Fit for Purpose Projects

"Fit-for-Purpose" projects are focused on developing specific subsurface engineering approaches that address research needs critical for advancing CCS to commercial scale. These projects include CO2 injection field tests, as well as applied research and development projects. The field tests augment the information gathered through the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships. The RCSPs have provided valuable data, but complex issues surrounding the processes associated with geologic CO2 storage and monitoring across various types of formations and depositional environments still remain. Research challenges being addressed by current and future applied research are focused on developing specific subsurface engineering approaches to address research needs that are critical for advancing CCS to commercial scale, such as confirmation of modeling results from advanced pressure management with brine extraction.

project locations
Map depicting Fit-for-Purpose CO2 injection field test locations.
The table below provides details about each project.

Field test projects are designed to demonstrate that regional storage formations have the capability to store CO2 and provide the foundation for large-volume, commercial-scale projects. They are focused on developing a better understanding of different types of geologic storage reservoir classes to provide insight into how these depositional systems are capable of influencing the fluid flow within them. These storage reservoirs may contain natural gas, oil, and/or saline water–any of which may impact CO2 storage.  Read More!


Project Performer State/
Project Type
 1 University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc.
Small-Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration in Arbuckle Saline Aquifer and by CO2-EOR at Wellington Field
Kansas Saline and Enhanced Oil Recovery
 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin
Virginia Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery
 3 CONSOL Energy, Inc.
Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Gas in Coal Seams
West Virginia Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery
 4 Petroleum Technology Research Centre
Weyburn CO2 Storage Project
Canada Enhanced Oil Recovery

Research and Development Projects
Fit-for-Purpose R&D projects are addressing specific technical issues necessary to advance development CO2 injection and storage field projects. Projects are addressing subsurface engineering issues like plume geo-steering and brine extraction and pressure management will focus on saline formations in all storage formation classes. Projects addressing storage associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) will focus on depleted oil reservoirs including utilization of residual oil zones (ROZs). Research that needs to be addressed by current and future Fit-for-Purpose projects includes:

  • Reservoir pressure management – In deep saline formations, pressure increases due to injection can potentially increase the risk of induced seismicity, limit injection rates, or result in potential vertical brine migration through leakage pathways. The extraction of brine is a promising approach for mitigating these impacts by reducing increases in reservoir pressure and the areal extent of the pressure increase. It may also be used to provide active plume management.

  • Development of storage associated with EOR - Research is being conducted to optimize both oil production and associated CO2 storage in EOR operations. DOE is focusing research on increasing the amount of associated CO2 stored in CO2-EOR operations (1) in non-conventional CO2-EOR targets, including residual oil zones, where CO2-EOR has not been previously applied; and (2) at conventional CO2-EOR targets to enable CO2 storage beyond the level that is normally stored under current practices and in an effort to attaining net carbon negative oil (NCNO). Read More!

Project Performer State/
Research Focus
University of Illinois

Non-Conventional CO2 EOR Target in the Illinois Basin: Oil Reservoirs of the Thick Cypress Sandstone
Illinois ROZ Reservoir Characterization
University of Texas at Austin

Carbon Life-Cycle Analysis of CO2 EOR for Net Carbon Negative Oil (NCNO) Classification
Texas Net Carbon Negative Oil
University of North Dakota

Identification of Residual Oil Zones Within the Williston and Powder River Basins
North Dakota ROZ Identification
University of North Dakota

Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO2 EOR Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation
North Dakota Tight Oil Formation Investigation
University of Texas at Austin

Optimizing CO2 Sweep Based on Geochemical and Reservoir Characterization of the ROZ of the Hess Seminole Unit
Texas ROZ Reservoir Sweep Efficiency