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Technology Focus: Advanced Energy Systems; Advanced Combustion Systems; Coal and Coal Biomass to Liquids; Solid Oxide Fuel Cells; Advanced Turbines; Gasification Systems;

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 1b: Bituminous Coal (IGCC) to Electricity Revision 2b – Year Dollar Update

Date: 7/31/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report presents the cost and performance results of an assessment of seven integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. The primary value of this report lies not in the absolute accuracy of the capital cost estimates for the individual cases (estimated to be -15 percent/ 30), but in the application of a consistent approach to allow meaningful comparisons of relative costs among the cases evaluated. This report, Volume 1b, retains the IGCC design and performance updates from the November 2010 release of Volume 1 (Revision 2)1, but updates the IGCC costs for all cases to 2011 year dollars. Volume 1a covers the cost and performance update of all pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) cases. Section 4 has a revision control table listing the updates applied to this report.


Integrating the PNNL SOFC Multi-Physics Model into the NETL Aspen System Model as a Reduced Order Model

Date: 7/15/2015
Contact: Gregory Hackett

Conference presentation from the 16th Annual SOFC Workshop that highlights the integration and validation of the PNNL SOFC model into NETL SOFC system models. The integration strengthens NETL's analyses by incorporating state-of-the-art industry performance data that can be used to inform real and achievable future targets for the cost and performance of SOFC technology.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 1a: Bituminous Coal (PC) and Natural Gas to Electricity Revision 3

Date: 7/6/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, all with and without carbon capture and storage. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Fossil Energy R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. This is believed to provide the most comprehensive set of cost and performance data using bituminous coal available in the public literature to date. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building utility projects.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Supplement: Sensitivity to CO2 Capture Rate in Coal-Fired Power Plants (June 2015)

Date: 6/22/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report evaluated the effect of lower CO2 capture rates on plant performance and cost for both IGCC and PC power plants.


Guidance for NETL’s Oxycombustion R&D Program: Chemical Looping Combustion Reference Plant Designs and Sensitivity Studies

Date: 12/19/2014
Contact: Robert Stevens

An emerging, coal-fired power plant technology, chemical looping combustion (CLC), is assessed in this report. CLC technology is, in essence, an oxycombustion technology being developed with focus on its potential for improved performance and reduced cost. Its benefits are measured against performance and cost of the conventional pulverized coal (PC) power plant using amine-based CO2 absorption for post-combustion carbon capture. This study develops National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) reference CLC plant configurations and assumptions that are used to evaluate CLC system performance and cost.


Techno-Economic Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Systems

Date: 11/24/2014
Contact: Gregory Hackett

This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 4: Coal-to-Liquids via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Date: 10/15/2014
Contact: William Summers

This report establishes performance and cost data for coal-to-liquids systems, specifically by means of gasification and Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis to assess the design and financial performance of a commercial-scale coal-to-Fischer-Tropsch liquids facility. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building utility and refining projects.


Baseline Analysis of Crude Methanol Production from Coal and Natural Gas

Date: 10/15/2014
Contact: William Summers

Gasification of coal, in addition to generating syngas for power production, has the potential to produce a diverse array of high-value products. It is a challenge to understand the optimal use of this domestic coal resource amidst the potential technology options, product slates (including co-production of power), and competing feedstocks (natural gas, petroleum). This analysis seeks to begin addressing that challenge by focusing on one primary product, methanol, which also serves as a readily-transportable intermediate to many other products including olefins, gasoline, and di-methyl ether (DME).


Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SCO2) Indirect Power Cycles Incorporating Fossil-Fuel Heat Sources

Date: 10/7/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

2014 Pittsburgh Coal Conference Presentation on indirect supercritical CO2 Cycles with the following sections: - Introduction - sCO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle - Screening of Fossil-based Heat Sources - Potential Benefits for Coal-Based Indirect sCO2 Cycles Conclusions include that (1) potential for significant efficiency gains over conventional steam cycles depending on the configuration and temperature; (2) applicable to multiple coal-based platforms; (3) costs currently uncertain; and, (4) coal-based systems have a potential for a 5-15% reduction in COE under certain assumptions.


Preliminary Benefits of Supercritical CO2 (SCO2) Power Cycles

Date: 9/11/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

Presentation at 2014 SCO2 Workshop: of plant level & power sector potential benefits for indirect sCO2 cycles. An example is presented for a coal-based plant that shows results for improving efficiency and COE. Outlines the cost uncertainties for sCO2 cycles and the approach used to obtain estimates.


An Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles Integrated with Generic Heat Sources (Presentation)

Date: 9/10/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

Presentation for the 4th sCO2 Symposium Presentation (2014). Presented is a detailed analysis of the supercritical CO2 (sCO2) recompression Brayton cycle to better understand at a fundamental level the dependence of the cycle performance on operating conditions. The focus of this study is on cycle performance, particularly efficiency. No cost estimates were performed. However, a number of indirect measures of cycle cost were examined to provide an indication of whether the operating conditions were in a region of great cost sensitivity. In this study, a sCO2 recompression cycle is described and a set of baseline operating conditions proposed. The heat source for the study was considered generic or agnostic. No temperature value, temperature range, or heat flux was assumed to limit cycle design.


An Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles Integrated with Generic Heat Sources (Report)

Date: 9/10/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

Paper for the 4th sCO2 Symposium. (2014). This paper documents a detailed analysis of the supercritical CO2 (sCO2) recompression Brayton cycle to better understand at a fundamental level the dependence of the cycle performance on operating conditions. The focus of this study is on cycle performance, particularly efficiency. No cost estimates were performed. However, a number of indirect measures of cycle cost were examined to provide an indication of whether the operating conditions were in a region of great cost sensitivity. In this study, a sCO2 recompression cycle is described and a set of baseline operating conditions proposed. The heat source for the study was considered generic or agnostic. No temperature value, temperature range, or heat flux was assumed to limit cycle design.


sCO2 Cycle Analysis – Preliminary Results

Date: 7/24/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

This is a presentation on a "10 MWe sCO2 Demo analysis". The sCO2 cycle modeled is a Recompression Brayton Cycle. A baseline cycle is base on a series of parameters that were assumed as reasonable from preliminary runs and know literature values. Sensitivities to key parameters were then made. These included pressure ratio, system pressure drop, minimum recuperator temperature approach., and turbine inlet temperature. The idea of cost surrogate variables is also introduced.


IGFC and NGFC Pathway Studies - Estimation of Stack Degradation Costs and Salient Results

Date: 7/22/2014
Contact: Gregory Hackett

Conference presentation from the 15th Annual SECA Workshop. This presentation highlights the methodology used to estimate costs due to stack performance degradation. Also highlighted are the most recent system pathway results for integrated fuel cell gasification (IGFC) and natural gas fuel cell (NGFC) power generation technologies.


Analysis of Brayton Cycles Utilizing Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Date: 7/1/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

This white paper documents a detailed and extensive Brayton cycle analysis that was performed to better understand at a fundamental level the dependence of the Brayton cycle performance on operating conditions, working fluid, supercritical fluid properties, and some cycle non-idealities. This work was performed to better understand the factors controlling Brayton cycle performance and optimal operating conditions, particularly for cycles utilizing supercritical CO2 (sCO2) as the working fluid. The focus of this study is on cycle performance, particularly efficiency. No cost estimates were performed. However, as a single indirect measure of cycle cost, some sensitivity analyses on specific power (net output divided by working fluid mass flow rate) were included.


An Overview, Assessment, and Thermodynamic Analysis of an Indirect SCO2 Power Cycle Configuration (Presentation)

Date: 4/1/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

ICEPAG 2014 presentation on sCO2 analysis and benefits. The presentation gives an overview of potential advantages and the differences between Indirect and Direct SCO2 cyles. The presentation is broken into the following sections: (1) Fundamental Thermodynamic Analysis of sCO2 Power Cycles, (2) Fundamental Thermodynamic Analysis of sCO2 Power Cycles, and (3) Potential Benefits for Coal-based Indirect sCO2 Cycles.


Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 4/1/2014
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units. The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.


T-Q Diagram and Heat Source Assessment – Preliminary Evaluation

Date: 1/24/2014
Contact: Walter Shelton

Presentation of a preliminary assessment of the fossil fuel heat sources for integration with the supercritical CO2 cycle: (1) PC, Air/Oxy, (2) CFB, Air/Oxy, (3) PFBC, Air/Oxy. It shows the development of T-Q diagrams to evaluate the effectiveness of various heat sources for the supercritical CO2 cycle. Heat sources include fossil fuels, Nuclear, and Solar. Conclusions include: (1) Current CFB (Air/Oxy) T-Q profile more suited to sCO2 cycle (for TIT < CFB furnace temperature), (2) PC/CFB design needs to be modified to take advantage of the high efficiency sCO2 cycle and (3) sCO2 cycle should be optimized to match the heat source better.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 1/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0 determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


NETL Studies on the Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Power Plant Fleet

Date: 1/9/2014
Contact: Gregory Hackett

FE funds technologies applicable to both greenfield and retrofit applications for CO2 capture. This presentation provides the highlights from various retrofit studies including: (1) Quality Guidelines on retrofit difficulty cost factors, (2) Reference PC and NGCC plants retrofitted with post-combustion capture, and (3) Extrapolation of PC retrofit study results to the entire U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet to examine the costs of capture for each unit and determines how EOR and 2nd Generation capture technologies might incentivize CO2 capture.


Energy Related Flow Diagrams

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

This document contains several energy related flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams). For a Sankey diagram, the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow quantity. The following energy related diagrams included in the document are: U.S. energy use, international oil flows, international and domestic coal import/exports, and international natural gas flows.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations - Revision 1

Date: 11/29/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Performance and Cost of a Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant with Complete Internal Reforming

Date: 11/27/2013
Contact: Gregory Hackett

The performance and cost of a natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power system with complete internal reformation (IR) is presented in this report. The report presents an update to a previous NGFC Pathway Study that includes carbon capture and storage (2011). IR utilizes heat generated in the fuel cell stack directly for the endothermic reformation reaction, improving system efficiency. NGFC systems with complete IR form the ultimate embodiment of the current fuel cell technology development program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, which is consistent with the commercialization strategies being pursued in the stationary power generation sector.


Novel CO2 Utilization Concepts: Working Paper

Date: 11/1/2013
Contact: Robert James

Final Report on CO2 Utilization Concepts, detailing screening and detailed studies of concepts using CO2 for product generation, giving results of CO2 use and cost of production.


Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles Design Basis – Brayton Cycle Analysis - Update

Date: 10/23/2013
Contact: Walter Shelton

Fundamental sCO2 cycle analyses. This is an ESPA/Noblis presentation of a study made to look at indirect sCO2 Brayton cycles using a generic heat source from a fundamental thermodynamic prospective. Included are overviews of factors impacting cycle configurations, heat sources and outlines of both indirect and direct Brayton Cycles. Sensitivity Analyses are performed on a number of items that include working fluids, cycle pressure ratios and pressures, turbine inlet temperatures, and turbomachinery efficiencies. The study includes testing various equation of state (EOS) to arrive at reasonable and accurate thermodynamic values for fluids in the critical point region. The results are presented in many summary plots to illustrate the findings to the reader. Additional discussion is available in a final report.


Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 10/2/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). NETL uses LCA as a tool for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 9/29/2013
Contact: Charles Zelek

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis shows that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 9/27/2013
Contact: William Summers

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture

Date: 9/19/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture - Rev 1

Date: 9/19/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

The objective of this study was to establish the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical (SC) pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity, Revision 2a, September 2013

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

Objective is to establish baseline performance and cost estimates for today’s fossil energy plants, it is necessary to look at the current state of technology. Such a baseline can be used to benchmark the progress of the Fossil Energy RD&D portfolio. This study provides an accurate, independent assessment of the cost and performance for Pulverized Coal (PC) Combustion, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), and Natural Gas Combined Cycles (NGCC), all with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration assuming that the plants use technology available today.


Analysis of Natural Gas-to-Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

This study models a gas-to-liquids (GTL) system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. Specifically, the system produces 15,500 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline, and 34,500 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The study provides an updated evaluation of cost, technical, and environmental performance. With an estimated total as-spent capital cost of 4.3 billion dollars (3.7 &spamp;ndash; 5.6 billion dollars) or $86,188 ($73,260 - $112,045) per bbl of daily production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, such a facility would be commercially viable should the market conditions (liquid fuel and natural gas prices) remain as favorable or better throughout the life of the project than during the middle of May 2013. The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline when based on current practices in the natural gas industry are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO


Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles Design Basis – Brayton Cycle Analysis

Date: 6/21/2013
Contact: Walter Shelton

Fundamental sCO2 cycle analyses. This is an ESPA/Noblis presentation of a study made to look at indirect sCO2 Brayton cycles using a generic heat source from a fundamental thermodynamic prospective. Included are overviews of factors impacting cycle configurations, heat sources and outlines of both indirect and direct Brayton Cycles. Sensitivity Analyses are performed on a number of items that include working fluids, cycle pressure ratios and pressures, turbine inlet temperatures, and turbomachinery efficiencies. The study includes testing various equation of state (EOS) to arrive at reasonable and accurate thermodynamic values for fluids in the critical point region. The results are presented in many summary plots to illustrate the findings to the reader. Additional discussion is available in a final report.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Presentation)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Model)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life cycle analysis of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant develops an inventory of emissions results and calculates life cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Current and Future Technologies for Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plants

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Walter Shelton

The purpose of this study is to present the cost and performance of natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants using state-of-the-art (SOA) and advanced gas turbines, both non-capture configurations and with post Adv. Combustion Systems carbon capture based on an advanced solvent process. The NGCC cases included in this study consist of four gas turbine designs: F-frame (GE 7FA.05), H-frame (based on Siemens H), advanced J-frame (based on MHI J), and a conceptual advanced future design (designated as X-frame). Each turbine is modeled in three process configurations: without CO2 capture, with CO2 capture, and with CO2 capture and exhaust gas recycle (EGR).


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool Report

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Report)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Fact Sheet)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 2: PC Plants

Date: 2/1/2013
Contact: William Summers

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in greenfield Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

Date: 1/31/2013
Contact: William Summers

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to provide a standard basis for scaling costs, with specific emphasis on scaling exponents. The intention of having a standardized document is to provide guidelines for proper procedures to reduce the potential of errors and increase credibility through consistency. This document contains a listing of frequently used pieces of equipment and their corresponding scaling exponent for various plant types, along with their ranges of applicability. This document also details the equations to be used with each exponent.


Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles - Literature Survey

Date: 12/12/2012
Contact: Walter Shelton

The task was to identify from public literature possible systems for evaluation based on the following high quality ( T>500 oC) heat sources: coal PFBC , Nuclear, Solar Thermal, and waste heat. Objectives included outlining how the heat source is currently or proposed to be used in a process and what information is available. All of the sCO2 cycles considered used indirect (closed) sCO2 cycles and direct cycles were not in the study scope. Concluding remarks pointed out that fossil-fuel-based heat sources are a promisig source for usage in sCO2 cycles. That solar sources are dependent on a thermal energy storage medium (e.g. molten salt) and this could lead to operation at lower temperatures then desirable to obtain high efficiencies. Other heat sources briefly explored were fuel cells, waste heat and current nuclear reactors.


LCA XII Presentation - Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Robert James

NETL has applied a single set of methods for calculating the environmental, cost, and other aspects of seven options for baseload power generation. LCA is used to calculate environmental results, and life cycle boundaries are also applied to cost results. A set of other technical and non-technical criteria are used to gain a broad understanding of the roles of alternative energy sources in the U.S. energy portfolio.


LCA XII Presentation: Modeling the Uncertainty of Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Life Cycle Inventories with Monte Carlo Simulation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainty in a life cycle inventory of the Gasification Systems of coal and biomass. While the inventory is dominated by carbon dioxide emissions from the Adv. Combustion Systems of the fuel, small changes to the feedstocks that are used to make the fuel can make the difference in complying with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) - LCA XII Presentation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


Impact of Load Following on Power Plant Cost and Performance

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: William Summers

This study performed a review of the public literature and interviewed industry experts to determine the impact on cost and performance of forcing fossil fuel power plants without and with carbon capture to load follow in response to changes in demand or output from renewable power generation sources. There is some information to quantify the impact of load following on NGCC and PC plants without capture, however there is little information either experimental data or theoretical analysis on the impact on IGCC, oxycombustion, or any plants with carbon capture from load following.


LCA XII Presentation: Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at NETL. NETL uses LCA as a tool and framework for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.


LCA XII Presentation: Contribution of Biomass to the LCI of Cofiring Power

Date: 9/26/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Biomass includes agricultural residues, forest thinnings, and dedicated energy crops. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions can be accomplished with coal and biomass co-firing only if biomass is produced with high yield rates and there are miniminal changes to land use. Increasing power plant efficiency or using post-combustion carbon dioxide capture and sequestration can lead to larger GHG reductions than co-firing biomass with coal.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


An Analysis of DSI's Impact on Dispatch Economics in PJM

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates the marginal cost impact of installing dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and dry sorbent injection (DSI) on an existing subcritical pulverized coal unit in PJM, for compliance with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS). The impact of compliance technology choice on dispatch position is highlighted.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases

Date: 8/23/2012
Contact: Timothy Fout

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 6/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 6/29/2012
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 5/11/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Thomas Tarka

The conversion of domestic resources such as coal and biomass into diesel fuel is a near-term technology pathway to address the energy security, economic sustainability, and Climate Change Risk Mitigation concerns which currently face our nation. This study evaluates the economic viability and environmental impact of producing diesel fuel via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Two facility design approaches – focused on fuels production and the co-production of fuels and electricity, respectively – were evaluated for the conversion of domestic resources such as coal or a mixture of coal and biomass.


Advancing Oxycombustion Technology for Bituminous Coal Power Plants: An R&D Guide

Date: 4/1/2012
Contact: Robert Stevens

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is funding research aimed at improving the performance and reducing the cost of oxycombustion. The objective of this study is to guide oxycombustion research in areas that can provide the largest benefits in electricity cost and plant performance. The advanced oxycombustion technologies evaluated in this study are categorized into four major areas: advanced boiler design, advanced oxygen production, advanced flue gas treatment, and innovative CO2 compression concepts.


Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Date: 3/16/2012
Contact: Robert Stevens

The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of = 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture. 


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: Gregory Hackett

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Timothy Fout

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements - 2011 Update

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using EIA AEO 2011 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements.


Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011

Date: 9/29/2011
Contact: William Summers

In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.


Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion as a Near-Term CO2 Mitigation Strategy

Date: 9/14/2011
Contact: Eric Grol

Circulating fluidized bed combustion systems have the potential to meet strict air quality guidelines currently being proposed (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate). In addition, their fuel-flexibility can also allow for co-firing carbon neutral opportunity fuels, such as biomass, therefore reducing the CO2 footprint in the near-term. Building these plants with attention to the design considerations that will be needed to accommodate eventual CO2 capture (capture-ready) can also help future integration of full-scale capture.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 9/12/2011
Contact: Gregory Hackett

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal to Electricity

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity contains three separate reports including 28 cases: integrated gasification combined cycle plants (Volume 3a), combustion plants (Volume 3b), and natural gas combined cycle plants (Volume 3c). This study establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. Most of the coal fired plants are studied using both Rosebud Montana Powder River Basin Coal (PRB) at a Montana site at an elevation of 3,400 feet and North Dakota Lignite (NDL) at a mine-mouth North Dakota site at an elevation of 1,900 feet. NGCC plants are also studied at both locations. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market condi


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Consider

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs. This is a life cycle environmental and cost analysis of ethanol using starch and cellulosic feedstocks. It provides a life cycle comparison of three tiers of technology, three types of biomass feedstocks, and two fuel-blending compositions for a total of 18 distinct pathways. When ethanol is blended with gasoline at an 85/15 ratio between ethanol and gasoline, the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are highly variable due to different feedstock types and ethanol production technologies. The biochemical conversion of cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol has the lowest GHG emissions in this analysis, because of the energy recovered at the ethanol plant.


Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia (Presentation)

Date: 7/5/2011
Contact: William Summers

Presentation of Volume 2: This report establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. This is believed to provide the most comprehensive set of cost and performance data available in the public literature to date. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building projects.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia (Report)

Date: 7/5/2011
Contact: William Summers

This report establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. This is believed to provide the most comprehensive set of cost and performance data available in the public literature to date. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building projects.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Presentation)

Date: 7/1/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity contains three separate reports including 28 cases: integrated gasification combined cycle plants (Volume 3a), combustion plants (Volume 3b), and natural gas combined cycle plants (Volume 3c). This study establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. Most of the coal fired plants are studied using both Rosebud Montana Powder River Basin Coal (PRB) at a Montana site at an elevation of 3,400 feet and North Dakota Lignite (NDL) at a mine-mouth North Dakota site at an elevation of 1,900 feet. NGCC plants are also studied at both locations. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for coal-fueled plants


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture - Original

Date: 5/27/2011
Contact: Timothy Fout

The objective of this study was to establish the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical (SC) pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants.


Technical and Economic Analysis of Various Power Generation Resources Coupled with CAES Systems

Date: 5/17/2011
Contact: Ryan Egidi

Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is an energy storage application with the potential to supplement intermittent power sources, such as wind and solar generators, and to enable better load following for more constant power sources such as coal combustion generators. To better understand CAES’s potential to provide practical energy storage for intermittent and constant-output power sources in the U.S., three practical considerations important to CAES planning and operations were analyzed: 1. Siting decisions 2. Development of optimal charge-discharge strategies 3. Design and operating factors that affect efficiency. These three analyses form the major sections of this study.


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: John Brewer

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers (one-for-one reduction). NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The design and cost bases for this pathway study closely follows the bases applied in the NETL, 2010, Bituminous Baseline report so that direct performance and cost comparisons can be made with the conventional fossil-fuel power plant results estimated in that report. Performance and cost projections for a baseline integrated Gasification Systems combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, a baseline natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant, and prior coal-based integrated Gasification Systems fuel cell (IGFC) pathways, are compared with the results for the NGFC pathways. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance

Date: 4/30/2011
Contact: William Summers

This paper summarizes the cost estimation methodology employed by NETL in its assessment of power plant performance. A clear understanding of the methodology used is essential for allowing different power plant technologies to be compared on a similar basis. Though these guidelines are tailored for power plants, they can also be applied to a variety of different energy conversion plants (e.g., coal to liquids, syngas generation, hydrogen).


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3c: Natural Gas Combined Cycle at Elevation

Date: 3/25/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases

Date: 3/25/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 2/25/2011
Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology. The IGFC plants in this study apply advanced, planar, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology with separate anode and cathode off-gas steams, and incorporate anode off-gas oxy-combustion for nearly complete carbon capture. The SOFC simulations utilize the expected operating conditions and performance capabilities of this solid oxide fuel cell technology, ope


CBTL Jet Fuel Model

Date: 2/16/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) has received funding from the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Energy to demonstrate how liquid fuel can be produced from coal and meet the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 greenhouse gas (GHG) requirement for DOD fuel purchases of synthetic fuel. Section 526 of EISA requires that any fuel purchases have a life-cycle CO2 emission less than conventional petroleum fuel. This model evaluates different scenarios for the conversion of coal and biomass to jet fuel using oxygen blown, transport reactor integrated gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch catalyst configurations.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report (Revised 2011)

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Presentation

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of electric vehicles (EVs), which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Carbon Capture Approaches for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Systems

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Walter Shelton

This study develops ASPEN PLUS simulation models and cost estimates for Natural Gas Combined Cycle plants with CO2 capture. Three approaches for carbon capture are examined: pre-Adv. Combustion Systems, post-Adv. Combustion Systems and oxy-Adv. Combustion Systems. In pre-Adv. Combustion Systems carbon capture, the carbon in the fuel is converted to CO2 and removed before the Adv. Combustion Systems process, whereas in post-Adv. Combustion Systems, the more dilute CO2 is separated from the flue gas at a lower pressure. Oxy-Adv. Combustion Systems technologies use nearly pure oxygen as the oxidant so that the flue gas consists primarily of CO2 and water vapor. Case results are compared with a reference plant based on an 7F frame Adv. Combustion Systems turbine.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Report

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of EVs, which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 11/1/2010
Contact: James Fisher

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Fuel Composition Effects and Other Operational Parameters on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance

Date: 10/1/2010
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates the effects of syngas composition (including methane and diluents such as water and carbon dioxide), fuel utilization, and anode recycle rate on theoretical solid oxide fuel cell performance.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/1/2010
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (zip file)

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 9/1/2010
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant

Date: 1/12/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 1/8/2010
Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.