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Technology Focus: Advanced Combustion Systems

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 1b: Bituminous Coal (IGCC) to Electricity Revision 2b – Year Dollar Update

Date: 7/31/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report presents the cost and performance results of an assessment of seven integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. The primary value of this report lies not in the absolute accuracy of the capital cost estimates for the individual cases (estimated to be -15 percent/ 30), but in the application of a consistent approach to allow meaningful comparisons of relative costs among the cases evaluated. This report, Volume 1b, retains the IGCC design and performance updates from the November 2010 release of Volume 1 (Revision 2)1, but updates the IGCC costs for all cases to 2011 year dollars. Volume 1a covers the cost and performance update of all pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) cases. Section 4 has a revision control table listing the updates applied to this report.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 1a: Bituminous Coal (PC) and Natural Gas to Electricity Revision 3

Date: 7/6/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, all with and without carbon capture and storage. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Fossil Energy R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. This is believed to provide the most comprehensive set of cost and performance data using bituminous coal available in the public literature to date. The cost and performance data were compiled from published reports, information obtained from vendor quotes and users of the technology, and data from designing and building utility projects.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Supplement: Sensitivity to CO2 Capture Rate in Coal-Fired Power Plants (June 2015)

Date: 6/22/2015
Contact: Timothy Fout

This report evaluated the effect of lower CO2 capture rates on plant performance and cost for both IGCC and PC power plants.


Guidance for NETL’s Oxycombustion R&D Program: Chemical Looping Combustion Reference Plant Designs and Sensitivity Studies

Date: 12/19/2014
Contact: Robert Stevens

An emerging, coal-fired power plant technology, chemical looping combustion (CLC), is assessed in this report. CLC technology is, in essence, an oxycombustion technology being developed with focus on its potential for improved performance and reduced cost. Its benefits are measured against performance and cost of the conventional pulverized coal (PC) power plant using amine-based CO2 absorption for post-combustion carbon capture. This study develops National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) reference CLC plant configurations and assumptions that are used to evaluate CLC system performance and cost.


Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 4/1/2014
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units. The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 1/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0 determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


NETL Studies on the Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Power Plant Fleet

Date: 1/9/2014
Contact: Gregory Hackett

FE funds technologies applicable to both greenfield and retrofit applications for CO2 capture. This presentation provides the highlights from various retrofit studies including: (1) Quality Guidelines on retrofit difficulty cost factors, (2) Reference PC and NGCC plants retrofitted with post-combustion capture, and (3) Extrapolation of PC retrofit study results to the entire U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet to examine the costs of capture for each unit and determines how EOR and 2nd Generation capture technologies might incentivize CO2 capture.


Energy Related Flow Diagrams

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

This document contains several energy related flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams). For a Sankey diagram, the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow quantity. The following energy related diagrams included in the document are: U.S. energy use, international oil flows, international and domestic coal import/exports, and international natural gas flows.


Novel CO2 Utilization Concepts: Working Paper

Date: 11/1/2013
Contact: Robert James

Final Report on CO2 Utilization Concepts, detailing screening and detailed studies of concepts using CO2 for product generation, giving results of CO2 use and cost of production.


Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 10/2/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). NETL uses LCA as a tool for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 9/27/2013
Contact: William Summers

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture

Date: 9/19/2013
Contact: Timothy Fout

This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Model)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Presentation)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Fact Sheet)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool Report

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Report)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life cycle analysis of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant develops an inventory of emissions results and calculates life cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 2: PC Plants

Date: 2/1/2013
Contact: William Summers

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in greenfield Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) - LCA XII Presentation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


Impact of Load Following on Power Plant Cost and Performance

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: William Summers

This study performed a review of the public literature and interviewed industry experts to determine the impact on cost and performance of forcing fossil fuel power plants without and with carbon capture to load follow in response to changes in demand or output from renewable power generation sources. There is some information to quantify the impact of load following on NGCC and PC plants without capture, however there is little information either experimental data or theoretical analysis on the impact on IGCC, oxycombustion, or any plants with carbon capture from load following.


LCA XII Presentation - Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Robert James

NETL has applied a single set of methods for calculating the environmental, cost, and other aspects of seven options for baseload power generation. LCA is used to calculate environmental results, and life cycle boundaries are also applied to cost results. A set of other technical and non-technical criteria are used to gain a broad understanding of the roles of alternative energy sources in the U.S. energy portfolio.


LCA XII Presentation: Modeling the Uncertainty of Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Life Cycle Inventories with Monte Carlo Simulation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainty in a life cycle inventory of the Gasification Systems of coal and biomass. While the inventory is dominated by carbon dioxide emissions from the Adv. Combustion Systems of the fuel, small changes to the feedstocks that are used to make the fuel can make the difference in complying with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.


LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.


LCA XII Presentation: Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at NETL. NETL uses LCA as a tool and framework for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


LCA XII Presentation: Contribution of Biomass to the LCI of Cofiring Power

Date: 9/26/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Biomass includes agricultural residues, forest thinnings, and dedicated energy crops. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions can be accomplished with coal and biomass co-firing only if biomass is produced with high yield rates and there are miniminal changes to land use. Increasing power plant efficiency or using post-combustion carbon dioxide capture and sequestration can lead to larger GHG reductions than co-firing biomass with coal.


An Analysis of DSI's Impact on Dispatch Economics in PJM

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates the marginal cost impact of installing dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and dry sorbent injection (DSI) on an existing subcritical pulverized coal unit in PJM, for compliance with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS). The impact of compliance technology choice on dispatch position is highlighted.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases

Date: 8/23/2012
Contact: Timothy Fout

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 6/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 6/29/2012
Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 5/11/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Advancing Oxycombustion Technology for Bituminous Coal Power Plants: An R&D Guide

Date: 4/1/2012
Contact: Robert Stevens

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is funding research aimed at improving the performance and reducing the cost of oxycombustion. The objective of this study is to guide oxycombustion research in areas that can provide the largest benefits in electricity cost and plant performance. The advanced oxycombustion technologies evaluated in this study are categorized into four major areas: advanced boiler design, advanced oxygen production, advanced flue gas treatment, and innovative CO2 compression concepts.


Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Date: 3/16/2012
Contact: Robert Stevens

The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of = 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture. 


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: William Summers

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 1/31/2012
Contact: Gregory Hackett

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Timothy Fout

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements - 2011 Update

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using EIA AEO 2011 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements.


Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011

Date: 9/29/2011
Contact: William Summers

In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.


Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion as a Near-Term CO2 Mitigation Strategy

Date: 9/14/2011
Contact: Eric Grol

Circulating fluidized bed combustion systems have the potential to meet strict air quality guidelines currently being proposed (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate). In addition, their fuel-flexibility can also allow for co-firing carbon neutral opportunity fuels, such as biomass, therefore reducing the CO2 footprint in the near-term. Building these plants with attention to the design considerations that will be needed to accommodate eventual CO2 capture (capture-ready) can also help future integration of full-scale capture.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 9/12/2011
Contact: Gregory Hackett

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs. This is a life cycle environmental and cost analysis of ethanol using starch and cellulosic feedstocks. It provides a life cycle comparison of three tiers of technology, three types of biomass feedstocks, and two fuel-blending compositions for a total of 18 distinct pathways. When ethanol is blended with gasoline at an 85/15 ratio between ethanol and gasoline, the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are highly variable due to different feedstock types and ethanol production technologies. The biochemical conversion of cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol has the lowest GHG emissions in this analysis, because of the energy recovered at the ethanol plant.


Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Consider

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant.


Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Presentation)

Date: 7/1/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity contains three separate reports including 28 cases: integrated gasification combined cycle plants (Volume 3a), combustion plants (Volume 3b), and natural gas combined cycle plants (Volume 3c). This study establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. Most of the coal fired plants are studied using both Rosebud Montana Powder River Basin Coal (PRB) at a Montana site at an elevation of 3,400 feet and North Dakota Lignite (NDL) at a mine-mouth North Dakota site at an elevation of 1,900 feet. NGCC plants are also studied at both locations. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for coal-fueled plants


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: John Brewer

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers (one-for-one reduction). NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance

Date: 4/30/2011
Contact: William Summers

This paper summarizes the cost estimation methodology employed by NETL in its assessment of power plant performance. A clear understanding of the methodology used is essential for allowing different power plant technologies to be compared on a similar basis. Though these guidelines are tailored for power plants, they can also be applied to a variety of different energy conversion plants (e.g., coal to liquids, syngas generation, hydrogen).


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3c: Natural Gas Combined Cycle at Elevation

Date: 3/25/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases

Date: 3/25/2011
Contact: James Fisher

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/1/2010
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (zip file)

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 9/1/2010
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant

Date: 1/12/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 1/8/2010
Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.