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Welcome to the Energy Analysis Search Publications page. Hundreds of Energy Analysis related publications can be found in this repository. To get started, begin filtering the results below by using the quick filters located on the Search Publications Landing Page or search within filtered results by using the search box below. 


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Analysis Focus: Coal Combustion Power Plants; Coal Gasification Power Plants; NG-based Power Plants;

Techno-economic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Direct-Fired Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Manuscript

Date: 10/26/2017
Contact: Nathan Weiland

This study describes systems analyses of an entrained flow coal gasification system integrated with an oxy-fired direct supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycle. Conceptual designs are included for a baseline sCO2 plant and a revised plant with improved gasifier/sCO2 cycle thermal integration. The results yield plant thermal efficiencies of 37.7% (HHV) and 40.6% for the baseline and improved sCO2 cases, including >97% carbon capture and storage (CCS). These efficiencies are a significant improvement on the 31.2% efficiency of the same gasifier in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant configuration with CCS, and are also shown to be comparable to more advanced IGCC systems and other coal-fueled direct sCO2 plants with CCS. Detailed economic analyses yield cost of electricity (COE) results of $137.3/MWh and $122.7/MWh for the baseline and improved sCO2 plants, respectively, representing 10% and 20% improvements on the reference IGCC COE of $152.6/MWh, with CCS.


Performance and Cost Assessment of a Coal Gasification Power Plant Integrated with a Direct-Fired sCO2 Brayton Cycle

Date: 9/18/2017
Contact: Nathan Weiland

The objective of this study is to develop a cost and performance baseline for a coal syngas-fueled, direct-fired supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power plant using coal gasification, and to analyze the sensitivity of its cost and performance to variations in operating parameter and cost assumptions.  The study results yield a sCO2 baseline plant efficiency of 37.7% (HHV), with 97.6% carbon capture at 99.8% purity, much higher than the reference integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant using the same Shell gasifier (31.2% efficiency, 90% carbon capture).  The economic analysis estimates a cost of electricity (COE) of $137/MWh for the mature, commercial-scale sCO2 plant (without CO2 transport and storage costs), yielding a 10% reduction in COE from the reference IGCC case.  These results demonstrate the significant potential of direct sCO2 power cycles for achieving DOE’s transformational power generation goals for coal-fueled power plants with carbon capture and storage.


Techno-economic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Direct-Fired Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle

Date: 5/10/2017
Contact: Nathan Weiland

This presentation describes recent systems studies of a coal-fueled, oxy-fired direct supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycle, which inherently captures carbon for storage (CCS). In this plant, coal is gasified in an entrained flow gasifier, the syngas is cleaned and burned with oxygen and diluent sCO2 in the cycle’s oxy-combustor. This is followed by turbine expansion and recuperation of thermal energy in the exhaust. After water is condensed from the working fluid, some of the CO2 is exhausted for CCS, and the balance is compressed and heated in the recuperator for return to the combustor. The conceptual design and system model for the plant are discussed, including thermal integration between the sCO2 cycle and the gasifier, and optimization of the overall plant configuration and operating conditions. The capital cost, operating expenses, and cost of electricity (COE) are also estimated. Results show improved efficiency and COE relative to IGCC plants with CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction and Power Generation

Date: 8/30/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is an update to the NETL 2014 life cycle analysis report of environmental profile for natural gas production and delivery in the United States. This report expands the scope of the environmental profile to include a broad range of impacts and updates the greenhouse gas (GHG) profile to reflect year 2012 production statistics and emission factors based on the current state of science as in 2015. The national methane emission rate is 1.6 percent and ranges between 1.2 and 2.2 percent. This national emission rate is a production weighted composite of 31 different combinations of extraction technologies and regions. The report also evaluates the life cycle environmental profile for producing electricity from natural gas. On 100- and 20-year time frames, the life cycle GHG emissions for baseload electricity from the existing fleet of natural gas fired power plants are 514 and 613 kg CO2e/MWh, respectively.


Performance of an Integrated Gasification Direct-Fired Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle

Date: 5/23/2016
Contact: Nathan Weiland

This presentation discusses development and performance results of a coal gasification system integrated with a direct-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycle.  In this plant, coal is first gasified and cleaned in order to avoid introducing sulfur and particulate matter into the sCO2 cycle, with the sCO2 cycle’s oxy-combustor burning the cleaned syngas with oxygen in a recycled sCO2 stream.  The plant is inherently amenable to carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes, as it produces a high pressure exhaust stream that is largely comprised of CO2. The baseline direct sCO2 cycle performance is discussed and compared to IGCC and oxy-coal AUSC reference plants with CCS.  The sensitivity of the sCO2 cycle’s performance to various operating parameters is also discussed, as well as the effect of various heat integration options on thermal efficiency, operability, and cost.


Performance Baseline for Direct-Fired sCO2 Cycles

Date: 3/28/2016
Contact: Nathan Weiland

NETL has conducted an evaluation of the performance and emissions for a direct coal-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power plant, which has recently received interest as a potentially lower-cost, fossil-fuelled power source with inherent amenability to carbon capture. This study describes a baseline coal-fired cycle configuration, where coal is first gasified and cleaned in order to avoid introducing sulfur and particulate matter into the sCO2 cycle, with the sCO2 cycle’s oxy-combustor operating on syngas. The baseline sCO2 plant design yields a net plant thermal efficiency of 37.7% (HHV), with 98.1% CO2 capture at 99.4% purity. This compares favorably to the reference IGCC plant, which has a 31.2% net HHV thermal efficiency, and 90.1% CO2 capture rate at 99.99% purity. The sensitivity of the sCO2 plant’s performance to its process variables is discussed, as well as their effect on plant operability and cost surrogate variables.


Performance Baseline for Direct-Fired sCO2 Cycles - Presentation

Date: 3/28/2016
Contact: Nathan Weiland

NETL has conducted an evaluation of the performance and emissions for a direct coal-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power plant, which has recently received interest as a potentially lower-cost, fossil-fuelled power source with inherent amenability to carbon capture. This study describes a baseline coal-fired cycle configuration, where coal is first gasified and cleaned in order to avoid introducing sulfur and particulate matter into the sCO2 cycle, with the sCO2 cycle’s oxy-combustor operating on syngas. The baseline sCO2 plant design yields a net plant thermal efficiency of 37.7% (HHV), with 98.1% CO2 capture at 99.4% purity. This compares favorably to the reference IGCC plant, which has a 31.2% net HHV thermal efficiency, and 90.1% CO2 capture rate at 99.99% purity. The sensitivity of the sCO2 plant’s performance to its process variables is discussed, as well as their effect on plant operability and cost surrogate variables.


Coal-Hybrid Power Systems for the Future

Date: 2/4/2016
Contact: Thomas Tarka

New coal-fired generation must be able to operate flexibly, at high efficiency, and be able to meet new performance standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By creating an integrated energy complex that co-locates a state-of-the-art coal-fired power plant with renewable energy sources and (potentially) energy storage, coal generation can meet new emissions targets and provide high-capacity factor, reliable energy. Several scenarios are examined to determine optimal configurations and the impacts of integrating different renewable or natural gas power generation with a coal-fired power generation.


Design of a Commercial Scale Oxy-Coal Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle

Date: 10/7/2015
Contact: Nathan Weiland

This presentation provides an overview of NETL’s analyses of the supercritical CO2 (SCO2) recompression Brayton cycle for application to commercial scale power plants with CO2 capture. This cycle has the potential to achieve over 50% efficiency due to the recuperation of heat from the SCO2 turbine exhaust, while the high SCO2 density may yield reductions in plant footprint and capital cost. Prior work has found that a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) with enhanced combustion air preheating would be a suitable indirect heat source for a SCO2 power cycle. This work investigates several options for efficiently integrating an oxy-fired CFB with an indirect SCO2 cycle, including thermal integration with the air separation unit, and utilization of combustor exhaust heat to thermally balance the low temperature recuperator. The sensitivity of plant performance to various cycle parameters is investigated, and the effect of design choices on the plant’s capital cost is discussed.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations - Revision 1

Date: 11/29/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Performance and Cost of a Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant with Complete Internal Reforming

Date: 11/27/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

The performance and cost of a natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power system with complete internal reformation (IR) is presented in this report. The report presents an update to a previous NGFC Pathway Study that includes carbon capture and storage (2011). IR utilizes heat generated in the fuel cell stack directly for the endothermic reformation reaction, improving system efficiency. NGFC systems with complete IR form the ultimate embodiment of the current fuel cell technology development program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, which is consistent with the commercialization strategies being pursued in the stationary power generation sector.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture - Rev 1

Date: 9/19/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

The objective of this study was to establish the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical (SC) pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity, Revision 2a, September 2013

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

Objective is to establish baseline performance and cost estimates for today’s fossil energy plants, it is necessary to look at the current state of technology. Such a baseline can be used to benchmark the progress of the Fossil Energy RD&D portfolio. This study provides an accurate, independent assessment of the cost and performance for Pulverized Coal (PC) Combustion, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), and Natural Gas Combined Cycles (NGCC), all with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration assuming that the plants use technology available today.


Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Coal Fleet: Impacts of R&D and CO2 EOR Revenue

Date: 6/26/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

In a 2nd generation CO2 capture market (2030) with no carbon regulations, compare business-as-usual to CO2 retrofits for enhanced oil recovery. Specifically, this presentation discusses the CCRD database design and operational details, discusses the improvements of 2nd generation capture technology, and how EOR revenue promotes more competitive dispatch.


Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

Date: 1/31/2013
Contact: William Summers

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to provide a standard basis for scaling costs, with specific emphasis on scaling exponents. The intention of having a standardized document is to provide guidelines for proper procedures to reduce the potential of errors and increase credibility through consistency. This document contains a listing of frequently used pieces of equipment and their corresponding scaling exponent for various plant types, along with their ranges of applicability. This document also details the equations to be used with each exponent.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture - Original

Date: 5/27/2011
Contact: Timothy Fout

The objective of this study was to establish the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical (SC) pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants.