky mountain, 8,000 scf/bbl, Gulf Coast, 25,000 scf/bbl. Applying these rates to the regional forecast for CO2 supply we forecast production from CO2 EOR in the United States in 2018 will be 500,000 bpd.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 1: IGCC

Date: 2/1/2013
Contact: William Summers

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in a dry-fed, entrained-flow gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 2: PC Plants

Date: 2/1/2013
Contact: William Summers

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in greenfield Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

Date: 1/31/2013
Contact: William Summers

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to provide a standard basis for scaling costs, with specific emphasis on scaling exponents. The intention of having a standardized document is to provide guidelines for proper procedures to reduce the potential of errors and increase credibility through consistency. This document contains a listing of frequently used pieces of equipment and their corresponding scaling exponent for various plant types, along with their ranges of applicability. This document also details the equations to be used with each exponent.


North American CO2 Supply and Developments

Date: 1/9/2013
Contact: Chris Nichols

In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil. The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region. Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.


LCA XII Presentation: From Unit Processes to Completed LCAs: NETL Life Cycle Analysis Library

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This poster describes what the DOE National Energy Technology (NETL) unit process library is, how the unit processes are used in NETL life cycle analyses, and how to access it.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) - LCA XII Presentation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 9/28/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Solar thermal power is viewed as a clean, renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuels for electricity generation. However, the resource base of solar thermal power is limited by several factors that inform the availability of direct sunlight at any given location. The high cost of solar collectors to support utility level output, water scarcity in areas of high solar potential, and lack of proximity of resources to population centers make it likely that high-quality solar thermal resources are expected to remain untapped for the foreseeable future.


LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of geothermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Geothermal power is a proven technology with a large resource base, and the use of flash steam technology has relatively low capital costs that translate to a competitive cost of electricity. However, the characteristics of geologic formations are highly variable and are a barrier to broad implementation of geothermal power. Further, the naturally-occurring CO2 in geofluid leads to relatively high greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal power plants that use flash steam technology.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Hydropower is a proven technology that represents approximately 7 percent of U.S. electricity generation, but the resource base for large hydropower facilities has been fully developed and the growth potential for hydrokinetic hydropower is limited by the small capacities of hydrokinetic installations. The greenhouse gas emissions of hydropower are low, but there are ecological impacts of hydropower that are outside the boundaries of this analysis. Further, the benefits that dams provide with respect to flood control, irrigation, and navigability are difficult to compare on the same basis as hydroelectric power generation, complicating the calculation of the costs of hydropower.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Solar thermal power is viewed as a clean, renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuels for electricity generation. However, the resource base of solar thermal power is limited by several factors that inform the availability of direct sunlight at any given location. The high cost of solar collectors to support utility level output, water scarcity in areas of high solar potential, and lack of proximity of resources to population centers make it likely that high-quality solar thermal resources are expected to remain untapped for the foreseeable future.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment Brief (Presentation)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Wind can be an important energy resource for the U.S., but as its contribution to total U.S. electricity generation increases, it will require a significant amount of fossil resources for backup power to maintain grid reliability. Wind power has exhibited significant growth over the last decade, but most of this growth was made possible through financial incentives such as temporary renewable energy tax credits. Technology advances that result in lower project costs and energy storage devices that enable better power reliability remain crucial research and development areas for the long-term integration of wind power.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Wind can be an important energy resource for the U.S., but as its contribution to total U.S. electricity generation increases, it will require a significant amount of fossil resources for backup power to maintain grid reliability. Wind power has exhibited significant growth over the last decade, but most of this growth was made possible through financial incentives such as temporary renewable energy tax credits. Technology advances that result in lower project costs and energy storage devices that enable better power reliability remain crucial research and development areas for the long-term integration of wind power.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Nuclear power provides a stable source of baseload power in the U.S. with a greenhouse gas footprint similar to that of most renewable power sources. Maintaining the existing share of the U.S. electricity demand with nuclear power depends on the number of existing facilities that receive operating license extensions and the number of planned and approved new reactors that are actually constructed. The storage of spent nuclear fuel also continues to be a major concern since progress on the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository was halted in 2010. While the chances of adverse nuclear events are small and newer nuclear technologies are inherently safer than older technologies, the scale of a nuclear event can have far-reaching environmental and societal risks.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Solar thermal power is viewed as a clean, renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuels for electricity generation. However, the resource base of solar thermal power is limited by several factors that inform the availability of direct sunlight at any given location. The high cost of solar collectors to support utility level output, water scarcity in areas of high solar potential, and lack of proximity of resources to population centers make it likely that high-quality solar thermal resources are expected to remain untapped for the foreseeable future.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Nuclear power provides a stable source of baseload power in the U.S. with a greenhouse gas footprint similar to that of most renewable power sources. Maintaining the existing share of the U.S. electricity demand with nuclear power depends on the number of existing facilities that receive operating license extensions and the number of planned and approved new reactors that are actually constructed. The storage of spent nuclear fuel also continues to be a major concern since progress on the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository was halted in 2010. While the chances of adverse nuclear events are small and newer nuclear technologies are inherently safer than older technologies, the scale of a nuclear event can have far-reaching environmental and societal risks.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment Brief (Presentation)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Hydropower is a proven technology that represents approximately 7 percent of U.S. electricity generation, but the resource base for large hydropower facilities has been fully developed and the growth potential for hydrokinetic hydropower is limited by the small capacities of hydrokinetic installations. The greenhouse gas emissions of hydropower are low, but there are ecological impacts of hydropower that are outside the boundaries of this analysis. Further, the benefits that dams provide with respect to flood control, irrigation, and navigability are difficult to compare on the same basis as hydroelectric power generation, complicating the calculation of the costs of hydropower.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Nuclear power provides a stable source of baseload power in the U.S. with a greenhouse gas footprint similar to that of most renewable power sources. Maintaining the existing share of the U.S. electricity demand with nuclear power depends on the number of existing facilities that receive operating license extensions and the number of planned and approved new reactors that are actually constructed. The storage of spent nuclear fuel also continues to be a major concern since progress on the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository was halted in 2010. While the chances of adverse nuclear events are small and newer nuclear technologies are inherently safer than older technologies, the scale of a nuclear event can have far-reaching environmental and societal risks.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment Brief (Presentation)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation evaluates the role of geothermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Geothermal power is a proven technology with a large resource base, and the use of flash steam technology has relatively low capital costs that translate to a competitive cost of electricity. However, the characteristics of geologic formations are highly variable and are a barrier to broad implementation of geothermal power. Further, the naturally-occurring CO2 in geofluid leads to relatively high greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal power plants that use flash steam technology.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 6/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 6/29/2012
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Advancing Oxycombustion Technology for Bituminous Coal Power Plants: An R&D Guide

Date: 4/1/2012
Contact: Robert Stevens

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is funding research aimed at improving the performance and reducing the cost of oxycombustion. The objective of this study is to guide oxycombustion research in areas that can provide the largest benefits in electricity cost and plant performance. The advanced oxycombustion technologies evaluated in this study are categorized into four major areas: advanced boiler design, advanced oxygen production, advanced flue gas treatment, and innovative CO2 compression concepts.


NEMS-CCUS: A Model and Framework for Comprehensive Assessment of CCUS and Infrastructure

Date: 2/7/2012
Contact: Charles Zelek

This paper presents a recent application of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded NEMS-CCUS (National Energy Modeling System - CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage) Model which enables the simulation of CO2 pipelines and pipeline networks across the forty-eight contiguous states. The model was used to assess the role of CO2 capture, utilization and storage in both carbon tax and clean energy standard (CES) cases. The paper was presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference held in Orlando, Florida, USA, February 7–9, 2012.


Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-by-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions

Date: 2/6/2012
Contact: Charles Zelek

"Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-by-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions: There Can be No Learning if There is No Doing" Historical data has shown that as new technologies penetrate the market, costs are often reduced with each doubling in capacity because of economies of scale, experience, and other factors typically represented by learning curves. Learning curves are used by many models to forecast future capital costs for energy technologies including carbon capture. Caution should be taken when using learning curves to predict future capital costs because of the wide variation in learning rates and inability to separate the impacts of R&D. It is important to note that while learning-by-doing can bring costs down once a technology deploys, R&D is still necessary for the technology to become cost competitive prior to commercialization.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: Gregory Hackett

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - NAS/TRB Conference Presentation

Date: 1/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the National Academy of Sciences, 91st Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting in Washington, D.C. on January 25. NETL reports natural gas fired power production GHG emissions to be 53% lower than average base load coal fired power production. The presentation provides an overview of NETL's greenhouse gas results for various types of natural gas, including Marcellus Shale, and compares the results for natural gas fired power production to coal fired power production. The presentation focused on understanding the variability and uncertainty in recent natural gas GHG estimates.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Timothy Fout

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: F-T Based SPK-1 Case Study (Report)

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), NETL conducted an LCA (LCA) of 10 fuel production pathways using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These pathways use varying combinations of coal and swithgrass feedstocks and two options for carbon management (sequestration or enhanced oil recovery). Only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are inventoried. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrate that higher percentages of biomass result in lower life cycle GHG emissions when using switchgrass. The choice of carbon management strategy has an effect on the results.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, Version 2.0 (CUBE 2.0): Model and Documentation

Date: 11/15/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

CUBE 2.0 was designed to facilitate examination of the sources and magnitude of uncertainties in GHG emissions resulting from cultivation, preparation, and delivery of biomass feedstocks and to allow exploration of the sensitivity of net emissions to these various uncertainties. Included are emissions associated with corn grain, corn stover, switchgrass, mixed prairie biomass, and hybrid poplar and two biomass residues: forest residue and mill residue. This model is an update to the CUBE 1.0 model released in March 2010.


The Role of Coal in a Smart Grid Environment

Date: 11/1/2011
Contact: Joel Theis

This report discusses how the traditional role of coal might change in a "Smart Grid” environment. We examine new roles that might leverage the advantages and mitigate the challenges for coal generation. Topics include: i) How baseload demand might change as Smart Grid technologies are adopted, ii) ways that coal might service this changing baseload including centralized generation, distributed generation (DG), and combined heat and power (CHP), and, iii) the potential for coal to provide ancillary services and reserves. A "Smart Grid City of the Future” model is developed to demonstrate operational and economic characteristics of coal generation technologies. The revision involves changing the payback period from four years to six years for the Smart Grid City analysis.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements - 2011 Update

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using EIA AEO 2011 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production (Presentation)

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production (Report)

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 9/12/2011
Contact: Gregory Hackett

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study (Model)

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), NETL conducted an LCA of 10 fuel production pathways using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These pathways use varying combinations of coal and swithgrass feedstocks and two options for carbon management (sequestration or enhanced oil recovery). Only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are inventoried. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrate that higher percentages of biomass result in lower life cycle GHG emissions when using switchgrass. The choice of carbon management strategy has an effect on the results.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: F-T Based SPK-1 Case Study (Presentation)

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Consider

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant.


Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel.


Potential Impact of Improved Sensors, Controls on Coal-Fired Power Plant Forced Outages

Date: 7/7/2011
Contact: Charles Zelek

An examination of the potential economic impact of improvements in unit availability (reduction in unplanned outages) due to advances in sensors and controls technology.


A Benefits Analysis of the Existing Plants Emissions and Capture (EPEC) Program

Date: 6/28/2011
Contact: Charles Zelek

This paper presents an analysis of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, and Capture (EPEC) program. The overall goal of NETL’s EPEC program is to develop carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies that limit the increase in the cost of electricity generation to 35 percent of that generated by an equivalent greenfield plant without CCUS. The analysis was made using NETL’s Carbon Transport and Storage (CTS) model integrated into the Energy Information Administration (EIA) National Energy Modeling Software (NEMS).


Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

Date: 6/1/2011
Contact: John Brewer

Uniquely correlating the increased number of larger and longer-lasting frequency excursions in North American Interconnections with electricity market design and frequency control regulations, the report connects direct (technical) and indirect (non-technical) causes, both the physics of the problem and the regulatory environment (i.e., regulations, standards, and policies). The physical laws governing the frequency stability phenomenon and system control efforts are responsible for maintaining the nominal system frequency. However, the regulatory environment impacts policy on market design, affecting frequency stability and policies directly affecting frequency control practices. The report covers both technical and policy aspects to improve frequency stability.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture - Original

Date: 5/27/2011
Contact: Timothy Fout

The objective of this study was to establish the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical (SC) pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants.


Technical and Economic Analysis of Various Power Generation Resources Coupled with CAES Systems

Date: 5/17/2011
Contact: Ryan Egidi

Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is an energy storage application with the potential to supplement intermittent power sources, such as wind and solar generators, and to enable better load following for more constant power sources such as coal combustion generators. To better understand CAES’s potential to provide practical energy storage for intermittent and constant-output power sources in the U.S., three practical considerations important to CAES planning and operations were analyzed: 1. Siting decisions 2. Development of optimal charge-discharge strategies 3. Design and operating factors that affect efficiency. These three analyses form the major sections of this study.


Power Systems Financial Model User's Guide

Date: 5/9/2011
Contact: William Summers

The NETL Power System Financial Model, Version 6.6, is an Excel based Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model that calculates the investment decision criteria used by energy project developers to evaluate the financial performance of power systems, including (but not limited to) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle, and various coal conversion systems, including co-production of liquid fuel and power. The model can also be used for renewable power generation.


Power Systems Financial Model Version 6.6.4

Date: 5/9/2011
Contact: William Summers

The NETL Power System Financial Model, Version 6.6, is an Excel based Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model that calculates the investment decision criteria used by energy project developers to evaluate the financial performance of power systems, including (but not limited to) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle, and various coal conversion systems, including co-production of liquid fuel and power. The model can also be used for renewable power generation.


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: John Brewer

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers (one-for-one reduction). NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United States

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

On May 12, 2011 NETL provided this presentation at the Cornell University lecture series on unconventional natural gas development. The presentation summarizes the life cycle analysis (LCA) greenhouse gas (GHG) research on natural gas extraction and delivery in the United States (on a lb CO2e/MMBtu basis) and a comparison of the life cycle GHG profiles of average natural gas and coal-fired power production and delivery to an end-user (lb CO2e/MWh basis). Specifically, the presentation details seven natural gas profiles: onshore conventional gas, associated gas, offshore gas, tight sands (gas), shale gas (based on Barnett Shale), coal bed methane gas, and the year 2009 domestic average mix. Each natural gas source is upgraded in a gas processing plant, compressed, and delivered to a large end-user (e.g., power plant).


Electric Power System Asset Optimization (Report)

Date: 3/7/2011
Contact: Joel Theis

This report examines the current state of utility asset optimization within the framework of a vertically integrated utility and presents evidence on why assets are not fully optimized today. It then discusses how Smart Grid processes, technologies, and applications could be leveraged to improve today’s asset management programs enabling a significant improvement in the utilization of both system assets and human resources.


Electric Power System Asset Optimization (Presentation)

Date: 3/4/2011
Contact: Joel Theis

This presentation summarizes the finding for the report, Electric Power System Asset Optimization, which investigates asset optimization within the framework of a vertically integrated utility and presents evidence on why assets are not fully optimized today. It then discusses how Smart Grid processes, technologies, and applications could be leveraged to improve today’s asset management programs enabling a significant improvement in the utilization of both system assets and human resources.


National and State Economic Impacts of NETL Oregon

Date: 2/24/2011
Contact: Lisa Nichols

This brief provides state-level economic impacts deriving from NETL's FY09 employment and expenditures in Oregon.  This brief accompanies  the "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report.”


National and State Economic Impacts of NETL West Virginia

Date: 2/24/2011
Contact: Lisa Nichols

This brief provides state-level economic impacts deriving from NETL's FY09 employment and expenditures in West Virginia.  This brief accompanies  the "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report.”


National and State Economic Impacts of NETL Pennsylvania

Date: 2/24/2011
Contact: Lisa Nichols

This brief provides state-level economic impacts deriving from NETL's FY09 employment and expenditures in Pennsylvania  This brief accompanies  the "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report.”


National and State Economic Impacts of NETL United States

Date: 2/24/2011
Contact: Lisa Nichols

National and State Economic Impacts of NETL United States to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report.”


NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report

Date: 2/23/2011
Contact: Lisa Nichols

This report documents the assessment of the FY09 economic impacts of expenditures, employment, and research and development awards at the NETL sites located in Pittsburgh, PA; Morgantown, WV; and Albany, OR. The national IO model was developed to assess the FY09 economic impacts of NETL site expenditures, awards, and employment at the national level. This work serves as an annual update to the FY08 analysis National and State Economic Impact of NETL (December 2009).


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Presentation

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of electric vehicles (EVs), which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Report

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of EVs, which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology, Revision 3

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Chris Nichols

This report describes the development of a database and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis of a defined population of coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to model the cost and assist in the assessment of the feasibility of retrofitting these plants with CO2 capture technology. In addition, an assessment of the impacts on generation, CO2 emission, and fuel consumption should all units be brought up to the average efficiency of the top decile of efficient units by nameplate was made. This report covers data sources, methodology employed, modeling and results. An appendix containing a catalog of aerial imagery used for this analysis is available as a separate document. Click here to see Appendix 3.


Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid - Presentation

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes Smart Grid’s impact on the environment and identifies additional research to clarify the complex relationship between Smart Grid, applications enabled by Smart Grid and environmental impact. Major impacts on environmental emissions enabled by Smart Grid include load reduction/shift from demand response and demand side management; electric vehicle charging and electrification of transportation sector; shift in generation mix toward intermittent renewables; shift toward distributed generation located closer to load and improved transmission and distribution operations.


Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes Smart Grid’s impact on the environment and identifies additional research to clarify the complex relationship between Smart Grid, applications enabled by Smart Grid and environmental impact. Major impacts on environmental emissions enabled by Smart Grid include load reduction/shift from demand response and demand side management; electric vehicle charging and electrification of transportation sector; shift in generation mix toward intermittent renewables; shift toward distributed generation located closer to load and improved transmission and distribution operations.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 11/1/2010
Contact: James Fisher

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Assessment of Macroeconomic Modeling in NEMS

Date: 10/29/2010
Contact: Charles Zelek

Sensitivity studies with the NEMS macroeconomic model are described relative to a perceived lack of sensitivity in climate change and energy security scenarios that depart from business as usual in terms of energy prices. Identified issues include an assumed independence from energy prices for certain exogenous driver variables. A practical scheme for systematic sensitivity studies is described, based upon how the Global Insight macroeconomic model is integrated as an external EVIEWS program in NEMS.


National and State Economic Impact of NETL

Date: 10/2/2009
Contact: Lisa Nichols

This report documents the development of state-level input-output models for Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Oregon and the augmentation of the national input-output model that was developed previously for the project Valuing Domestically Produced Natural Gas and Oil . The state IO models were developed to assess the FY08 economic impacts of expenditures, employment, and research and development awards at the NETL sites located in Pittsburgh, PA; Morgantown, WV; and Albany, OR. The national IO model was developed to assess the FY08 economic impacts of NETL site expenditures, awards, and employment at the national level.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology and the Potential for Improvements in Efficiency, Appendix 3

Date: 9/11/2009
Contact: Chris Nichols

This appendix contains the catalog of all imagery used in the GIS analysis portion of the report.