Carbon Capture Project Portfolio

Carbon Capture
Although commercially available solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies are being used in various industrial applications, their current state of development is such that they are not ready for widespread deployment on coal-based power plants. The net electrical output from a fossil-based power plant employing currently available 1st-Generation CO2 capture and compression technologies will be significantly less than that for the same plant without capture. For the plant with capture, a portion of the energy—thermal and electrical—produced at the plant must be used to operate the CO2 capture and compression processes. Steam usage decreases the gross electrical generation, while the additional auxiliary power usage decreases the net electrical output of the plant. Implementation of 1st-Generation CO2 capture would generally result in a 7–10 percentage point decrease in net plant efficiency.

Carbon Capture Portfolio
A broad portfolio of CO2-capture research pathways are being investigated in two general Technology Areas—PRE-COMBUSTION CAPTURE and POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE. Pre-combustion capture is mainly applicable to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants and refers to removal of CO2 from syngas prior to its combustion for power production. Post-combustion systems are designed to separate CO2 from the flue gas produced by fossil fuel combustion in air. Additionally, since CO2 captured from a power plant must be compressed (from near atmospheric pressure to a pressure between 1,500 and 2,200 psi) so that it can be transported via pipeline and used for enhanced oil recovery or CO2 utilization or injected into an underground storage site, NETL is also investigating development of novel methods that can significantly decrease the power requirements for CO2 COMPRESSION. These Technology Areas are focused on creating technological advances providing step-change improvements in both cost and performance as compared to current state-of-the-art solvent-based capture systems. Although efforts are focused on capturing CO2 from the flue gas or syngas of coal-based power plants, the same capture technologies are also applicable to natural-gas- and oil-fired power plants as well as other industrial CO2 sources. The Carbon Capture Project Portfolio provides an overview of the Carbon Capture Program, including a description of key technology areas, information on projects, and contact information for personnel supporting the Carbon Capture Program.


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