Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) Focus Area

The Carbon Storage Program supports Monitoring, Verification, Accounting (MVA), and Assessment research in the four key technology areas described below. Research in these areas, in conjunction with small- and large-scale injection field tests, is expected to produce advanced MVA tools that can be applied in a systematic approach to address monitoring requirements across the range of storage formations, depths, porosities, permeabilities, temperatures, pressures, and associated confining formation properties likely to be encountered in CCS. The increased capabilities of MVA tools will yield the ability to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic CO2, monitor the migration of CO2 plume and pressure front, and verify containment effectiveness resulting in the protection of human health and the environment. An additional benefit of these research efforts will be the reduction in storage cost through optimal application of these tools. Read more about MVA research.

Key Technologies

Storage Keytech Near Surface Subsurface Intelligent

Each MVA key technology has a specific research pathway the can be seen by clicking the thumbnail above. For each pathway, the timeline shows a development process that begins with applied research and continues with system integration and small-scale testing, and finally culminates in incorporation into a large-scale field test.



This video demonstrates the installation of a well casing-conveyed permanent downhole monitoring system developed by the University of North Dakota’s Energy and Environmental Research Center. This is an example of a monitoring technology that can be used at geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery sites for continuous pressure and temperature monitoring of the producing or storage reservoir and the overlying rock layers, which provides real-time information to support decision making and reservoir performance evaluations.


MVA Interactive Map

NETL is supporting a portfolio of projects to address the research pathways for each of the key technologies. The performer locations of the current portfolio of MVA projects are shown on the map below.

For more information about a particular project, click on the project location to obtain the project fact sheet.

Program Plan Carbon Storage
(click to enlarge)

This figure illustrates the geologic storage process and the different research efforts underway within the MVA Technology Area, including tools designed to measure CO2 and its effects in the subsurface, the near-surface region, and the atmosphere. Data analyzed through acquisition of information from these tools may also be used to optimize injection operations, sweep efficiency, and identify possible unwanted CO2 migration pathways.