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Welcome to the Energy Analysis Search Publications page. Hundreds of Energy Analysis related publications can be found in this repository. To get started, begin filtering the results below by using the quick filters located on the Search Publications Landing Page or search within filtered results by using the search box below. 


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Life Cycle Analysis: Cross-Technology

A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CCS

Date: 4/5/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at a?California Air Resources Board workshop in April, 2015 and provided the technical details behind and results from an LCA of carbon capture and sequestration from fossil power systems such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC),?renewable fuel systems, and ethanol production.


Approaches to Developing a Cradle-to-Grave Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Petroleum Fuels Produced in the U.S. with an Outlook to 2040

Date: 10/7/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The U.S. crude consumption mix has changed dramatically since the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) first performed a comprehensive LCA of petroleum derived fuels (NETL, 2008). According to the Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook, domestic production will account for nearly 60% of U.S. crude consumption by 2015 (EIA, 2015). This study examines the life cycle GHG footprint of diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel projected to 2040. The results of this analysis encompass a cradle-to-grave inventory of GHG emissions by utilizing open-source models (Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) and Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM)) paired with Monte Carlo simulation to account for changes to crude extraction, transport and refining as well as forecast uncertainty from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook (El-Houjeiri et al, 2013; Abella & Bergerson, 2012). Study results are documented in a forthcoming peer reviewed journal article.


Managing Uncertainty in Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Energy Systems: Two Case Studies

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Two case studies are presented that show how Monte Carlo can reduce uncertainty in LCA results. The first case study is based on NETL's upstream natural gas model. Parameterized life cycle models provide flexibility in the specification of uncertainty ranges around parameters. The second case study demonstrates the ways in which too many parameters can confound the interpretation of results when a different question is being asked, namely picking the “better” scenario. The uncertainty can be reduced by identifying the common parameters between scenarios and holding those values constant while Monte Carlo simulation is applied to the remaining parameters. While this negatively affects the absolute values generate by the models, it provides a more direct comparison between the scenarios and allows us to focus on the parameters that differentiate options and identify true opportunities for improvement. This document of study results was presented at the LCA XV Conference in October, 2015


U.S. Coal Exports – Life Cycle GHG comparison of PRB coal to foreign export competitors in the Asian Market

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this study was to compare environmental implications of exporting United States (U.S.) coal resources to Asian markets with respect to alternative global sources of steam coal. This study seeks to evaluate and understand potential environmental consequences of exporting PRB coal compared to global alternative sources of coal. This study was informed by a 10-person industry based Technical Steering Committee to improve the quality of the analysis. The key question addressed by the study: Is there a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. Given the uncertainty in the model parameter values, there is not a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. This document was presented at the LCAXV conference in October, 2015.


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility. NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model Documentation

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility.NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Transport Reactor Integrated Gasifier (TRIG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 20 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier (EFG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 10 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the model is to perform scenario analysis to optimize GHG performance under varies CBTL configurations.  This model expands upon the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model by providing the user the ability to choose from three coal types (Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud sub-bituminous coal, or North Dakota Lignite) and three biomass types (Southern pine, switchgrass, or municipal solid waste). The model will also allow the user to adjust the fraction of the captured CO2 that is vented and adjust the overall efficiency of the plant.  The model includes environmental performance data for CBTL plants modeled under the CCAT case studies and two additional NETL studies: Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact and Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 4: Coal-to-Liquids via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool Documentation

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is the user documentation for the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model submitted under a separate approval routing. The documentation is intended to accompany the model. The documentation explains how to the use the model. The documentation does not contain any energy analysis findings. NETL completed this model/report as part of a study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


CBTL Jet Fuel Model

Date: 2/27/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

An Excel-based model was developed to allow in-depth user access to the technological process, economic, and life cycle environmental results that were completed in support of this study, for each of the different CBTL jet fuel production scenarios (total of 49 unique result sets when counting both TRIG and EFG scenarios). The CBTL Jet Fuel Model incorporates a stochastic analysis of modeled results, drawing on input statistical distributions for the 17 environmental and 40 economic parameters. A stochastic analysis was performed by using the Palisade Corporation’s @RISK Excel add-in. NETL completed a CRADA with Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Grid Mix Explorer (Report)

Date: 1/28/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Grid Mix Explorer is to allow the user to customize the makeup of their electricity grid specific to their life cycle case or desired scenario, and to generate a life cycle inventory for that particular mix of technologies.


Grid Mix Explorer (Model)

Date: 1/28/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Grid Mix Explorer is to allow the user to customize the makeup of their electricity grid specific to their life cycle case or desired scenario, and to generate a life cycle inventory for that particular mix of technologies.


Indirect Impacts of Renewable Electricity Penetration and the Growing Importance of a Life Cycle Perspective

Date: 10/7/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In this presentation, given at the LCA XIV Conference, it is observed that the percent of direct emissions to total emissions from the U.S. electricity mix decreases by 1.34%, and indirect emissions associated with wind, solar thermal, geothermal, and natural gas increase from 2010 to 2040. As such, the field of LCA becomes more important in the next 30 years in determining both the direct and indirect GHG emissions associated with comparative energy technologies, as well as other potential environmental impacts, where differences in indirect and direct emissions would be captured in framing economy wide policies.


Value of LCA and its Applicability to Natural Gas Analysis

Date: 6/18/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses the value of an LCA perspective on natural gas with a focus on upstream natural gas. It also discusses the current natural gas research.


Time series analysis of radiative forcing in a co-fired power system

Date: 5/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation considers the effect of GHG emission timing from of a power plant using different feedstocks -- coal, hybrid poplar, and roundwood. It also focuses on methods and aspects of the biomass systems, such as GWP metric, DLUC and ILUC, biomass uptake and emission, and modeling choice.


Estimating the GHG Footprint of Large-scale, Interconnected Energy Systems

Date: 5/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses the benefits of LCA in regards to energy analysis. It compares technology options, evaluates policy impact on systems, considers coal and natural gas boundaries, and evaluates metrics.


Using Life Cycle Analysis to Inform Energy Policy

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

NETL uses LCA to understand the environmental burdens of energy systems and to inform policy makers. LCA is well suited for energy analysis, but its answers can change depending on what questions are being asked. NETL approaches all LCAs using a consistent method, which ensures comparability among LCAs. The granularity and flexibility of NETL's models makes it possible to identify key contributors to the environmental burdens of a system, as well as the ability to understand how results can change with changes to a given input parameter. In addition to understanding the attributes of a given energy technology, NETL can also perform consequential modeling that allows an understanding of how a given energy technology can affect the performance of other energy technologies. The effect of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) on conventional crude oil extraction is one example of such consequential analysis.


Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 10/2/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). NETL uses LCA as a tool for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool Report

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Report)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Model)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Presentation)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Fact Sheet)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


The Challenge of Co-product Management for Large-scale Energy Systems—Power, Fuel and CO2

Date: 10/2/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Applying traditional co-product management methods such as physical allocation and system expansion in conventional ways can lead to large study uncertainty in LCA of large scale energy systems. The use of advanced power plants with carbon capture as a source of CO2 results in the co-production of electricity and transportation fuels (gasoline or diesel). Co-product allocation can be avoided by expanding the system to include displacement of other routes to electricity generation, but conjecture about the expanded system leads to wide uncertainty. If energy is used as a basis for co-product allocation between electricity and liquid fuel (diesel or gasoline), the differences between the useful energy in the energy products hinders comparability. Partitioning a portion of the system, in this case the power plant, to perform more accurate energy allocation is a third approach, and is possible when detailed plant schematics allow disaggregation of integrated processes.


LCA XII Presentation: From Unit Processes to Completed LCAs: NETL Life Cycle Analysis Library

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This poster describes what the DOE National Energy Technology (NETL) unit process library is, how the unit processes are used in NETL life cycle analyses, and how to access it.


LCA XII Presentation - Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Robert James

NETL has applied a single set of methods for calculating the environmental, cost, and other aspects of seven options for baseload power generation. LCA is used to calculate environmental results, and life cycle boundaries are also applied to cost results. A set of other technical and non-technical criteria are used to gain a broad understanding of the roles of alternative energy sources in the U.S. energy portfolio.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) - LCA XII Presentation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


LCA XII Presentation: Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at NETL. NETL uses LCA as a tool and framework for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems LCA Tool

Date: 9/26/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Power LCA Tool shows environmental and cost results for NETL's LCAs of power systems, including fossil and wind power. In addition to reporting results for costs and emissions, it allows trade-off analysis between costs and emissions. It also allows the user to evaluate the sensitivity of results to changes in key parameters..


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.