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Award Number Performer Name Performer State Project Title Completion Date Most Recent Technology Description OSTI URL
FE0001882 FutureGen Industrial Alliance DC Recovery Act: FutureGen 2.0: Pipeline and Regional CO2 Storage Reservoir Project 03/31/2016 Carbon Capture and Storage (FutureGen 2.0) The FutureGen Industrial Alliance, Inc. (Alliance) will perform this component of FutureGen 2.0, involving pipeline transportation of CO2 from Ameren's Meredosia plant to a geologic storage reservoir. The project will require selection by the Alliance of a reservoir site through a competitive process. It will also require, in part, evaluation and selection of pipeline routes and supplemental compression (if necessary); development of visitor and education facilities; and pipeline and storage construction and operations.
FE0000663 Hydrogen Energy California, LLC CA Recovery Act: Hydrogen Energy California Project: Commercial Demonstration of Advanced IGCC with Full Carbon Capture 12/31/2017 Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) HECA will design, build and operate a greenfield, commercial scale, advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant and fertilizer production facility with CO2 capture in Kern County, California. The HECA Project is designed to achieve at least 90% CO2 capture efficiency while storing approximately 2.6 million tons per year in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The captured CO2 will be transported via pipeline to the Elk Hills oil field approximately 4 miles from the power plant. The project will employ IGCC technology to nominally generate 400 megawatts electrical (MWe) (gross) and up to 300 MWe (net) of electricity and produce approximately 1 million tons per year of fertilizer using a 75% coal/25% petroleum coke fuel blend. The fertilizer could be a combination of urea ammonium nitrate, urea, or other fertilizer equivalent, with the proportion dependent on market and commercial conditions.
NT0000749 Southern Company Services, Inc. AL National Carbon Research Center at the Power Systems Development Facility 12/30/2014 Novel Concepts The objective of this Project is to develop technologies under realistic conditions that will reduce the cost of advanced coal-fueled power plants with CO2 capture. This technology development will include the design, procurement, construction, installation, and operation of a flexible facility for the testing of processes for pre-combustion CO2 capture, post-combustion CO2 capture and oxy-combustion. Components and systems that are appropriate for inclusion in the detailed test plan will be identified in collaboration with NETL. In addition to evaluating DOE sponsored projects, projects from industry, universities, and EPRI will be evaluated to assist in accomplishing the Project objectives.
FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology NJ Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage 03/31/2013 Pre-Combustion Capture The project is to develop via laboratory-based experiments an advanced pressure swing absorption-based device. This accomplishes a cyclic process that will produce purified hydrogen at a high pressure for IGCC-CCS plant's combustion turbine from low temperature post-shift reactor synthesis gas. Simultaneously, this separation process obtains a highly purified CO2 stream containing at least 90% of the CO2 in the post-shift reactor gas stream which is suitable for subsequent sequestration steps. This cyclic or batch process is achieved without a membrane or extensive plumbing required for continuous flow. An objective of this project is to provide data and analysis so that scale-up is facilitated during subsequent design and scale-up.
NT0001473 North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University NC Fabrication of pd/pd Alloy Films by Surfactant- Induced Electroless Plating 07/31/2012 University Training and Research The goal of this project is to investigate and explore the applicability of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique as an activation step followed by surfactant induced electroless deposition as novel route to fabricate hydrogen-selective Pd/Pd-alloy composite membrane on microporous substrate for use in production and separation of hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure.
NT0003894 UTC Power Corporation CT Coal-Based IGFC Project Phase I 04/04/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The overall goal of this project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas).
NT0004104 Trustees of Boston University MA SECA Award - Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes: Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction 03/31/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The overall objective of this project is to understand the role of cathode surface properties on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) performance. SOFC cathodes are responsible for the particularly difficult reaction whereby oxygen from the air in a fuel cell is converted into an ion which then migrates across a solid membrane to then react with fuel to form water or CO2. In this project, the surface properties of some catalytic cathode materials will be characterized with a variety of advanced analytical techniques and the results will be compared with the known reactivity of these materials to understand how and why some materials work better than others as SOFC cathodes. It is expected that this understanding will guide future cathode development such that SOFC-based power generation systems become more efficient and cost-effective.
NT0004105 Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) PA Investigation of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity using Surfaced Engineered Thin Film Samples and High Temperature Property Measure 03/29/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The overall objective of this project is to understand the role of cathode surface properties on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) performance. SOFC cathodes are responsible for the particularly difficult reaction whereby oxygen from the air in a fuel cell is converted into an ion which then migrates across a solid membrane to then react with fuel to form water or CO2. In this project, the surface properties of some catalytic cathode materials will be characterized by CMU with a variety of advanced analytical techniques and the results will be compared with the known reactivity of these materials to understand how and why some materials work better than others as SOFC cathodes.
NT0004109 General Electric (GE) Company NY Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes 09/30/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells This 5-year Innovative Concepts project will focus on the investigation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) degradation mechanisms and the development and implementation of effective mitigation strategies. It builds upon the work performed at the end of a prior GE cooperative agreement DE-FC26-05NT42614, originally a SECA Industry Team project. In January 2007 the GE Industry Team project was substantially de-scoped at GE's request. GE closed its Hybrid Power Generation Systems facility located in Torrance CA and reduced the scope of the effort to focus on fundamental cell research and development issues - primarily power density enhancement and materials stability (degradation). In September 2009 the cooperative agreement was slightly refocused to emphasize alternative cell manufacturing techniques and de-emphasize chromium barrier coating development.
NT0004111 CellTech Power, LLC MA Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems 12/31/2011 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The goal of this project is to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon a Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC).
NT0004115 Montana State University MT Synchrotron Investigations of LSCF Cathode Degradation 09/30/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Research will investigate and characterize nano-scale variations and modifications of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/electrolyte interface region. These modifications will be correlated to the effects of current, gaseous environment, and possible synergistic effects between them. Correlations will be established between the operating conditions, the degradation, and the observed chemical or structural modifications that are fundamentally responsible for the degradation. Once identified, methods to mitigate or prevent degradation can be proposed and investigated.
NT0004117 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) MA Chemistry of SOFC Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior 08/31/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The overall objective of this project with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is to understand the role of cathode surface properties in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) performance. In this project, the surface properties of some catalytic cathode materials will be characterized with a variety of advanced analytical techniques and the results will be compared with the known reactivity of these materials to understand how and why some materials work better than others as SOFC cathodes and to inspire the generation of new materials with even better performance.
NT0004396 Pennsylvania State University (PSU) PA Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels 09/30/2014 AEC Development The objectives of this Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and Delphi project are to develop new fuel processing approaches for using select alternative and renewable fuels - commercial diesel fuel and anaerobic digester gas (ADG) - in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems, and to conduct integrated fuel processor-SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems.
NT0004397 New Mexico State University NM Arrowhead Center to Promote Prosperity and Public Welfare in New Mexico 12/31/2012 Gasification Systems

The Arrowhead Center to Promote Prosperity and Public Welfare (PROSPER) of the New Mexico State University (NMSU) is conducting research analyzing the relationships between the fossil fuel energy sector and economic development issues in New Mexico. The project is a policy research and economic modeling initiative to enhance fossil fuel energy production and use in New Mexico in an environmentally progressive manner that contributes to the economic development of the state and creates a strong, vibrant economy that better serves the citizens of New Mexico. The project is engaging stakeholders in the research process and assessing (1) the impact of the fossil fuel industry on water resources in New Mexico, and (2) how the increasing worldwide demand for fossil fuels impacts energy production in New Mexico.
NT0005015 University of Utah UT Clean and Secure Energy from Coal 08/31/2014 Innovative Technologies Phase 1 - The University of Utah (the Recipient), via their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy, shall pursue interdisciplinary, cradle-to-grave research and development of energy for electric power generation and for liquid transportation fuels from the abundant domestic resources of coal, oil sands, and oil shale. Emphasis will be on minimizing the environmental impacts associated with the development of these resources, including reducing the carbon footprint through the use of CO2 capture for subsequent storage (sequestration). Phases 2 and 3 - The Recipient, via their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), shall pursue research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research is organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The results of the research will be embodied in the computer simulation tools which predict performance with quantified uncertainty; thus transferring the results of the research to practitioners to predict the effect of energy alternatives using these technologies for their specific future application. Overarching project objectives are focused in three research areas and include clean coal utilization for power generation retrofit; secure fuel production by in-situ substitute natural gas (SNG) production from deep coal seams; and environmental, legal, and policy issues.
NT0005054 Pennsylvania State University (PSU) PA Combustion Dynamics in Multi-Nozzle Combustors Operating on High-Hydrogen Fuels 09/30/2013 Hydrogen Turbines The main research objective is to develop accurate and robust flame response models that can be incorporated into design tools for predicting longitudinal and transverse instabilities in lean premixed multi-nozzle combustors operating on high-hydrogen content (HHC) fuels. This will be accomplished through the coordinated application of state-of-the-art experimental techniques and reduced order modeling, and will be based on a strong collaborative effort involving research teams at both Georgia Tech and Penn State.
NT0005055 Ohio State University OH Designing Turbine End Walls for Deposition Resistance with 1400OC Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels 03/31/2012 Hydrogen Turbines The objective of this work is to explore modifications to turbine endwall geometries that will both increase aerodynamic performance and reduce the potential for degradation due to deposition. The effort will include both experimental and computational components. Testing will include 1 to 2 laboratory tests per month for about 4 hours per test.
NT0005177 Alfred University NY Viscous Glass/Composite SOFC Sealants 09/30/2012 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The objective of this project is to identify, develop, and characterize a viscous glass amenable to forming composite "self-healing" seals for SOFCs. If successful, Alfred researchers will collaborate with SECA Core Technology Program participants to develop and evaluate proof-of-concept engineered seals.
NT0005262 Foster Wheeler NJ Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development 01/31/2012 Advanced Combustion Systems In this project, Foster Wheeler North America Corp. will conduct an in-depth materials test program to determine how, and to what extent, oxycombustion will affect the life of electric utility boiler tube materials. The program will determine what fireside corrosion mechanisms occur during oxycombustion and how much metal wastage they will cause. The program will involve computational fluid dynamics modeling to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of oxycombustion boilers operating with high-, medium-, and low-sulfur coals. Laboratory testing will be conducted to determine the effects of these oxycombustion conditions on conventional boiler tube materials, conventional protective tube coverings, and alternative higher alloy tube materials and coverings.
NT0005286 Alstom Power, Inc. CT Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal Fired Power Plants 09/30/2012 Chemical Looping Based on successful development and testing of a 65 kWthermal pilot-scale system under a previous DOE Cooperative Agreement, Alstom Power will engineer, procure, install, operate and test a 3 MWthermal chemical looping combustion prototype. The participant plans to install this prototype at their existing Power Plant Laboratory in Windsor, CT. The prototype will include a reducing reactor, an oxidation reactor, and process loops to transfer solids and oxygen between the two reactors. Alstom will use limestone as the oxygen carrier. Calcination of hot solids produced in the oxidation reactor will produce a concentrated stream of CO2 in lieu of the dilute CO2 stream typically found in flue gas from coal-fired power plants. This will enhance the ability to capture CO2 at coal-fired power plants. The information Alstom obtains from operation and testing will be used to develop a technical plan and cost estimate for a subsequent commercial demonstration project at a U.S. power plant.
NT0005288 Reaction Engineering International UT Characterization of Oxy-Combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-Fired Boilers 09/30/2013 Advanced Combustion Systems In this project, Reaction Engineering International (REI) will manage a team of experts to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development and computational fluid dynamics modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations in order to elucidate the impacts of retrofitting existing pulverized coal-fired utility boilers for oxycombustion. The primary objective of this program is to develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO2 flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NOx, SOx and fine particle emissions, heat transfer), fouling, slagging and corrosion, inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxycoal combustion. Multi-scale test data will be obtained from oxycombustion experiments at 0.1 kWth bench-scale at Sandia National Laboratory (Albuquerque, N.M.), 100 kWth laboratory combustor-scale and 1.2 MWth semi-industrial scale combustors both at the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, Utah).
NT0005289 Ohio State University Research Foundation OH Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-situ CO2 Capture 09/30/2013 Advanced Combustion Systems This project will investigate a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants by further advancing the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWt). Coal direct chemical looping is a technology designed to combust coal in a nitrogen free environment without using cryogenic air separation for oxygen production. The oxygen for combustion is provided by oxygen carrier particles that are oxidized in one reactor by air and then used to combust coal in another reactor. The movement of the particles from one reactor to the other gives the technology the name "chemical looping".
NT0005290 Alstom Power, Inc. CT Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications 04/30/2014 Oxy-Combustion

Alstom will develop an oxy-fuel firing system design specifically for retrofit to tangential-fired (T-fired) boilers and provide information to address the technical gaps for commercial boiler design. Several oxy-fuel system design concepts, such as internal flue gas recirculation and various oxygen injection schemes, will be evaluated for cost-effectiveness in satisfying furnace design conditions in a T-fired boiler. The evaluation will use an array of tools, including Alstom's proprietary models and design codes, along with 3-D computational fluid dynamics modeling. A techno-economic analysis will also be performed to assess the overall viability of concepts. Performance testing will be conducted in pilot-scale tests at Alstom's 15-megawatt (MW) T-Fired Boiler Simulation Facility and 15-MW Industrial Scale Burner Facility.
NT0005308 Drexel University PA Application of Spark Pulses for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods 06/30/2012 Water-Emissions Management and Controls The overall objective of this project is to reduce the amount of fresh water needed to achieve power plant cooling by preventing the buildup of mineral scale on condenser tubes, thereby increasing the Cycle of Concentration (COC) in the cooling water system from the present operational value of 3.5 to at least 8. This will be achieved by developing scale-prevention technology that uses electrical pulse spark discharges to precipitate dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) and remove them from the cooling water.
NT0005341 Praxair, Inc. NY Near Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification 06/30/2012 Oxy-Combustion The overall objective of the project is to reduce the cost of CO2 capture and achieve >95% CO2 recovery with oxy-combustion in existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants by integrating a unique combination of existing chemical processing technologies for contaminant removal (NOx, SOx, Hg) with Praxair's advanced CO2 compression and purification concept. Specific objectives are to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of separate contaminant removal processes for plants burning high and low sulfur coals and high CO2 recovery process and to perform commercial viability assessment. Key benefits include high CO2 recovery even from plants with high air ingress and production of saleable sulfuric acid for plants burning high sulfur coal. The % increase in cost of electricity (COE) for retrofit plants is projected to be in 10 - 35% range when compared to a new coal fired power plant without CO2 capture.
NT0005343 Illinois State Geological Survey IL Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants 04/30/2012 Post-Combustion Capture The main objective of this project is to evaluate the potential feasibility of reusing three types of non-traditional water sources for cooling or process water for existing and planned (up to 2030) coal-based power plants in Illinois Basin. The sources are: (1) produced water from CO2-EOR operation; (2) coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and (3) active and abandoned underground coal mines.
NT0005350 Gas Technology Institute (GTI) IL Transport Membrane Condenser for Water for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas 03/31/2012 Water-Emissions Management and Controls This project is to develop a membrane separation technology to recover water vapor from power plant flue gas based on GTI's patented Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technique.
NT0005395 Alstom Power, Inc. CT Process/Equipment Co-Simulation of Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion 12/31/2012 Coal Utilization Sciences This project promotes the ongoing development and demonstration of the NETL Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) tool kit. The APECS tool kit consists principally of a steady-state simulator for advanced power plants, which allows the DOE and its contractors to systematically evaluate various power plant concepts. This project advances and develops the APECS tool kit for an advanced carbon capture technology applications and dense-phase, chemical looping (CL) applications. At the completion of this program, the APECS tool kit will be capable of providing dense-phase riser co-simulations using a surrogate pseudo 1-D/2-D riser model as a ROM within CL and oxy-fired CFB systems.
NT0005497 TDA Research, Inc. CO Low-Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal Fired Power Plants 08/31/2013 Post-Combustion Capture In this project TDA Research, Inc., will produce and evaluate their low-cost solid sorbent developed in prior laboratory testing. A bench-scale CO2 capture unit will be designed and constructed, utilizing the developed sorbent. This unit will be tested on a coal-derived flue gas at Western Research Institute's (Laramie, Wyo.) coal combustion test facility. Mass and energy balances for a commercial scale pulverized coal-fired power plant retrofit with the CO2 capture system will be performed by Louisiana State University (LSU) with engineering assistance from Babcock and Wilcox (Barberton, Ohio).
NT0005498 Illinois State Geological Survey IL Development and Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process 04/30/2012 Solvents This project is focused on determining the proof-of-concept for the Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) applied to post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. The IVCAP uses potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as the solvent and carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme as a catalyst (promoter) to enhance the CO2 absorption rate into the solvent. The weak affinity of CO2 with K2CO3 allows CO2 to be stripped from the CO2-rich solution at a low temperature (104-158 oF) and pressure (2-9 psia) in the stripper. A unique feature of the process is in its ability to use either a waste steam or a low-quality steam from the power plant's steam cycle to provide the energy required for CO2 stripping. A preliminary process analysis shows that the electricity loss due to the steam extraction in the IVCAP is significantly lower (by up to 44%) compared to the monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The IVCAP can also remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas thus eliminating the need for a separate flue gas desulfurization unit required in the amine-based and amine-promoted absorption processes. In the IVCAP, the desulfurization product is potassium sulfate (K2SO4), which can be converted to potassium carbonate solution by reacting with hydrated lime.
NT0005578 SRI International CA Development of Novel Carbon Sorbents for CO2 Capture 11/30/2013 Sorbents In this project, SRI International, in collaboration with Advanced Technology Materials Inc. (Danbury, Conn.), will develop a novel, high CO2-capacity carbon sorbent with moderate thermal requirements for regeneration. The specific objectives are to validate the performance of the sorbent concept on a bench-scale system, perform parametric experiments to determine the optimum operating conditions, and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the technology. The information obtained from this project will be used to design a pilot unit that will treat a slipstream from an operating coal-fired power plant in a future phase.
NT0005591 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advances Fossil Energy Systems 12/31/2011 Sensors and Controls The project will develop a distributed fiber optic sensors for the measurement of strain, temperature, and pressure. This will be accomplished for conditions expected in the next generation of high-efficiency Supercritical (SC) and Ultra Supercritical (USC) boiler systems. It will demonstrate sensor network performance and survivability when exposed to simulated conditions of an USC Boiler. The ability to distribute multiple sensors on a single fiber and to multiplex sets of sensors will be developed. The overarching goal is to move the multiplexed optical fiber sensor technology to a level where its large-scale application is made possible.
NT0005647 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc. KS Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Freshwater Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants 12/31/2011 Plant Optimization Technologies This project is to improve the performance of the Air2Air system that recovers water from coal-fired power plant cooling towers. The Air2Air was previously tested at the San Juan Generating Station under another DOE contract and found to work. This project will redesign the tower to make it lighter and less expensive so that it will be commercially viable.
NT0005654 Tech4Imaging OH Development and Implementation of 3-D, High Speed Capacitance Tomography for Imaging Large-Scale, Cold-Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed 09/30/2012 Sensors and Controls A three dimensional (3D) high-speed electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) system will be developed and demonstrated in this 3-year effort. The ECVT is a highly developed imaging system that utilizes simple equipment and high-level computing to render 3D images of multiphase flow systems. Traditionally, Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) uses capacitance sensors for imaging multi-phase flow and requires that the sensors be large enough to pick up a signal. The traditional way of acquiring 3D images is to distribute the sensors in 3D, but since there is a limitation on sensor size, capacitance sensors can only be utilized for two dimensional (2D) imaging. In ECVT, 3D imaging was utilized by changing the sensor shape to provide 3D characteristics related to the shape of the sensors, not only their distribution. This way, 3D imaging can be obtained while satisfying the limitation on capacitance sensor size. Previous research did not follow this approach because it would lead to a highly non-linear image reconstruction problem that was difficult to solve. Tech4Imaging's image reconstruction technique (3D-NN-MOIRT) is capable of providing a solution to complexity problem, thus ECVT was realized for the first time. For Fossil Energy applications, a dedicated 3D ECVT is important for imaging fluidized-bed systems since multiphase flows are commonly encountered in industrial operations such as fluid-bed combustors, coal gasifiers, carbon capture processes, and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The inherently complex nature of multiphase flows requires a multi-dimensional measurement technique capable of providing real-time monitoring of the process dynamics and physical properties. The volume tomography acquires the 3D images directly from the measured capacitance data. This project will be completed through collaboration between Tech4Imaging and Ohio State University (OSU).
NT0005961 General Electric (GE) Company NY Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers 04/30/2012 Water-Emissions Management and Controls The objective is to develop a new ligand-functionalized core material (LFCM) for the removal of silica from impaired water and couple this technology to electodialysis reversal (EDR) for the 50% reduction of fresh water withdrawal for coal-fired power plants at less than $3.90 kgal of water.
NT0005988 University of Kentucky Research Foundation KY Coal Fuels Alliance: Design and Construction of Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery 06/30/2015 Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The objective of this project is to advance the design and construction of a mini Fischer-Tropsch refinery at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER). The unit is intended for use as a low-cost test bed for new concepts. It will provide open-access facilities and information in the public domain to aid the wider scientific and industrial community, and provide a means to independently review vendor claims and validate fuel performance and quality.
NT0006289 TDA Research, Inc. CO Investigation of Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts 09/30/2012 Coal-Biomass to Liquids This project will investigate the effects of contaminants present in synthesis gas produced by gasification of coal and biomass mixtures on the performance (activity and selectivity) and life of certain water-gas-shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. The impact of these potential contaminants on commercially available and generic (prepared based on scientific and patent literature) WGS and F-T catalysts will be investigated by conducting a thermodynamic analysis to identify these contaminants and determine their potential interactions with the catalysts and by conducting laboratory and bench-scale reaction tests to determine the rate of deactivation and its impact on projected replacement rates for the WGS and F-T catalysts. Catalyst samples will be sent to University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) to be characterized. A trade-off analysis will be conducted to determine whether additional synthesis gas cleaning or replacement of the catalyst is the more cost-effective option.
NT0006550 Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) PA Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water; Tertiary Treatment Versus Expanded Chemical Regiment for Circulating Water Quality Management 06/30/2012 Water-Emissions Management and Controls The overall objective is to evaluate, for treated municipal wastewater, the benefits and costs of implementing tertiary treatment of the wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems versus an expanded chemical regimen for managing the chemistry of the cooling water with municipal wastewater as makeup.
NT0006552 Ohio State University Research Foundation OH Degradation of Thermal barrier Coatings from Deposits; and, its Mitigation 12/31/2011 Hydrogen Turbines This project will address potential gas-fired turbine damage due to coal contaminants in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. The main research objectives are to understand the airfoil coating damage mechanisms due to coal contaminant deposits and to apply a previously-successful approach to mitigating any possible damage in the field. Ohio State University will employ a strategy very similar to a previously-successful one they developed to mitigate attack by dust and sand on aero engine coatings.
NT0006557 Georgia Tech Research Corporation GA Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electro-Catalytic Activity 09/30/2012 AEC Development The overall objective of this project with Georgia Institute of Technology is to understand the role of cathode surface properties on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) performance. SOFC cathodes are responsible for the particularly difficult reaction whereby oxygen from the air in a fuel cell is converted into an ion which then migrates across a solid membrane to then react with fuel to form water or CO2. In this project, cathode materials will be coated with catalysts and characterized with a variety of advanced analytical techniques. The samples will also be tested under SOFC conditions to determine their performance.
NT0006642 City Utilities of Springfield MO Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project 09/30/2013 Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment The Shallow Carbon Sequestration Pilot Demonstration Project is a cooperative effort involving City Utilities of Springfield (CU), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Missouri State University (MSU), Missouri University of Science & Technology (MS&T), AmerenUE, Aquila, Inc., Associated Electric Cooperative, Inc., The Empire District Electric Company, and Kansas City Power & Light. The purpose of the project is to assess the feasibility of carbon sequestration at Missouri power plant sites. The six electric utilities involved in the project account for approximately 99% of the electric generating capacity in the state of Missouri. The pilot demonstration will evaluate the feasibility of utilizing the Lamotte Formation for carbon sequestration at individual power plant sites across the state. Given that the depth of the Lamotte is less than the general depth that carbon dioxide can be injected in supercritical phase, injection would have to occur in the gas phase. Much of the research planned in the pilot demonstration is focused on characterizing the interaction of gaseous carbon dioxide with the groundwater and the host rock and determining how, and to what degree, hydrodynamic, solubility, and mineral trapping will occur. The pilot demonstration can be divided into five separate phases: Phase I involved the initial analysis of Lamotte core at MS&T in 2006. Phase II will involve site exploration and site characterization activities (seismic survey, drilling, coring, pumping tests, groundwater monitoring) at the SWPS project site. Phase III will involve studies at MDNR, MSU, and MS&T, as well as preparation of the injection well permit application at City Utilities. Phase IV will involve construction of the Class V injection well, installation of temporary injection equipment (compressor and tankage), and performance of the injection test. Phase V will involve assimilation of all project data and findings into a comprehensive final report.
NT0006644 Applied Ecological Services, Inc. WI Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The use of Restored Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use 09/30/2013 Plant Optimization Technologies This is a phased approach to building wetlands as a cooling mechanism for power plant water. In Phase I, the participant will model wetland cooling predictions, prepare topical reports on the use of wetlands for powerplant cooling and design a pilot scale wetland. This phase is followed by a DOE decision point to continue the project. In Phase II, the participant will create a pilot-scale wetland (of 5 acres) at a host power plant, and conduct measurement and monitoring to verify the model accuracy.
NT0006833 Siemens Energy, Inc. FL Condition Based Monitoring of Turbine Combustion Components 09/30/2012 Sensors and Controls The objective of the proposed work is to design, develop, and demonstrate a condition monitoring sensor network comprising a high temperature wear sensor and multi-functional magnetic sensor to monitor cracks in hot section combustion components in real time. The wear and crack monitoring sensors will be combined with the basic control system sensors to provide a modular sensor network for condition monitoring and assessment of combustion hardware. The condition monitoring system development will be a collaborative effort of Siemens Energy, K Sciences, and JENTEK Sensors that will be managed by Siemens Energy, Inc.
NT0007636 University of Texas at Dallas TX Novel Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework/Polymer Membranes for Hydrogen Separations in Coal Processing 01/31/2013 University Carbon Research The overall objectives of the proposed research are to prepare novel mixed-matrix membranes based on polymer composites with nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF) and related hybrid frameworks. Membranes containing these new materials will be used to evaluate separations important to coal gasification (e.g. H2, CO, O2, CO2). The goal is to exploit the high surface areas, adsorption capacities, and selectivities of the nanoporous ZIF additives to achieve unprecedented transport of gases critical to coal processing. The performance of the membranes under operating conditions defined by 2015 DOE targets will be evaluated.
NT0007918 State University of New York (SUNY) - Albany NY Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors 01/15/2012 University Training and Research This application proposes to use a plasmonics based all-optical sensing technique which utilizes the optical properties of tailored nanomaterials as the sensing layer. This novel and alternative approach to gas sensing under harsh environmental conditions is a much simpler design as the sensing system does not require the development of harsh environment compatible ohmic contacts, nor does it require high temperature electronics, which typically suffer from reliability and stability problems. The objectives of this project will be to further optimize these characteristics while developing a detailed understanding of the sensing mechanism as a function of temperature and humidity.
NT0008062 University of Cincinnati OH Development of Novel Ceramic Nano-Film Integrated Optical Sensors for Rapid Detection of Coal derived Synthesis Gas 09/30/2012 University Carbon Research The project is to develop new types of high temperature (>500C) fiber optic chemical sensors for monitoring of coal-derived gases. This will be accomplished by physically and functionally integrating advanced nano ceramic materials with fiber optic devices. The first type is a Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)-coupled self-compensating interferometer sensor. The second type is an Evanescent Tunneling sensor. Both types of sensors are highly selective and targeted through application of nanocrystalline thin film coatings of doped-ceramics at specific gas molecules. This project focuses on sensors for Hydrogen (H2) and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) detection at high temperatures (>500C) and elevated pressures up to 250 psi.
NT0008064 University of Texas at San Antonio TX Use of an Accurate DNS Particulate Flow Method to Supply and Validate Boundary Conditions for the MFIX Code 05/31/2012 University Training and Research The overall goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the MFIX code that is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow program that uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code.
NT0008066 North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University NC Bimetallic Nanocatalysts in Mesoporous Silica for Hydrogen Production from Coal-Derived Fuels 02/15/2013 HBCUs, Education and Training The goal of this project is to investigate a novel approach for in situ synthesis of bimetallic nanostructured mesoporous silica materials and to study its applications for production of hydrogen. The objectives of this exploratory research are: 1. One-step synthesis of highly ordered functionalized mesoporous silica materials using amalgamation of noble and non-noble metal clusters. 2. Characterization of the mesoporous materials using SEM, AFM, TEM , FT-IR, Si-NMR, EDX, XRD and BET surface area measurements. 3. To utilize synthesized novel bimetallic nanoparticles in mesoporous silica for SRM to produce hydrogen. 4. To minimize deactivation of the catalyst due to CO formation by optimizing the catalyst loadings through fundamental studies.
NT0008089 University of Tennessee TN Computational and Experimental Design of FE-Based Superalloys for Elevated Temperature Applications 01/14/2012 University Training and Research The objective of this project is to use a science based systems engineering approach to design iron based superalloys capable of operating in the temperature range of 873 to 1033 deg Kelvin. The project will use computational tools supported by experiments to study phase stability, microstructure design and coarsening dynamics with a goal to designing superalloys to enhance power generation efficiencies.
FC26-98FT40343 Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. PA Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems 03/31/2015 Feed Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., (APCI) is currently developing ion-transport membrane (ITM) oxygen separation technology for large-scale oxygen production and for integration with advanced power production facilities, including gasification facilities. The ITM-based oxygen production process uses dense, mixed ion- and electron-conducting (MIEC) materials that can operate at temperatures as high as 900 degrees Celsius (°C). The driving forces for the membrane oxygen separation are determined by the oxygen partial-pressure gradient across the membrane. The energy of the hot, pressurized, non-permeate stream is typically recovered by a gas turbine power generation system. The development of the ITM process will support reduced capital cost and parasitic load of air separation systems compared to that of currently available cryogenic air separation technology. Because air separation is a critical component of the gasification process for power production, any reduction in the cost of this process component will in turn reduce the overall cost of gasification, thereby making the process more competitive. APCI has a co-current ITM project, FE0012065.
FC26-99FT40685 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation 12/31/2013 Sensors and Controls The Center for Photonics Technology at Virginia Tech has successfully developed a novel temperature sensor capable of operating at temperatures up to 1600 degrees Celsius (°C) and in harsh conditions. The sensor uses single-crystal sapphire to make an optically-based measurement and will fulfill the need for the real-time monitoring of high temperatures created in gasification processes. Based on a successful laboratory demonstration of a optical sapphire based sensor, Virginia Tech's CPT was awarded follow on development work to design construct and test a prototype sensor that could be installed in coal gasifiers. The improved version of the sensor is intended to be more robust, accurate and reliable for extended operation in a coal gasifier and will be evaluated at a full scale gasifier (e.g. Eastman Chemical).
FC26-01NT41148 CONSOL Energy, Inc. PA Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Production and Sequestration of CO2 in Unmineable Coal Seams 12/31/2015 Fit-for-Purpose

CONSOL Energy Inc. is demonstrating a novel drilling and production process that reduces potential methane emissions from coal mining, produces usable methane (natural gas), and creates a storage option for carbon dioxide (CO2) in unmineable coal seams. CONSOL's project employs horizontal drilling to drain coalbed methane (CBM) from a mineable coal seam and an underlying unmineable coal seam. Upon drainage of 50-60 percent of the coalbed methane, some of the wells will be used for CO2 injection to store the CO2 in the unmineable seam, while stimulating additional methane production. The technique starts with a vertical well drilled from the surface followed by a guided borehole that extends up to 3,000 feet horizontally in the coal seam, allowing for production over a large area from relatively few surface locations.

The project involves development of a 200 acre area involving two coal seams. The lower, unmineable seam is being degassed and injected with CO2. The upper, mineable seam is being degassed to produce coalbed methane, thus avoiding methane emissions when the seam is mined. The upper, mineable seam is being isolated from the lower, unmineable seam to prevent CO2 migration from the unmineable seam into the mineable seam.
FG26-01NT41175 Energy Industries of Ohio, Inc. OH Development of Advanced Materials for Ultrasupercritical Boiler Systems 09/30/2015 High Performance Materials Researchers will identify materials that limit operating temperatures and thermal efficiency of coal-fired plants; define and implement ways of producing improved alloys, fabrication processes and coating methods that allow boilers to operate at 1400 degrees Farenheit (?F); participate in the certification process of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and generate data to lay the groundwork for ASME code approved for alloys, where necessary; define issues affecting the design and operation of ultrasupercritical (USC) plants operating at 1600 ?F; develop cost targets; and promote the commercialization of alloys and processes expected to emerge from this effort, working with alloy makers, equipment vendors and utilities.
FC26-02NT41246 Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC MI Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 12/31/2011 Fuel Cells The objectives of this project are: 1. Develop a SOFC power system for a range of fuels and applications 2. Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates reforming of methane and natural gas. 3. Develop a 5kW auxiliary power unit for heavy duty trucks and military power applications. 4. Develop system modeling, stack design and cell evaluation for a high efficiency coal based SOFC gas turbine hybrid system
FC26-04NT41837 FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) CT SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy 01/31/2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells This three-phase Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Coal-Based Systems (Industry Team) project led by Fuel Cell Energy will develop low cost solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for use in highly-efficient central generation power plants fueled by coal synthesis gas. Anode-supported planar SOFC technology is being developed by Versa Power Systems, Inc. WorleyParsons has provided direct support of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system analysis.
FC26-04NT42237 Aerojet Rocketdyne, Inc. CA Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources 09/30/2013 Gasification Systems The objectives of this project are to improve the availability and efficiency of gasification-based power plants, and to reduce plant capital and operations costs. The specific objectives of this project towards these over-arching objectives are to: 1. Demonstrate high pressure, solids feed system including long-life rapid-mix injectors, flow splitting, and operation of a prototype feed pump. 2. Test cooled refractory liner coupons. This cooled refractory is anticipated to result in an operational life exceeding three years. 3. Perform conceptual design and hardware definition of a novel 18 tons per day (tpd) highly efficient, long life entrained flow gasifier. Of these three specific objectives, the active work has focused only on the first item: development of the high-pressure, dry feed pump, including the detailed design, construction, and testing of a 600 ton per day (tpd) prototype. The project's primary tasks involve conceptual design, sub-scale testing, engineering design, construction, and operation of a prototype pump. This prototype pump design baseline configuration will be 400 tpd capacity and 1,200 psi outlet pressure. To achieve project objectives, the prototype pump is also designed to ramp up to 600 tpd operation and to provide data needed to predict commercial scale operation constraints. Testing is planned for performance tests on bituminous coal, PRB coal, high moisture lignite coal, and petcoke at up to 1,200 psi to demonstrate reliable pump operation across a high pressure gradient (applicable to 1,000 psi gasifier), to define the commercial target for pump size, to assess adequate safety factor for pump, to validate the pump models, and to provide data for a final benefits analysis.
FC26-06NT42385 MEP I & II, LLC MN Mesaba Energy IGCC Project 08/31/2012 Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is providing Financial Assistance under Round II of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) for a large utility, commercial-scale, coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generating facility to be located near Taconite, Itasca County, Minnesota. MEP-I, LLC, a project company of Excelsior Energy, Inc., will design, construct, and operate the Mesaba Generating Station in two 606 MWe (net) phases, of which the DOE-defined demonstration project is Phase I. Mesaba will demonstrate the ConocoPhillips E-Gas™ gasification technology in a first-of-a-kind, multiple-train configuration incorporating findings from more than a decade of optimization and experience based on the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project, including: (1) gasifier scale-up; (2) increased system pressure; (3) increased slurry percentage to the second-stage gasifier; and, (4) enhanced by-product and contaminant removal systems. Excelsior's original request was for $150 million in Federal cost-shared funding. The project was selected at a level of $36 million due to the availability of funds.
FC26-06NT42391 Southern Company Services, Inc. AL Demonstration of a Coal-Based Transport Gasifier 04/30/2020 Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) Southern Company Services, Inc., in a team effort with Mississippi Power Company and Kellogg Brown and Root, LLC (KBR), will design, construct, and operate a coal-based TRIG Combined Cycle power plant with 65% CO2 capture at a site in Kemper County, MS. The estimated nameplate capacity of the plant will be 830 megawatts electrical (MWe) with a peak net output capability of 582 MWe. TRIG is based on KBR's catalytic cracking technology, and is cost-effective when handling low rank coals and when using coals with high moisture or high ash content. These coals make up half the proven reserves in both the United States and the world. The estimated 3 million tonnes of CO2 per year captured from the power plant would be transported via pipeline for beneficial use in existing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in Mississippi.
FC26-05NT42457 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development of CAST 03/31/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. CAST is a consortium of seven universities, with the purpose of conducting both fundamental and applied research that has crosscutting applications in the mining industry. The university members include Virginia Tech; West Virginia University; Montana Tech of University of Montana; New Mexico Institute of Technology; University of Nevada, Reno; University of Utah; and University of Kentucky.
FC26-05NT42587 Montana State University MT Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - Phase II and Phase III 12/31/2019 Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships The Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is building on the work conducted in the Characterization Phase (2003-2005) with a focus on geologic and terrestrial field validation tests that assess the relative efficiency of alternative sequestration options, prove the environmental efficacy and sustainability of sequestration, verify regional carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration capacities and satisfy field test permitting and regulatory requirements. Data from validation tests will be integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) tool that will assist industry and regional planners to optimizing energy development strategies. The highlight of the Phase II effort is a pilot-scale test to inject approximately 1,000 tons of supercritical CO2 into a deep basalt formation (Grande Ronde Basalt) in western Walla Walla County, in eastern Washington State. The highlight of the Phase III effort involves the extraction of ~1 million tonnes of naturally-occurring CO2 from the top of Kevin Dome, a prominent geologic structural trap in northwest Montana, and re-injection of the CO2 into saline aquifers that occupy the stratigraphically-lower portions of the dome.
FC26-05NT42588 Illinois State Geological Survey IL An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin - Phase II and III 04/30/2021 Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) is performing small scale CO2 injection tests in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky as part of their Phase II effort to test injection into coals and mature oil reservoirs. For Phase III MGSC will inject 1 million metric tons of CO2 from ADM's corn processing facility in Decatur, Illinois into the Mount Simon Sandstone. For the past 2 years MGSC has been characterizing the injection site in preparation for injection operations. The CO2 will be injected over 3 years starting in 2011, followed by fate monitoring for the next 3 An array of monitoring technologies will be used to baseline and monitor the CO2 in the reservoir and at the surface.
FC26-05NT42589 Battelle Memorial Institute OH Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - Phase II and III 09/30/2020 Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) has been established to assess the technical potential, economic viability, and public acceptability of carbon sequestration within a region consisting of nine contiguous states: Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New Jersey and New York. A group of leading universities, state geological surveys, non-governmental organizations and private companies, led by Battelle Memorial Institute, has been assembled to carry out this research. The MRCSP's Validation Phase II research program will center on taking the large theoretical sequestration potential identified in the MRCSP's Characterization Phase I (2003-2005) research program and, through a series of validation tests, show how the region's large, well-distributed sequestration potential can be used to simultaneously advance economic growth and environmental protection. In Phase III, the Development Phase, this partnership, led by the Battelle Columbus Laboratories, has proposed a primary and an optional large scale injection site. Evaluation of the primary site, Michigan Basin is expected to be initiated in late 2010 and ready for injection in 2012 (early FY 2013).
FC26-05NT42590 Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) GA Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - Phase II and Phase III 06/30/2021 Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships SECARB investigates a stacked sequence of hydrocarbon and brine reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast, where EOR with carbon dioxide (CO2) can serve as an economic driver in establishing the CO2 infrastructure. (2) A Coal Seam Project will be conducted for validation of sequestration opportunities in the Central Appalachian Basin and the Black Warrior Basin, where CO2 enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) recovery operations can add economic value, and where unmineable coals can provide sequestration opportunities. (3) A Saline Aquifer Test Center Project will be conducted that focuses on validating geologic storage in a saline aquifer in the Mississippi Salt Basin in close proximity to a Southern Company coal-fired power plant in The Electric Power Research Institute's Test Center program.
FC26-05NT42592 University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) ND Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership (PCORP) Phase II and Phase III 12/31/2019 Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships PCOR Partnership is one of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships competitively awarded as part of a national plan to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Phase II PCOR sites included: Terrestrial work in the Prairie Pothole Region; EOR work at Zama in Alberta, Canada; a huff 'n' puff test in North Dakota; and a lignite test in North Dakota. Phase III PCOR sites include: saline formation storage at Fort Nelson, British Columbia, Canada; and EOR at the Bell Creek site in Montana.
FC26-05NT42643 General Electric (GE) Company NY Recovery Act: Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development 04/30/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded program, GE Power & Water, along with GE Global Research Center (GE) will develop advanced industrial-frame turbine technology for hydrogen fueled turbine machinery. These turbines can be utilized in conjunction with pre-combustion carbon capture systems to effectively reduce carbon emissions from a variety of industrial applications. This project includes the following work: 1. Advanced Hydrogen Combustion System: The combustion work in the project will develop a new combustion system that will enable industrial gas turbine applications with carbon capture and storage (CCS) to reach higher efficiencies through higher firing temperatures with low NOx. The developed combustion system will be validated in a gas turbine operating at full conditions. The validation step from testing a full-scale combustion can in the laboratory, to testing the multi-can configuration on the gas turbine, will enable accelerated transition of the technology to future gas turbine designs. 2. Materials: The materials work will develop alloys that are specifically tailored to withstand elevated temperatures in the hot gas path in the high-moisture, and potentially highly corrosive environments of hydrogen-fueled industrial applications with CCS. This will enable industrial gas turbine applications with CCS to achieve improved efficiency through higher firing temperature while preserving traditional hot gas path component durability. 3. Sensors: The sensors work will focus on utilizing and integrating a variety of advanced sensor technologies into gas turbine control and operation. This will enable the gas turbine to be operated with real-time knowledge of actual parameters that are affecting component conditions and operation. Therefore, industrial gas turbine applications with CCS will be able to achieve improved efficiency and operability, and reduced emissions. 4. Turbine Airfoil: The turbine airfoil work will develop technology that reduces required cooling flows to enable industrial gas turbine applications with CCS to achieve improved efficiency.
FC26-05NT42644 Siemens Energy, Inc. FL Recovery Act: Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development 06/30/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded program, Siemens Energy will focus on advancing state-of-the-art large natural gas fired turbine technology to produce turbines specifically designed for operation on hydrogen and syngas fuels derived from industrial processes that capture a large percentage of CO2. Advanced technologies and concepts will be evaluated, down selected, and validated. The advanced technologies, component designs, and manufacturing processes will be developed and verified in sub-scale and full-scale tests and process verifications to demonstrate that the program goals can be achieved. Some of the key enabling technologies needed are as follows: Fuel-flexible, ultra low NOx, long-life combustion system operating at the increased firing temperatures needed to achieve high efficiency. Siemens will work to develop a premixed combustion system capable of operating on hydrogen fuel at high temperatures with minimal dilution flow. As part of this development, modeling tools for thermal acoustics and computational fluid dynamics will be adapted for hydrogen fuels and validated with test data. The primary path for the hydrogen combustor is a modification of the current Siemens premixed natural gas burner to operate on hydrogen. In addition, as risk mitigation, several alternative combustion technologies will be evaluated to determine if they can provide an improvement for high-temperature hydrogen operation. Development and optimization of higher temperature material system (base alloy, bond coat, and thermal barrier coatings [TBCs]) capabilities that allow operation in challenging environments, thus ensuring that the turbine components achieve high reliability and long life. Advanced manufacturing processes and techniques essential to producing the novel turbine cooling schemes that are being pursued in this program. Siemens will be producing full-sized engine parts using advanced core making technology, performing investment casting trials, conducting destructive and non-destructive evaluations, machining prototype parts using a proposed production process and conducting full-scale engine testing on final products. New sensors and diagnostics to allow more efficient, fuel-flexible, and safe gas turbine operation. Customer interviews determined key sensing needs and sensor specifications for these needs. Based on these results, Siemens will work with sensor vendors to design, develop, and validate sensor designs for engine validation or use in on-line control.
FC26-05NT42645 Clean Energy Systems, Inc. CA Recovery Act: Oxy-Fuel Turbo Machinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications; Coal Program: Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development 03/31/2013 Hydrogen Turbines Clean Energy Systems (CES) has developed an oxy-fuel power generation concept to enable near zero-emission power generation from natural gas and syngas. The core of the technology is a high-pressure oxy-combustor that produces a steam/carbon dioxide (CO2) working fluid for expansion in a turbine. This project is a partnership with Department of Energy (DOE) award DE-FC26-05NT42646 to Siemens Power Generation to develop high-temperature turbines that would be powered by working fluid from the oxy-combustor. The project has also received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) for advancing the oxy-fueled turbine technology for commercial industrial oxy-fueled plants which utilize CO2 capture and storage technologies. This 36 month effort to be performed in parallel to the existing Phase II BP2 and is isolated from the rest of Phase II due to the application focus and unique set of tracking and reporting requirements associated with its ARRA funding source.
FC26-05NT42650 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) TX Novel Concepts for the Compression of Large Volumes of Carbon Dioxide 06/30/2014 Sorbents Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), partnered with Dresser-Rand, is developing improved methods to compress carbon dioxide (CO2). The high pressure ratio compression of CO2 results in significant heat of compression. Because less energy is required to boost the pressure of a cool gas, both upstream and inter-stage cooling are standard industry practices when compressing gases for geologic injection. This project will evolve optimal compressor thermodynamic cycles and associated equipment to boost the pressure of CO2 to wellhead pressures, approximately 2,200 pounds-per-square-inch-gauge (psig). This project is divided into two phases, with plans to solicit applications for a full-scale compression demonstration at an existing or proposed integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. Phase I (Scoping and Modeling, which has been completed) was focused on the CO2 compressor technology to determine performance characteristics. Phase II (Bench Scale Testing and Evaluation) focused on evaluation and testing of the CO2 compressor technology. Phase III will focus on the scale up and testing of the CO2 compressor with intercooled diaphragm in a loop with the liquid CO2 pumping system.
FC26-06NT42804 West Virginia University Research Corporation (WVU) WV Long-Term Environmental and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China 12/31/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids

West Virginia University Research Corporation (WVURC) is investigating the long-term environmental and economic impacts of coal liquefaction in China.
FC26-06NT42811 Jupiter Oxygen Corporation IL Jupiter Oxycombustion and Integrated Pollutant Removal for the Existing Coal Fired Power Generation Fleet 09/30/2012 Oxy-Combustion This research and development project will construct and operate a 50 MMbtu (approximately 5 MW) test facility in Hammond, IN with Jupiter Oxygen oxy-fuel technology and Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's [NETL] Integrated Pollution Removal [IPR] technology. Operation of the facility will provide developmental engineering and design data for the research retrofit of future coal-fired power plants , to advance the creation of a virtually zero emissions power plant for NOx, SOx, particulate and mercury, as well as one capture ready for CO2 sequestration.
FC26-07NT43057 Media and Process Technology, Inc. PA Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production 05/01/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids A one-box process for hydrogen production will be developed based upon the carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane. In this one-box process unit, syngas will be shifted to CO2 and hydrogen, and the hydrogen will be separated via the CMS membrane. A mathematical model will be developed by the University of Southern California to aid in the process development. The process will first be demonstrated in a bench-scale unit. Then it will be tested at pilot scale in the National Carbon Capture Center facilities in Wilsonville, AL.
FC26-07NT43058 Worcester Polytechnic Institute MA Composite PD and PD Alloy Porous Stainless Steel Membrane 11/06/2011 Hydrogen from Coal The objective of this project by WPI is to develop advanced process intensification technologies that reduce the number of unit operations required for hydrogen production from coal gases produced from coal gasification. Process intensification will reduce the production of pure hydrogen from synthesis gas to two unit operations consisting of an advanced synthesis gas clean-up system and a composite Pd-Pd/alloy membrane WGS shifter, which could be integrated downstream in the hydrogen producing coal gasification system. The high pressure CO2 from the membrane shifter would be appropriate for recycling, sequestration, and/or conversion to industrially useful products and the creation of a natural CO2 sink.
FG26-07NT43069 Georgia Tech Research Corporation GA Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in High Hydrogen Fueled Turbines 03/31/2012 University Training and Research The objective of the proposed research is to develop a validated design tool that can predict flashback and combustion instability in lean premixed combustors operating on coal-derived, high-hydrogen fuels. Its focus upon high fidelity simulations, coupled with validating measurements, and development of reduced order models will significantly improve understanding of these phenomenon and capabilities for predicting their occurrence.
FG26-07NT43073 University of California - San Diego CA Solid State Joining of High-Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat Exchanger Systems 12/31/2011 Advanced Combustion Systems The objective of this project is to develop solid state based materials joining technologies for high temperature alloy tubes suitable for heat exchanger applications in Rankine, Brayton, HIPPS and IGCC power systems concepts. Two separate techniques a) Inertia Welding and b) Magnetic Pulse Welding are proposed for butt and lap joint configurations. The materials of interest are an ODS alloy (MA956) and Ni-base alloy (IN740) alloy tubes in similar and dissimilar metal/alloy joint configurations. The research program outlined here is iterative in nature and will systematically explore 1) respective joining techniques to develop 2) robust similar/dissimilar metal tube joints with 2) maximum creep strength performance at the intended service temperature range. This research program will leverage the expertise of industrial vendors Interface Welding, Carson (CA) and Magneform Corporation, San Diego (CA).
FC26-07NT43088 Praxair, Inc. NY Recovery Act: Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development 09/30/2015 Oxy-Combustion Praxair determined (under a prior agreement with DOE) that the cost of CO2?capture utilizing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) air separation integrated with oxy-combustion is competitive with other CO2capture processes when applied to large power plants. This work also demonstrated that durable OTMs for oxy-combustion can be fabricated to survive and operate reliably in a fuel environment. Praxair observed a zero percent failure rate for the OTM membranes during prior testing; however, the highly durable materials selected for the OTM reactors require substantial development in order to improve the oxygen flux through the system while maintaining durability and reducing manufacturing costs. In the first stage of this project, Praxair will further develop high-performance materials used for OTMs, optimize and test process configurations, validate manufacturing capabilities, and produce a preliminary engineering design for an OTM pilot plant system. With the addition of ARRA funding, the second stage of this project will focus on operating OTM modules in syngas and conducting oxy-combustion development- and pilot-scale tests incorporating critical system components required of commercial systems. Praxair will develop and operate a robust and reliable OTM module that will provide the foundation for commercial deployment of reactively driven ceramic membrane systems. Praxair will develop first-generation OTM modules and test them in a developmental-scale, fully integrated, multi-module syngas system producing 160,000 standard cubic feet per day (scfd) of syngas and incorporating components of a commercial system. Praxair will develop second-generation OTM modules incorporating improvements identified through module testing, and test them in a pilot-scale skidded, multi-module syngas system as well. All testing and modeling results will be evaluated to develop preliminary cost estimates for a demonstration-scale syngas system and a preliminary design for pilot-scale oxy-combustion system.
FC26-07NT43090 SRI International CA Fabrication and Scaleup of Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Membranes for Pre-Combustion-Based Capture of Carbon Dioxide 03/31/2012 Pre-Combustion Capture This project is designed to demonstrate the performance and fabrication of a technically and economically viable pre-combustion-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes. In addition, SRI International proposes to optimize the plan for integration of a PBI capture system into an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. To that end, larger-scale/larger-throughput membrane-based separation modules will be designed, fabricated, and evaluated during the course of the project. SRI International will develop a commercialization plan that addresses technical issues (e.g., a roadmap for the scale-up of production of PBI membrane modules) and business issues (e.g., insurance considerations and potential joint venture opportunities) to outline a clear path for technology transfer of the PBI membrane technology.
FC26-07NT43091 University of Notre Dame IN Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture 09/30/2012 Solvents The University of Notre Dame and its partners are working to continue development of novel ionic liquid absorbents and an associated process for the removal of CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Ionic liquids are salts that are liquid in their pure state near ambient conditions. In a previous NETL-funded project, Notre Dame demonstrated that ionic liquids can be engineered to have very high physical solubilities and can also be made to form chemical complexes with CO2. Due to their chemical diversity, ample opportunities should exist to tailor and optimize the properties of ionic liquids for CO2 capture. Having shown their potential in the previous project, researchers will work in this project to take the next step in the development process.
FC26-07NT43095 Alstom Power, Inc. CT Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping 07/31/2012 Dynamic Systems Modeling Alstom Power Plant Laboratories will develop models of their Chemical Looping Process and devise a model based control technology for managing multiple and reacting multiphase flow loops. The development team will develop models, reduce the models for fast operation and create model based controllers for the loops. The algorithm development for these Model Predictive Controllers (MPC) will be tested using bench scale systems to determine the validity and improvement to system performance that MPC can make when operating complex processes.
FC26-07NT43097 Babcock & Wilcox Company OH Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems 08/31/2014 High Performance Materials Staged combustion produces reducing/sulfidizing conditions that are particularly corrosive to the lower furnace walls. On the other hand, the conditions at superheaters/reheaters are typically oxidizing. However, due to relatively high metal temperatures, the superheater/reheater tubes tend to suffer from severe coal ash corrosion attack due to alkali metals contained in the ash. The problem will be further intensified when the steam outlet temperatures of advanced combustion systems are to increase significantly. To address these corrosion concerns, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) intends to develop corrosion models in this program that are capable of predicting lower furnace and superheater/reheater corrosion wastage. Because corrosion attack is thermally activated, the effect of temperature will also be investigated. Ohio State University faculty will support B&W's efforts by contributing their technical expertise in the area of high temperature corrosion.
FC26-08NT43291 University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) ND EERC-DOE Jointly Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources 05/31/2018 Novel Concepts This project supports a Joint Program for Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), with a minimum yearly overall 20% non-federal cost-share, to conduct basic, fundamental, and applied research that will assist industry in deploying and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting requirements for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, electricity, and water resources in the 21st century. This project supports DOE goals by advancing scientific knowledge and technical development and demonstrations of technologies that ensure sustainable supplies of affordable energy and clean water and preservation and restoration of the environment. The performance goals support the DOE goals of reducing dependency on foreign sources of energy, making fossil energy systems more efficient, and capturing and sequestering greenhouse gases.
FC26-08NT43293 Western Research Institute (WRI) WY DOE-WRI Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources 12/31/2013 Innovative Technologies The overall objective of the WRI Cooperative R&D program is to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting requirements for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, electricity, and water resources in the 21st century. The program supports and contributes to the energy science and technology mission of DOE/FE: 1.Increase the production of U.S. resources. 2.Enhance the competitiveness of U.S. technologies. 3.Reduce dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen National and regional economies. 4.Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization processes.
FE0001163 West Virginia University Research Corporation (WVU) WV In Situ MVA of CO2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology 09/30/2014 Intelligent Monitoring Through its core research and development program administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) emphasizes monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA), as well as computer simulation and risk assessment, of possible carbon dioxide (CO2 ) leakage at CO2 geologic storage sites. MVA efforts focus on the development and deployment of technologies that can provide an accurate accounting of stored CO2 , with a high level of confidence that the CO2 will remain stored underground permanently. Effective application of these MVA technologies will ensure the safety of geologic storage projects with respect to both human health and the environment, and can provide the basis for establishing carbon credit trading markets for geologically storing CO2 . The new technology is based on the concept of “smart fields,” which is rapidly gaining support and popularity in the oil and gas industry. Smart fields integrate digital information technology with the latest monitoring techniques to provide continuous knowledge and control of reservoir operations and processes. Under this concept, hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested to successfully develop highly sensitive PDGs that are capable of operating in harsh environments for long periods. The PDGs collect and transmit high-frequency data streams in real time to remote control centers to be analyzed and used for reservoir management. The project team will use the pattern recognition power of state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM) technology to develop a methodology, residing in a computer program, to recognize patterns from simulated realistic pressure data acquired from PDGs located within the reservoir model (Figure 1). This software will be capable of, but not limited to, locating point sources within a reservoir from which CO2 is leaking based on changes in pressure data. The methodology will autonomously cleanse and summarize raw data collected from in-situ pressure gauges, to prepare the data for processing and analysis. Upon completion, the methodology will be validated by its ability to accurately identify the location of simulated leakage points in a model of an existing heterogeneous reservoir. Once the approximate location of potential CO2 leakage is identified, the information will be communicated via e-mails, text messages, or other means to those performing “at” or “near” surface monitoring locations for more precise detection and analysis. The main objective of this project is to develop the next generation of intelligent software that is able to take maximum advantage of the data collected by PDGs to continuously and autonomously monitor and verify CO2 storage in geologic formations as part of the effort to assure CO2 storage permanence in the subsurface. Further, the project team will investigate the feasibility of using this technology to monitor the growth and advancement of the CO2 plume during the injection process.
FE0000998 University of Nevada - Reno NV Amorphous Alloy Membranes Prepared by Melt-Spin Methods for Long-Term Use in Hydrogen Separation Applications 02/28/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The main objective is to produce amorphous ribbons from non-precious metal alloys. These amorphous membranes are expected to work towards meeting all 2015 separation targets, such as of flux (300 ft3/hr/ft2), temperature (200-500 ºC), sulfur tolerance (>100 ppmv), and cost (<$100/ft2). Moreover these membranes will not use Pd coatings. The project consist of developing multiple metal-alloy ribbon membranes for evaluation and down selection. The selected membranes will then be tested in sygas and provided to NETL for testing. and Fabrication of hydrogen permeation membranes will be performed through the collaboration of the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and CSIRO in Australia.
FE0001074 Reaction Design CA Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE OPEN-Compliant Simulations 03/31/2013 Plant Optimization Technologies Using high-fidelity fluid-dynamics models as input, Reaction Design will extend existing technology that is designed to automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from the CFD solution. The extraction is based on certain criteria for grouping regions of similar kinetic behavior. The ERNs are composed of idealized reactors (e.g., perfectly stirred and/or plug-flow reactors) that interact through mass-flow and heat-transfer connections to represent the complex flow. In contrast to the CFD simulations, however, the ERNs allow inclusion of detailed kinetics representation of the reacting-flow process, including particle-gas interactions, gas combustion and emissions production. While this technology has been established for gas-turbine combustors, one aim of this project will be to extend the methodology to gasifiers. A key component of this project is to encapsulate the CHEMKIN-based ERN models as CAPE-OPEN-compliant objects that can be used in general flow-sheet simulation software. By combining existing detailed-kinetics reactor-network capability from CHEMKIN-PRO with CAPE-OPEN interface standards, state-of-the-art kinetics modeling will be enabled within flow-sheet type simulations. This will be the basis for developing accurate reduced-order-models for gasification/combustor processes. Through the Cape-Open interface, the CHEMKIN reactor or reactor network will be considered as a Unit Operation. By adopting the Cape-Open architecture, such a representation of a combustor or gasifier can be combined with other unit operations to allow a plant or system simulation. In this way, more accurate chemistry will allow consideration of chemical details such as carbon conversion efficiency and syngas composition in the overall system design.
FE0000896 SRI International CA CO2 Capture from IGCC Gas Streams Using the AC-ABC Process 09/30/2016 Solvents The overall project objective is to develop an innovative, low-cost CO2-capture technology for integrated gasification combined cycle-based power plants that is based on absorption on a high-capacity and low-cost aqueous ammoniated solution. SRI, in collaboration with Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc., is conducting a two-phase effort to develop and evaluate SRI Ammonium Carbonate-Ammonium Bicarbonate (AC-ABC) technology to capture CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from coal-based gasification processes and Bechtel Pressure Swing Claus Sulfur Recovery Unit (BPSC) which will convert H2S to elemental sulfur. The first phase tested the technology in a bench-scale batch reactor to validate the concept and determine the optimum operating conditions for a small pilot-scale reactor. The second phase will include the design and fabrication of a small pilot-scale test system and testing of the capture technology on a slipstream of real shifted syngas from the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, Alabama.
FE0001111 Fusion Petroleum Technologies TX Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration 12/31/2011 Monitoring, Verification, Accounting, and Assessment The study will develop an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on the deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays, integrated with a dense baseline array. This will allow users to increase the temporal resolution of the CO2 monitoring. The system will include an accurate reservoir modeling package, which will account for geomechanical and geochemical processes.
FE0001580 University of Miami FL Combining Space Geodesy, Seismology, and Geochemistry for Monitoring, Verification and Accounting of CO2 in Sequestration Sites 09/30/2014 Near-Surface Monitoring This four-year project — performed by faculty and researchers from the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and the University of South Florida, assisted by UNAVCO, Inc., a non-profit consortium funded by the National Science Foundation — aims to develop an integrated, low-cost methodology for assessing the fate of CO2 injected into various classes of geologic reservoirs. The project team will integrate data from space geodesy (which utilizes high precision Global Positioning System [GPS] and Interfero-metric Synthetic Aperture Radar [InSAR] technology to measure subtle surface displacements), seismology, and geochemistry in a straightforward series of procedures and algorithms, and assess the cost and efficacy of these procedures for long-term tracking of CO2. This new approach will be tested at a large-scale CO2 injection test site. Results are expected to confirm suitability of this methodology for most carbon storage sites.
FE0001322 University of Minnesota MN Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes 09/30/2014 Membranes This project will further develop a novel silica molecular sieve membrane for the pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. These membranes have the potential to contribute to carbon capture by high temperature separation of hydrogen (H2) from CO2 and other gases present in shifted synthesis gas (syngas). Extensive efforts over the last several decades have explored high temperature H2-selective membranes made of silicon dioxide (SiO2), other oxides, palladium (Pd), and other metals or alloys, polymers, and various zeolites and non-aluminosilicate molecular sieves. Although promising separation results have been reported for many of these technologies, they all suffer from high processing costs for membrane fabrication and/or long term stability limitations. This project will bring a new, simple concept for the fabrication of ultra-thin and stable H2-selective membranes closer to commercial reality.
FE0001181 Pall Corporation NY Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance 09/30/2014 Membranes The objective of the project is to develop an economically-viable H2/CO2 separation membrane system that would allow efficient capture of CO2 at high temperature and pressure from gasified coal in presence of typical contaminants. The key hurdle for commercialization of palladium-based hydrogen separation membranes has been the negative effects of H2S and carbon on hydrogen flux, i.e. membrane poisoning. To date, most membrane developers have used only a few binary alloy systems such as Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag with only recent attempts to employ ternary alloys. Although promising, none has been shown to be an effective deterrent to the membrane damage induced by coal gas contaminants. In addition, new membrane development has been slow with almost no testing being done in actual coal gas environments. Pall will utilize combinatorial material design for high-throughput, rapid screening of a large number of ternary Pd-alloys with the goal of developing an optimized palladium alloy that is tolerant to contaminants while retaining the necessary high hydrogen flux and selectivity characteristics.
FE0000982 NuVant Systems, Inc. IN Improved Flow Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 05/31/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) anode flow-fields are evolved from hydrogen fuel cell flow-fields, and thus not optimized for liquid fuel delivery. NuVant System Inc's two-year Congressionally Directed Project will improve the performance of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) by designing anode flow-fields specifically for the delivery of liquid methanol. A computer model will be developed that utilizes the relevant physical and chemical properties of methanol to model the flow of liquid fuel through the porous graphite plates that compose the anode flow-fields. The model will evaluate various flow-fields and predict their potential for improved performance. Prototypes based on the down-selected flow-fields will be validated in a small DMFC stack.
FE0001535 Columbia University NY Tagging Carbon Dioxide to Enable Quantitative Inventories of Geological Carbon Storage 06/30/2014 Near-Surface Monitoring This project developed two different injection systems for tagging CO2 with carbon 14 (14C) at atmospheric levels (1 part per trillion) and measuring the radioactivity in collected samples. Since 14C decays to the more common 12C isotope at a known rate, the level of radioactivity in the sample determines how much injected CO2 the sample contains. Such tagging of injected CO2 will lead to quantitative monitoring of injected CO2 and make it possible to accurately inventory geologically stored carbon. The systems were tested in the laboratory and at the CarbFix demonstration project in Iceland, where CO2 has been injected into a permeable basalt formation at 1,970 feet in depth. Once the technology is proven, adoption of this system will provide a quantitative methodology to verify the amount of CO2 stored, thereby increasing confidence in geologic storage.
FE0001132 University of Missouri MO Geomechanical Simulation of CO2 Leakage and Cap Rock Remediation 09/30/2012 Mitigation The project couples a reservoir model and geomechanical model to simulate potential cap rock leakage for the CO2 capture and storage demonstration site at City Utilities of Springfield, Mo. Materials and methods for stopping potential leakage through the cap rock will be examined. The approach is designed to be applicable to other CO2 injection sites.
FE0001161 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology NM Analytical-Numerical Sharp-Interface Model of CO2 Sequestration & Application to Illinois Basin 09/30/2012 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management The project objective is to develop and test a new quasi- three-dimensional, multi-scale hydrologic model that will allow the essential features of the CO2-brine-freshwater system to be included at the local (borehole), regional, and basin scales using sharp-interface theory. Environmental and seismic risks associated with large scale CO2 injection into the Mount Simon Formation will be quantified.
FE0001560 Advanced Resources International, Inc. VA Coal-Seq III Consortium: Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs 08/31/2014 Geochemical Impacts Coal-Seq III is a government-industry collaboration to study coal as a potential CO2 storage reservoir. Partners include Oklahoma State University, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute at Southern Illinois University and Higgs-Palmer Technologies. The project focused on the development and testing of three advanced geochemical and geomechanical simulation modules which increase the accuracy of simulating CO2 behavior in coals and shales. These modules address coal storage factors such as coal failure and permeability enhancement, matrix swelling and shrinking, and competition with water as an adsorbed phase on coals. These enhancements provide better means to predict geologic CO2 storage volumes.
FE0001159 Stanford University CA Advanced Technologies for Monitoring CO2 Saturation and Pore Pressure in Geologic Formations: Linking the Chemical and Physical Effects to Elastic and Transport Properties 03/31/2014 Subsurface Monitoring This four-year project—performed by Stanford University’s Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory in partnership with ExxonMobil and Ingrain, Inc.—is providing robust methodologies for using seismic data to quantitatively map the movement, presence, and permanence of CO2 relative to its intended storage location. Optimized rock-fluid models incorporate the seismic signatures of (1) saturation scales and free vs. dissolved gas in a CO2-water mixture, (2) pore pressure changes, and (3) CO2-induced chemical changes to the host rock (Figure 1). Work products from this project include an innovative dataset, methodologies, and algorithms for predicting the seismic response of multiphase and reactive fluids in CO2 storage programs. In spite of advanced techniques for geophysical imaging, current methods for interpreting CO2 saturation from seismic data can be fundamentally improved. Until now, Gassmann’s equations, which relate pore fluid compressibility and the rock frame to overall elastic properties, have been the primary tool for interpreting CO2 plumes from time-lapse seismic data. Gassmann’s model is purely mechanical, and is best suited for conditions of single-phase fluid saturation in relatively inert systems. Yet, CO2-rich fluid-rock systems can be chemically reactive, altering the rock frame via dissolution, precipitation, and mineral replacement. Furthermore, CO2 systems are multiphase, with uncertainties in scales of phase mixing in the pore space and solution of one phase in another. Errors from ignoring the physicochemical factors during CO2 injection can affect predicted seismic velocity changes, resulting in compromised estimates of saturation and pressure of CO2-rich fluids.
FE0001965 South Carolina Research Institute SC Recovery Act: Geological Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage 09/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) The South Carolina Research Institute and its partners evaluated the feasibility of carbon storage in the Jurassic/Triassic saline formations of the buried Mesozoic South Georgia Rift (SGR) Basin that extends west-southwest from South Carolina into Georgia. The Jurassic and Triassic saline formations of the SGR have been identified as prospective CO2 storage areas; however, detailed characterization is needed to reduce uncertainties and validate storage potential. The project evaluated two different locations in the SGR Basin, one in South Carolina and one in Georgia. The project team reviewed existing geologic and geophysical data, reprocessed historical seismic data, collected additional seismic data to fill in historical data gaps, drilled and tested a characterization well, and conducted reservoir modeling, risk assessment, and mitigation studies. Seismic and geologic data were also used to evaluate faults, fractures, and confining zone integrity for potential release pathways. The characterization well was drilled to approximately 6,200 feet. The findings include a detailed description of the potential reservoirs and seals to determine thickness, lithology, mineralogy, and fracture orientation.
FE0001833 University of Alaska - Fairbanks AK Recovery Act: Geological and Geotechnical Site Investigations for the Design of a CO2 Rich Flue Gas Direct Injection and Storage Facility in an Underground Mine -Keweenaw Basalts of the Great Lakes Region 03/25/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) Application selected from ARRA 2009 DOE FOA Number DE-FOA-0000032, entitled "Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research". The primary objectives of this project are to develop a methodology for the geological and geotechnical site characterization in mafic rocks through both simulations and field work and completing an economic analysis of these opportunities. This project will support graduate and undergraduate students.
FE0001834 University of Cincinnati OH Recovery Act: Research and Education of CO2 Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) Application selected from ARRA 2009 DOE FOA Number DE-FOA-0000032, entitled "Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research". The objective of this project is to integrate ongoing research on CO2 separation from coal combustion flue gases using regenerable magnesium solutions with engineering education in CCS for chemical and environmental engineering students. This project will support graduate and undergraduate students.
FE0001922 Geomechanics Technologies, Inc. CA Recovery Act: Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large Scale Geologic Storage of CO2 12/08/2014 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) This project characterized the Pliocene and Miocene sediments in the Wilmington Graben, offshore of Los Angeles, CA, for CO2 storage. Characterization of these formations will help establish and broaden options for large-scale CO2 geologic storage throughout California. The project was performed in three phases, with the first phase devoted to completing a detailed review and interpretation of existing exploration well log data, 2-D and 3-D seismic data, acquiring and analyzing new seismic lines in current data gap areas, reviewing existing log data, and drilling a Pliocene well in northern Wilmington Graben area. In the second phase of the project, a second characterization well was drilled into the Miocene. Integrated 3-D geologic and geomechanical models for the Wilmington Graben were populated with grid data derived from lithologic properties to allow for additional quantification and analysis of storage targets and seals. A CO2 injection and migration model was also developed and calibrated against well injectivity data to simulate long-term injection, CO2 migration, and storage. In the third phase of the project, a detailed engineering review and documentation of the top 20 CO2 emission sources in the LA Basin was performed, and a feasibility analysis using existing and/or new pipelines in the LA Basin to transport CO2 from sources to storage sites was completed.
FE0001943 Duke University NC Recovery Act: “Carbonsheds” as a Framework for Optimizing US CCS Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) Application selected from ARRA 2009 DOE FOA Number DE-FOA-0000032, entitled "Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research". The objective of this project is to use "carbonsheds," a concept that was developed as a framework for optimizing transport of CO2 on an integrated technical, economic, societal and environmental basis. This project will support two graduate students.
FE0001953 Tuskegee University AL Recovery Act: Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) Application selected from ARRA 2009 DOE FOA Number DE-FOA-0000032, entitled "Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research". Project objectives include: 1) Develop a CCS short course introducing suite of technologies and deployment issues; 2) Establish a CO2 capture laboratory for data analysis and develop mathematical models; 3) Offer internships; and 4) Establish the Tuskegee CCS Network.
FE0001958 Environmental Outreach and Stewardship (EOS) Alliance WA Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Storage Training (CCST) 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL, in partnership with the Environmental Outreach and Stewardship (EOS) Alliance, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), has developed a regional carbon storage technology training center to deliver CCUS technology training and information to stakeholders in the Pacific Northwest. This training center provides a platform for geologic CO2 storage related technology information, establishing an advisory board, offering a suite of revenue-generating training classes, and implementing a marketing strategy for prospective students with the goal of the center to become self-sustaining within three years. EOS Alliance and partners have developed short courses on various aspects of CCUS technology. Instructors for these courses come from PNNL, academia, industry, and other national laboratories. The course offerings focus on technologies (Figure 1) and issues relating to the U.S. Pacific Northwest region, and include lectures on CCUS technologies, several multiple-day combined courses that integrate technical topics, and tours of facilities conducting cutting edge geologic CO2 storage research. EOS Alliance is working to register the CCUS courses for Professional Development Units (PDUs) and is evaluating the feasibility of establishing a certification program. EOS Alliance will take the lead in planning and managing this program. In partnership with PNNL and the EOS Alliance will coordinate and monitor the regional CCUS training project performance, maintain sufficient project management staff, support the Advisory Board, implement strategic planning, work with other regional carbon storage technology training recipients, create and provide all deliverables to DOE, and maintain appropriate fiscal and accounting systems. Additional information can be found at
FE0002068 Illinois State Geological Survey IL Recovery Act: An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins 09/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) conducted an evaluation of the carbon storage potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins, which underlie much of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Michigan. Whole core of the Knox and Maquoketa Shale were taken from several wells drilled for the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium field test and the Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage demonstration project in Decatur, Illinois. Additionally, 120 miles of 2-D seismic data were acquired in western Illinois to enhance the characterization of the Illinois Basin. A small-volume carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test was also conducted in Hancock County, Kentucky to evaluate the injectivity of the Knox. These data and other available data were used to estimate the regional injectivity and storage capacity of the Knox Super Group and the St. Peter Sandstone. Specific studies included modeling the dissolution of CO2 in brine and the interaction with carbonate reservoir rocks, geomechanical tests and petrophysical analyses, an evaluation of mineralization rates, and an analysis of seal faulting potential.
FE0001731 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology NM Recovery Act: Southwestern United States Carbon Sequestration Training Center 12/31/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR)

New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, in partnership with Texas A&M University and the University of Utah, developed a regional carbon storage technology training center for the southwestern United States (CO2TC). The purpose of this training center was to increase the CCS workforce though the development and implementation of academic programs, specialized classes, continuing education, professional development, and public awareness.

The project built on current outreach and education programs to recruit and prepare students in the region for careers related to the geologic storage of CO2. Students were engaged at all educational levels, from K-12 to generate early interest, to secondary education students by providing their teachers with classroom tools and training, to college students from several disciplines that cover all aspects of the CCS industry (i.e., MBA programs, law, computer science, humanities, social & behavioral science, etc.). The training center also conducted outreach and continuous updated training courses for current professionals inclusive of industry, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and the media to provide greater awareness of the importance of geologic carbon storage.
FE0001930 Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) GA Recovery Act: The Southeast Regional CO2 Sequestration Technology Training Program 11/15/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL partnered with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) and others from both industry and academia to develop the Southeast Regional CO2 Sequestration Training Program (SECARB-Ed) for the southern United States. These partners have established a CCS regional training program to facilitate national and global deployment of CCS technology. The project performed a series of tasks over a three-year period. Major project tasks included: Initiating and implementing a Sponsorship Development Program that allows SECARB-Ed to be self-sustaining after the initial three-year period by establishing an advisory board, developing a strategy for revenue generation, and marketing. Establishing a CCS technology curriculum by identifying topics for short courses, positioning SECARB-Ed to take advantage of opportunities to showcase its capabilities, and seeking technical societies’ approval of the training materials. Facilitating technology transfer through the utilization of electronic and printed media. Supporting research and outreach/education goals of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). Additional information on SECARB-Ed can be found at
FE0000730 Colorado School of Mines CO CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins: Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations 09/30/2012 Geomechanical Impacts CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins addresses applications-oriented issues in reservoir assessment and dynamic processes affecting injection operations. The focus is on geomechanics, mineral dissolution, geomicrobiology, and pore space related to storage of large volumes of CO2 in saline brine aquifers. Project activities are directed toward studies that will guide future industrial CO2 saline storage operations in Colorado.
FE0001910 University of Alabama AL Recovery Act: Site Characterization for CO2 Storage from Coal-Fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama 08/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) The University of Alabama, Geological Survey of Alabama, and Rice University have assessed the CO2 storage potential in the Black Warrior Basin. Roughly 28 million metric tons of CO2 are released into the atmosphere annually by two pulverized coal power plants located in the basin, providing a need to determine the geological storage resources for potential CCS in the Black Warrior Basin. The project team has characterized a test site located near one of those power plants, the Alabama Power Company William C. Gorgas plant. The effort included designing and developing a geologic test wellbore, determining the suitability of the site for storage, and performing a computational simulation of the reservoir. As part of the characterization activities, the team is evaluating a formation stratigraphic, dissolution, and mineralization containment analysis that defines the ability of the formation to contain CO2. The project team also analyzed geophysical well logs, seismic surveys, and core data to define the CO2 acceptance and storage capability of the stacked saline reservoirs.
FE0002184 University of Miami FL Recovery Act: Space Geodesy and Geochemistry Applied to the Monitoring, Verification of Carbon Capture and Storage 11/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR)

NETL is partnering with the University of Miami to provide educational training by assisting in the development of an integrated, low cost methodology for assessing the fate of CO2 pumped into various classes of geologic reservoirs. Project participants will assist in integrating geodetic, seismological, and geochemical data by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to construct inter-ferograms (photographic records of optical interference phenomena) at several of the DOE’s Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Validation Pha+E472:E474se II “legacy” sites and RCSP Deployment Phase III sites. This technology will provide a gross characterization of upper crustal response for sequestration activities under a variety of conditions. Assessments of the geochemical environments in the sites, and the potential for more detailed geochemical modeling, will be completed and integrated with the geodetic studies.
FE0002190 Stanford University CA Recovery Act: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project trains students on theoretical rock physics models that can predict the changes in the mineral framework of porous rock based on geological and geochemical conditions and the resulting changes in its porosity; elastic properties; absolute and relative permeability; and electrical formation factor. These results help in quantifying seismic and electrical data for monitoring geologic CO2 sequestration.
FE0001780 University of Akron OH Recovery Act: Sulfur Dioxide-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture 08/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and low-cost CO2 capture solid sorbent which is highly resistant to SO2 poisoning and thermal degradation. The proposed concept is built on integration of acid-base chemistry with a novel approach for manipulating basic site distributions. This project will support at least 2 graduate students during the research effort.
FE0001786 Utah State University UT Recovery Act: Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways and Mineralization Within Caprocks for Geological Storage of CO2 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The project will support at least 2 graduate students while examining the nature and controls of caprock integrity on CO2 sequestration systems by studying exhumed analogs where modern and ancient CO2 flow has occurred. The team will evaluate the nature of fracture systems and faults and examine the nature of mineralization within some of these exposures.
FE0001790 Missouri State University MO Recovery Act: Monitoring and Numerical Modeling of Shallow CO2 Injection, Greene County, Missouri 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The project team will conduct research to assess the migration of CO2 in a geologic formation in Missouri, conduct reservoir modeling, and develop a GIS database of pore-fluid chemistry within and above potential CO2 injection zones in Missouri. This project will support at least two graduate students during the research effort.
FE0001808 Western Kentucky University KY Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-Fueled Chemical Looping Combustion 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The project team will develop a series of advanced oxygen carriers for coal-fueled chemical looping combustion (CLC) to yield a high purity CO2. A CLC process model will be built to optimize the performance of the selected oxygen carriers. This project will support at least two graduate students during the research effort.
FE0001812 University of Utah UT Recovery Act: Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Range 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) The Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, and the Pennsylvanian Weber Sandstone are very promising geologic storage formations in the Rocky Mountain Region. These formations are ubiquitous throughout the region and represent common geologic storage candidate sites for most point sources in the region. This project is focusing on collecting and analyzing rock core and geophysical data from these formations as well as conducting new data collection and model simulation analyses for a representative case-study area near the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado. This includes analysis of the storage potential of these deep-saline formations within a large, Laramide-age structure just south of the town of Craig, Colorado. A detailed structural analysis of this large forced fold was performed; in addition, the finer geologic structure and stratigraphy of the candidate saline aquifers and their overlying seals was characterized. Analyses of the broader region include the Navajo and other promising Jurassic-aged storage target formations. In addition, project researchers are characterizing the local and regional storage potential of these most promising formations using fundamental geological, geophysical, and existing rock core data from all areas of the region.
FE0001858 Montana State University MT Recovery Act: Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The project objective is development of a 1 x 4 fiber optic sensor array for sub-surface carbon dioxide (CO2) detection. The proposed fiber sensor array is a low cost, reconfigurable sensor that has the potential for large area coverage based on the number of fiber probes that can be accessed using one laser and two photo-detectors in the call/receive geometry.
FE0001317 University of Texas at Austin TX Improving the Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Sequestered in Geologic Systems with Multicomponent Seismic Technology and Rock Physics Modeling 12/31/2012 Monitoring, Verification, Accounting, and Assessment The University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) is partnering with Battelle's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, AOA Geophysical, Global Geophysical, Geokinetics, Ascend Geo, Austin Powder, Seismic Source, and RARE Technology to combine multicomponent seismic technology and rock physics modeling that will lead to more accurate monitoring, verifying, and accounting (MVA) of stored CO2. The research will use conventional seismic sources and data-acquisition systems and also new seismic sources that emphasize shear waves and new seismic data-acquisition technology based on cableless data recording to acquire seismic research data across one or more brine-formation systems appropriate for CO2 storage. Research tasks will involve acquiring, processing, and interpreting both conventional seismic data and multicomponent seismic data. Scientists at PNNL and BEG will analyze well logs, cores, and reservoir test data to construct geological models of CO2 storage formations and seal units across each study site. By combining P-wave and S-wave seismic attributes with appropriate rock physics models, the research team will show how multicomponent seismic technology allows definition of formation storage compartments, detection of leaky seals, mapping of fluid-flow paths, segregation of high and low gas saturations, and quantification of intra-reservoir permeability barriers that cannot be achieved with conventional single-component seismic data.
FE0002020 University of Minnesota MN Recovery Act: Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project provides a basis for providing graduate and undergraduate students the opportunity to participate in research related to the modeling of fluid-driven fractures. The research approach will include numerical analyses with the discrete element and boundary element methods, and physical experiments for material estimation and model testing.
FE0002028 RFCUNY - Brooklyn College NY Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls? 11/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL has partnered with Brooklyn College to determine the role of textural (e.g., the pore-throat size; distribution, geometry, and sorting; grain size; degree of bioturbation; specific surface area; preferred orientation of matrix clay minerals; and orientation and aspect ratio of organic particles) and compositional parameters (e.g., silt content; ductility; compaction; mineralogical content; proportion of soft, deformable mineral grains to rigid grains; cementation; organic matter content; carbonate content; and ash content) that control the CO2 sealing capacity of caprock formations. Caprocks are low-permeability rocks that comprise confining zones located above the CO2 injection zone and can act as a seal to prevent the upward migration of CO2 into other formations. The research is also serving as scientific training for at least one graduate student and one undergraduate student. The students are collecting samples, searching scientific literature, performing most lab measurements, writing scientific dissertations, and participating in disseminating project results through publications and by attending scientific meetings.
FE0002041 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) MA Recovery Act: Modeling and Risk Assessment of CO2 Sequestration at the Geologic-Basin Scale 08/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL has partnered with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to develop tools to better understand and model CO2 storage permanence in geologic formations at the geologic basin scale. This research contributes to deploying CCUS at a gigatonne per year injection scale over the course of several decades. Continuous CO2 injection of this magnitude must be understood at the geologic basin scale. The project is performing fundamental research on CO2 migration, fate, and displaced brine at the geologic basin scale. Additionally, MIT is developing analytical sharp-interface models of the evolution of CO2 plumes over the duration of injection (decades) and after injection (centuries). MIT has experience in investigating closed-form analytical solutions that account for plume shape during CO2 injection and for regional groundwater flow. From accomplishments obtained in this past research, MIT extended the modeling use in this project to include the essential physics governing plume migration: (1) induced pressure gradients, (2) capillary trapping, (3) buoyancy, (4) regional groundwater flow, (5) aquifer slope, (6) dissolution into the brine (due to both diffusion from residual CO2 and convective mixing from mobile CO2), and (7) loss through the confining unit (Figure 1). MIT applied the analytical solutions of CO2 plume migration and pressure evolution to specific geologic basins to estimate the maximum footprint of the plume, and the maximum injection rate that can be sustained during a given injection period without fracturing caprock. These results have led to more accurate resource estimates, based on fluid flow dynamics, rather than ad hoc assumptions of an overall “efficiency factor” typically used in storage capacity estimation calculations. In addition, MIT used risk assessment methodologies to evaluate the uncertainty in their predictions of storage capacity and leakage rates. The results of the research were incorporated into the short course titled “Carbon Capture and Storage: Science, Technology, and Policy” offered through the MIT Professional Institute to train the present and future CCS workforce.
FE0002186 University of Houston TX Recovery Act: Training Toward Advanced 3D Seismic Methods for CO2 Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting 05/31/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project focuses on the use of seismic data for assessing CO2 storage reservoirs. The project will train students on numerical simulation of advanced seismic data ideal for mapping of caprock integrity and potential leakage pathways. The project will use numerical simulation to test rapid methods of gathering multi-component, full azimuth data ideal for this purpose.
FE0000988 Colorado School of Mines CO Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers 09/30/2014 Geochemical Impacts Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines have developed a comprehensive simulation tool for analyzing and modeling the coupled physical, chemical, thermal, and geomechanical processes involved in CO2 flow, storage, migration, and mineralization during long-term geologic carbon storage in saline aquifers. The simulator models the complex geology of these formations, including heterogeneity, anisotropy, fractures, and faults. The simulator also models geochemical and geomechanical processes that would occur during geologic storage of CO2. It uses parallel computation methods to allow rapid and efficient modeling assessment of CO2 injection strategies and long-term prediction of geologic storage system behavior and safety. Small-scale test experiments were used to identify the fundamental processes in homogeneous systems and test the ability of the macroscopic-scale models to capture the capillary and dissolution trapping processes in the presence of pore-scale heterogeneities. Overall, the model simulations support the evaluation of geologic storage mechanisms as a viable technique for reducing atmospheric CO2 emissions.
FE0001941 University of Texas at Austin TX Recovery Act: Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect 09/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) The University of Texas at Austin and its partners at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Defense Fund, and Sandia Technologies, LLC have investigated Texas offshore subsurface storage resources in the Gulf of Mexico as candidate geologic storage formations. This project was designed to identify one or more CO2 injection site(s) within an area of Texas offshore state lands (extending approximately 10 miles from the shoreline) that are suitable for the safe and permanent storage of CO2 from future large-scale commercial CCS operations. The approach used in identifying these injection sites was to use both historic and new data to evaluate the candidate geologic formations, including an extensive Gulf Coast well database and seismic survey database. A major project effort was to characterize three selected offshore areas with high-resolution seismic surveys that were conducted by the project. In addition, reservoir simulations were performed and work was conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical reactions resulting from injection of CO2 into the identified formations. A risk analysis and mitigation plan has been generated in support of near-term commercial development efforts.
FE0002111 University of Texas of the Permian Basin TX Recovery Act: A Modular Curriculum for Training University Students in Industry Standard CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Methodologies 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) Create modules for undergraduate and graduate students. Data & presentations from industry CO2 Flooding Schools & Conferences, Carbon Mgt Workshops & other venues will be tailored to provide introductory reservoir & aquifer training, state-of-the-art methodologies, field seminars, site visits, and case studies for students. This project will support Graduate students during the research effort.
FE0002225 West Virginia University Research Corporation (WVU) WV Recovery Act: Actualistic and Geomechanical Modeling of Reservoir Rock, CO2 and Formation Flue Interaction, Citronelle Field, Alabama 01/31/2014 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR)

NETL has partnered with the West Virginia University (WVU) to conduct a three-year study of the Citronelle field located in Mobile County, Alabama, to determine the diagenetic (physical, chemical, and biological) alteration of reservoir rock and formation fluid properties due to injection of supercritical CO2 into mature, conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. The study is using comprehensive geochemical assessments of core and formation fluid from the Citronelle field to test a reactive transport model for prediction of supercritical CO2-fluid-rock interactions. This modeling can be used to predict dissolution and/or mineral trapping in the reservoir rock and guide engineering, assessment of storage capacity, development, and monitoring of CO2 storage sites.

The Citronelle oil field (Figure 1) is an ideal site for CO2 storage because of its geology and the pre-existing CO2 infrastructure in the region. The Citronelle field is currently the focus of an on-going CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project led by the University of Alabama and NETL. CO2-EOR has been viewed as the most promising near term approach for CO2 storage, due to the economic return from extracted oil. Thus, this study is highly relevant to emerging technologies. Also, a state-of-the-art geologic model of the Rodessa Formation reservoir, a major oil and gas reservoir in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and promising EOR target, has been created as aresult of the on-going CO2-EOR DOE project.
FE0002254 University of Texas at Austin TX Recovery Act: Alliance for Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research and Education (STORE) 09/01/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR)

NETL, in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, has developed the Alliance for Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research and Education (STORE), which is a regional carbon storage technology training center for the Gulf Coast states that facilitates national and global development and deployment of CCUS technology. The training center accomplishes this through technology transfer events; webinars; student, professional, and public training courses; seminars; and communication through newsletters, email tech alerts, and a website. This training makes a vital contribution to the scientific, technical, and institutional knowledge needed to develop commercial CCUS projects. By providing educational and training programs necessary to produce a skilled professional CCUS workforce, the University of Texas at Austin helps the nation meet the need to capture and store large amounts of CO2. In addition, the center promotes transfer of regional CCUS technology expertise, provide the public, CCUS industry and other interested parties with a variety of professional services, and works with all stakeholders to advance CCUS from demonstration stage to deployment.
FE0001112 Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, LLC UT Comprehensive, Quantitative Risk Assessment 09/30/2013 Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment This project will develop a process based risk assessment model to determine quantitatively the potential risks and impacts of CO2 storage, as well as cost savings for risk mitigation. The model will be applied to the SACROC field site in Texas and two other known CO2 geologic storage sites.
FE0001164 GoldSim Technology Group WA Development of a Software Framework for System Level Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment- FOA-00 02/28/2013 Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment This project, in Seattle, shall develop an integrated system-level risk analysis approach for geologic CO2 storage by adapting and extending an existing highly regarded and widely used probabilistic simulation framework (GoldSim) that was originally developed for long-term safety analyses of nuclear waste disposal.
FE0002057 California Institute of Technology CA Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestrations 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) Application selected from ARRA 2009 DOE FOA Number DE-FOA-0000032, entitled "Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research". Project addresses the need to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, in situ, at higher frequency and over long periods of time for CO2 sequestration MVA. This project will support at least 2 graduate students.
FE0002058 Colorado School of Mines CO Recovery Act: Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical (HTM) Modeling of CO2 Geological Sequestration (GS) in Fractured Porous Rocks 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The primary objective of the proposal is to provide training opportunities for graduate students in the development and validation of an advanced three-dimensional simulation and risk assessment model that can be used to predict the fate, movement and storage of CO2 in underground formations, and to evaluate the risk of their potential leakage to the atmosphere and underground aquifers.
FE0002059 Colorado School of Mines CO Recovery Act: Training Graduate & Undergraduate Students in Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The primary objective is to train graduate and undergraduate students and advance the science in two critical areas of risk assessment (1) multi-process, multi-scale characterization and model simulation of the risks associated with leakage into overlying aquifers and (2) pore-scale geochemical processes in CO2 sequestration related to injectivity and storage including mineral reactivity and multiphase fluid reactions, needed to assess the likelihood of an successful sequestration effort.
FE0002197 Duke University NC Recovery Act: The Potential Risks of Freshwater Aquifer Contamination with Geosequestration 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project offers training opportunities for graduate and undergraduate students who are conducting research on the effects of CO2 leakage on multiple drinking water aquifers. Duke University is conducting long-term incubations and chemical simulations using aquifer sediments from many locations in order to present a risk assessment that is as accurate and as comprehensive as possible to prioritize areas with the greatest risks for geosequestration and to highlight areas where such risks are low.
FE0001034 Battelle Memorial Institute OH Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO2 Storage Infrastructure Along Arches Province 09/30/2012 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management Through its core research and development program administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) emphasizes monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA), as well as computer simulation, of possible carbon dioxide (CO2) leakage at CO2 sequestration sites, along with risk assessment of those sites. MVA efforts focus on the development and deployment of technologies that can provide an accurate account of stored CO2, with a high level of confidence that the CO2 will remain permanently sequestered. Effective application of these MVA technologies will ensure the safety of sequestration projects with respect to both human health and the environment, and provide the basis for establishing carbon credit trading markets for sequestered CO2. Risk assessment research focuses on identifying and quantifying potential risks to humans and the environment associated with CO2 sequestration, and helping to ensure that these risks remain low.
FE0002056 University of Kansas Center for Research KS Recovery Act: Modeling CO2 Sequestration in the Ozark Plateau Aquifer System 09/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) The University of Kansas (KU), BEREXO Inc., Bittersweet Energy Inc., Kansas Geological Survey, and the Kansas State University evaluated potential CO2 storage sites, including saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs, within the Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in south-central Kansas. The study focused on the Wellington Field, with an evaluation of the CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of its Mississippian chert reservoir and the storage potential in the underlying Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group saline reservoir. A larger study of the saline reservoir was undertaken over a 33 county area in south-central Kansas to evaluate regional CO2 storage potential. Additionally, the EOR potential of the Chester and Marrow Sandstone reservoirs is being evaluated. This study integrated well data, seismic, geologic, and engineering approaches to evaluate CO2 storage potential. The project estimated the CO2 storage potential of multiple formations by constructing integrated geological models followed by reservoir simulation studies. The effort collected available data, drilled and logged three new wells through the Arbuckle Group, cored a portion of the injection and confining zones, and performed chemical and physical analyses on the samples. Analysis of the geochemistry of formation fluids was conducted, and a simulation of fluid flow and geochemical interactions was performed.
FE0001040 Schlumberger Carbon Services OH Quantification of Wellbore Leakage Risk Using Non-Destructive Borehole Logging Techniques 05/31/2014 Subsurface Monitoring This project has identified leaky wellbores as an important risk to storage integrity that warrants further study to develop methods to quantify the risk of CO2 release through active and abandoned wellbores. It has developed a new method to relate the risk of release through existing wells at geologic carbon storage sites to data collected by non-destructive cement mapping tools. The data from wellbore logging tools were employed to develop models for leakage risk in wells. Methods to quantify the probability of leakage were developed for the casing, cement, cement-casing interface, cement-formation interface, and any existing defects. Models for risk of release through wells can then be developed that use collected data to establish the overall probability of leakage of a given well. Information obtained from well logging can be input into a model to evaluate the probability of leakage for specific zones in the well, e.g., the casing, cement, cement casing interface, cement-formation interface, and any existing defects.
FE0001836 University of Missouri MO Recovery Act: Numerical Modeling of Geomechanical Processes Related to CO2 Injection within Generic Reservoirs 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The main objective of this proposal is to properly train graduate students to develop multi-scale Finite Element (FE) models of different geological settings and compare the results concerning geomechanical processes, such as how fluid pressure induces rock deformation, how faults and fractures affect fluid migration, as well as critical wellbore placement and wellbore integrity to each other. This shall give a more thorough understanding of how reservoir geometry affects wellbore stability, formation and cap rock stability and thus shall facilitate future site selection.
FE0001852 Purdue University IN Recovery Act: Training Students to Analyze Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneities in Reservoir and Seal Petrology, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry: Implications for CO2 sequestration Prediction, Simulation and Monitoring 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL has partnered with Purdue University to conduct training and research to determine the depositional and diagenetic characteristics of CO2 storage and caprock formations; the low-permeability formations located above the CO2 injection zone(s) that prevent the upward migration of CO2. Depositional characteristics help to determine where sediment was deposited and lithified, such as a beach, lake, or dune. Diagenetic characteristics, such as compaction and cementation, illustrate the physical, chemical, and biological changes that take place in sediments as they become consolidated into rocks. This project also explored methods for predicting changes in the mineralogy (chemical composition) and texture that occur when rocks are exposed to CO2-saturated brines. During the project, graduate students conducted original scientific research into topics related to the lithological, textural, and compositional variability in formations that were analyzed as possible CO2 storage reservoirs and seals. The students focused primarily on analyzing core samples and geophysical well-logs of the Mount Simon Sandstone (Figure 1) and overlying E au Claire Formation seal.
FE0002060 Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) TX Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL, in partnership with the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, and the Applied Petroleum Technology Academy has developed a regional sequestration technology training center to deliver CCUS technology training and information to stakeholders in the Permian Basin Region of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico through an established technology transfer network, online capabilities, and a communications program. The Permian Basin is an ideal target for this type of training since is it a major oil and gas producing region, contains oil fields that show promise for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon storage activities, and has an extensive CO2-EOR infrastructure already located throughout the region. To implement this project, PTTC has created courses and lecture materials for academia and industry related to CCUS and conduct annual training events geared toward universities and colleges. PTTC is utilizing multiple approaches to deliver its technology transfer and training programs, including regional workshops, presentations at technical meetings, a focused research-oriented workshop, an online certificate program, webinars/e-symposia, and communication through newsletters, email tech alerts, and a website located at
FE0002069 San Diego State University CA Recovery Act: Web-Based CO2 Subsurface Modeling 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The objective of this project is to create a web-based simulator with comprehensive chemical and physical processes relevant for modeling CO2 sequestration systems and then to use this simulator as part of a course on CO2 sequestration and modeling. The simulator is intended to evaluate the effect of injected CO2 on the target rocks and the resulting chemical changes and how this shall affect flow and heat transfer. This project shall also provide an opportunity at San Diego State University to further develop existing industry-supported multidisciplinary applied computational sciences programs and well trained personnel for the industry.
FE0002108 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Recovery Act: Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA 12/31/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project shall establish data collection and processing requirements so that double-difference seismic tomography can be used to quantitatively map the mass and propagation of sequestered CO2 as a function of time. Additionally, a dataset from field monitoring of microseismic activity shall be analyzed using double-difference tomography. Finally, a graduate course shall be developed to enable students to apply the best, most recent methods for using geophysical tools to image sequestration.
FE0002352 Sandia Technologies, LLC TX Recovery Act: Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York & New Jersey for Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide 09/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) Sandia Technologies, LLC (Sandia), in partnership with Conrad Geoscience Corporation, Schlumberger Carbon Services, Columbia University, Rutgers University, the New York State Museum, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, examined the potential for large-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in deep strata of the Newark Rift Basin (NRB). The NRB underlies a heavily industrialized region comprising parts of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of these Triassic to Cambrian formations for geologic storage of CO2. The project included the analysis of existing hydrologic, geologic, and oil and gas well data; development of a Geographic Information System (GIS) database; geologic and conceptual modeling; and drilling and completing a characterization well. Drilling a stratigraphic test well to near-geologic basement (approximately 8,000 feet total depth) provided Sandia with formation water samples, native formation pressures, and estimates of formation porosity, permeability, grain and bulk density, lithology, and mineralogy. A second characterization well was drilled in conjunction with Columbia University, and a 2-D seismic survey was completed to further characterize the basin.
FE0002386 Columbia University NY Recovery Act: Geo-Chemo-Mechanical Studies for Permanent CO2 Storage in Geologic Reservoirs 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The goal of this project is to experimentally quantify rapid CO2 capture and storage (CCS) rates via mineral carbonation in peridotitic and basaltic rocks, and to test the hypothesis that rapid carbonation of peridotite leads to a positive feedback via "reactive cracking", in which cracks caused by large volume changes enhance porosity, permeability and reactive surface area.
FE0002389 Columbia University NY Recovery Act: Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in Geologic Formation 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The Recipient shall develop a microbial and chemical enhancement scheme for in-situ carbon mineralization in geologic formations. This system shall consist of thermodynamic and kinetic studies of CO2-mineral-brine systems and shall investigate the influence of organic acids produced by a microbial reactor on in-situ mineral carbonation.
FE0002407 University of Texas at El Paso TX Recovery Act: High Fidelity Computational Analysis of CO2 Sorption at Pore Scales in Coal Seams 07/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The Recipient shall develop a computational technique which relies upon variational statistics in pore size and pore throat size in order to determine the transport and free-phase storage of carbon dioxide in coal seams.
FE0000870 University of Connecticut (UConn) CT Multifunctional Nanowire/Film Composites Based Bi-Molecular Sensors for High-Temperature Gas Detection 06/01/2013 Plant Optimization Technologies The project objective is to develop a unique class of multifunctional metal oxide/perovskite based composite nanosensors for industrial and combustion gas detection at high temperature (700oC-1300oC). A miniaturized bi-module sensing platform will be designed and fabricated with a parallel, combinatory, and multiplex array of integrated electro-resistive and electrochemical nanosensors to meet the challenge of high temperature complex gaseous environment in various combustion conditions.
FE0002128 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) MA Recovery Act: Analysis of Microbial Activity Under a Supercritical CO2 Atmosphere 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project will characterize the growth requirements of a biofilm-producing supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-tolerant microbial consortium; evaluate the ability of this consortium to reduce permeability in sandstone under simulated reservoir conditions; investigate the mechanisms of scCO2 tolerance in isolated strains; and analyze the microbial diversity for scCO2 tolerant microbes at CCS sites.
FE0002138 University of Pittsburgh PA Recovery Act: Passive Wireless Acoustic Wave Sensors for Monitoring CO2 Emissions from Geological Sequestration Sites 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project aims to develop CO2 sensor and instrument for measuring and monitoring CO2 emissions for geological sequestration sites in a continuous mode, while providing training opportunities to two graduate students in the areas of acoustic wave sensors, nanomaterials and geological sequestration of CO2.
FE0002142 University of Wyoming WY Recovery Act: Site Characterization of the Highest-Priority Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage in Wyoming 12/07/2013 Geologic Sequestration Site Characterization (GSSC) The University of Wyoming and the project partner organizations have characterized the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) and Moxa Arch deep saline reservoirs in southwestern Wyoming to pave the way for commercial- scale CO2 storage projects within the region. These reservoirs have been characterized by drilling a test well in the RSU, performing extensive testing in and around the well, and processing data from a well in the Moxa Arch that had been installed previously by ExxonMobil. Analytical measurements taken within the wells and from tests performed on samples removed from the wells help to determine the suitability of the reservoirs to store CO2. An additional study has assessed potential release paths from the reservoirs. Specific tasks completed as part of the project included: (1) the installation of a characterization well at the RSU site for the purpose of gathering cores, fluid samples, and geophysical data; (2) 3-dimensional, 3-component seismic surveys and electromagnetic (EM) surveys of the area surrounding the RSU well; (3) development of well catalog and wellbore risk assessments for the RSU and Moxa Arch sites; (4) performance of structural and stratigraphic characterization of the RSU and Moxa Arch sites; (5) analysis of host rock mineralization and its effect on CO2 injectivity and storage and analysis of formation fluids; and (6) design of a commercial-scale sequestration project that includes options for the disposition of displaced waters and a complete performance risk assessment.
FE0002441 Ohio State University Research Foundation OH Recovery Act: Modeling and Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for Monitoring and Tracking CO2 Migration in the Subsurface 11/30/2012 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The Recipient shall provide a graphical user interface program through which previously developed numerical tests can be interfaced for the purpose of determining the optimum spatial distribution of boreholes for tracking a CO2 plume and displaying the data in a three dimensional format.
FE0002416 University of Missouri MO Recovery Act: Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration 09/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) In this Recovery Act project Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST) will enhance its existing CCS training and research program by offering courses in CCS topics. Student will attend field trips with "hands-on" involvement and conduct research on potential sequestration targets in the Midwest.
FE0002421 University of Illinois IL Understanding the Impact of CO2 Injection on the Subsurface Microbial Community in an Illinois Basin CCS Reservoir: Integrated Student Training in Geoscience & Geomicrobiology 03/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) In this Recovery Act project the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), in collaboration with the UIUC Department of Geology, Institute of Genomic Biology and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, will provide training and research opportunities for students who will participate in a study to evaluate the subsurface microorganism response to injected CO2 at the ADM Sequestration Site in Decatur, Ill.
FE0002423 Southern Illinois University IL Recovery Act: Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions 06/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR)

NETL is partnering with Southern Illinois University (SIU) to undertake a comprehensive study to understand the potential interactions between organic rocks and CO2. Interactions between various ranked coals (lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite) or organic shale with CO2 are complex and not well understood.

The fact that potential risks associated with their storage are seldom evaluated under plausible but extreme transient conditions poses a concern. Most risk assessments are typically accomplished under equilibrium conditions. However, under extreme non-equilibrium conditions (whether natural, seismic, or manmade) there are potential situations that could lead to the re-emission of CO2 stored in organic rocks. The possible interactions have not yet been studied in detail. In addition, SIU is attempting to evaluate how potential pressure and temperature variations, typically encountered under natural seismic conditions, can control the emission, adsorption, and absorption behavior of stored CO2.
FE0002438 Georgia Tech Research Corporation GA Recovery Act: High-Performance Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air 03/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The Recipient shall perform a combined experimental and modeling study of air capture of CO2 using low-cost, high-capacity sorbents such as hyperbranched amino-polymers. In addition, the Recipient shall examine the adsorption/desorption cycles for approaches using only diurnal temperature variations as energy input, as well as approaches where additional energy input from solar thermal sources is considered.
FE0002462 University of Illinois IL Recovery Act: Development and Implementation of the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium Sequestration Technology Transfer Center 06/30/2015 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR)

NETL, in partnership with the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), has developed the MGSC Sequestration Training and Education Program (STEP) to disseminate CCUS technology and provide education and training opportunities for engineers, geologists, service providers, regulators, executives, and other CCUS personnel working within the Illinois Basin region of the United States.
FE0000749 Princeton University NJ Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on CCS Energy Market Competiveness 03/31/2013 Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment Princeton investigators will develop a framework for examining carbon capture and storage investment decisions in light of uncertainty in CO2 leakage risks, potential subsurface liability, and the associated losses in carbon credits. The project team seeks to develop a framework to quantify leakage risk in probalistic terms, and combine it with a basin-scale model of competing subsurface land uses.
FE0000528 University of Akron OH Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-Based Fuel Cells 08/31/2014 AEC Development The University of Akron will demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of building a 250 kilowatt (kW) direct-coal fuel cell (DCFC) pilot plant. Researchers at the University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near-zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology requires two key elements: developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell; and long-term testing of a kW-scale fuel cell pilot plant. This novel coal fuel cell technology is expected to be a highly efficient, super clean, multi-use electric generation technology which promises to provide low cost electricity by expanding the utilization of U.S. coal supplies and relieving our dependence on foreign oil. A DCFC stack consists of multiple fuel cells which are interconnected electrically. The performance of the stack will be simulated on the basis of preliminary design and the single cell performance. The simulations and test data will be used to further refine the design.
FE0002381 Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. PA Recovery Act: Demonstration of CO2 Capture and Sequestration for Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production 09/30/2017 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) Air Products has designed, constructed and is operating a state-of-the-art system to capture the CO2 emitted from two large steam methane reformers. The reformers are located in Port Arthur, Texas and used by Air Products for large-scale hydrogen production. The CO2 removal units utilize Vacuum Swing Adsorption (VSA). Air Products is working with Denbury Resources, Inc. to transport the captured gas via pipeline to oil fields in eastern Texas where it is used for Enhanced Oil Recovery and thereby sequestered.
FE0001057 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) TX Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The objective of the proposed project is to model, fabricate, and test thin film amorphous alloy membranes which separate hydrogen from a coal-based system with performance meeting the DOE 2015 targets of flux, selectivity, cost and chemical and mechanical robustness, without the use of PGMs (platinum group metals). This project will use a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that have the potential to meet all DOE targets in testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol.
FE0000507 General Electric (GE) Company NY Demonstration of Pressurizing Coal/Biomass Mixtures Using Posimetric Solids Pump Technology 12/31/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids This project will demonstrate the capability of the GE Posimetric® pump for use in dry-feeding mixtures of coal and biomass into a pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. Various coal and biomass types will be mixed in a variety of ratios. Properties of the mixtures such as compressibility, friction factor, and gas permeability will be tested to obtain specifications for biomass pretreatment for gasification. Mixtures that meet specifications will be used to test the capability of the Posimetric pump on a demonstration scale and an economic analysis will be performed.
FE0001547 Archer Daniels Midland Corporation IL Recovery Act: CO2 Capture from Biofuels Production and Sequestration into the Mt. Simon Sandstone Reservoir 09/30/2022 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate an integrated system of industrial CO2 capture and geological storage in a deep sandstone formation. The project uses CO2 produced by ADM as a by-product of the production of fuel-grade ethanol. ADM has been capturing CO2 using dehydration and compression and sequestering it in the Mt. Simon Sandstone formation (saline reservoir). The ethanol plant and the sequestration site are both located in Decatur, Illinois. The project team members include ADM, Illinois State Geological Survey, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Richland Community College.

This is the first geologic storage project to operate with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Class VI injection well permit. This project is demonstrating cutting-edge technologies for intelligent monitoring in the deep verification well (i.e., Schlumberger's IntelliZone compact modular multi-zonal management system-first installation in North America), a downhole seismic monitoring system (i.e., Sercel SlimWave acquisition unit with WAVELAB surface control) in the geophysical well, and Schlumberger's WellWatcher monitoring system that integrates advanced downhole measurement technology with surface acquisition and data communication systems.
FE0001248 West Virginia University Research Corporation (WVU) WV Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project 09/30/2014 Advanced Fuels Synthesis The primary objective of this project is to further develop the research efforts previously initiated with the construction and operation of the Hydrogen Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) facility located at the Yeager Airport in Charleston, WV. The facility generates, stores, and dispenses hydrogen for use in vehicles and equipment that have been converted or designed to operate on hydrogen as their fuel source. Project objectives include the procurement of a various types of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, the development and execution of educational and outreach activities, testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles, and the management of the data collected from vehicle testing.
FE0000699 University of Kentucky KY Continuation of Crosscutting Technology of CAST 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies at the University of Kentucky (CAST-KY) will develop advanced technologies that can be used to exploit domestic energy resources and help developing countries reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In addition, new gas-gas separations technologies to be developed at the Center for Advanced Separations (CAST) will have crosscutting applications for a wide spectrum of the Fossil Energy R&D programs. The objective will be met by conducting both fundamental and applied research at CAST, which is a consortium of five universities. The university members include: University of Kentucky, Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, Montana Tech of University of Montana and University of Utah.
FE0001241 University of Central Florida FL Online, In-Situ Monitoring Combustion Turbines Using Wireless Passive Ceramic Sensors 06/30/2013 Plant Optimization Technologies Researchers at the University of Central Florida (UCF) will develop accurate and robust wireless passive high-temperature (>1300 degrees Celsius) microsensors for in situ measurement of temperature and pressure within combustion turbines. This research aims to establish a solid foundation for the development of commercially viable advanced sensor technologies for in-situ real-time monitoring of the operation of power generation systems, thus providing precise operational parameters in real-time for optimal system control for higher efficiency, increased reliability, and improved emissions.
FE0001009 Colorado School of Mines CO Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids This project will develop and optimize novel, nanoporous, metal carbide membranes using molybdenum (Mo) or tungsten (W) rather than platinum group metals. It will test the use of metal carbides and sulfides to separate hydrogen from high-temperature, high-pressure coal synthesis gas. These surface diffusion composite membranes will provide means to achieve DOE hydrogen separation performance goals. Achieving the goal of producing high purity hydrogen separation membrane systems will bring affordable, environmentally sound hydrogen supplies closer to a reality.
FE0001249 Prime Photonics, LC VA Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors 03/31/2013 Plant Optimization Technologies PRLC (Prime Research LC) and the Virginia Tech Antenna Group (VTAG) propose to develop a revolutionary wireless sensor technology capable of operating at extreme temperatures and in highly corrosive environments. The technology will completely eliminate the need for cables connecting to the sensors. In many cases it will avoid having to machine feed-throughs to gain access into plant interiors. The technology is enabled by recent developments in radio frequency identification (RFID), high temperature materials, and frequency selective metamaterials.
FE0000234 Energy Industries of Ohio, Inc. OH Steam Turbine Materials for Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC) Coal Power Plants 09/30/2015 High Performance Materials The objective of this project is to contribute to the development of materials technology for use in advanced ultra supercritical (AUSC) steam turbines. AUSC power plants will operate with steam temperatures up to 1,400°F and pressures of 5,000 psi resulting in a highly efficient power generation process. Estimated plant efficiency increases are as much as 30% compared to sub critical power plants. Research and development on advanced materials is needed to lead to full-scale demonstration and eventual commercialization for AUSC power plants. A three-year preliminary evaluation under Phase 1 identified a wide spectrum of potential alloys and coatings. Preliminary evaluations of a subset of these promising materials included research on mechanical properties, oxidation resistance, weldability, and suitability of alloys and coatings. This follow-on effort will support in-depth, longer term testing that provides material characterization data that is necessary for the design of a steam turbine that is operable in AUSC conditions.
FE0002314 Leucadia Energy, LLC NY Recovery Act: The Lake Charles CCS Project 06/30/2015 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) The Lake Charles CCS Project will accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO2 storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petcoke to methanol plant (Lake Charles Chemical Project) and one of the largest integrated anthropogenic CO2 capture, transport, and monitored sequestration programs in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Lake Charles CCS Project will promote the expansion of EOR in the Gulf region and supply greater energy security by expanding domestic energy supplies. The compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure will continue to sequester CO2 for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement.
FE0001563 University of Texas at Austin TX Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage of CO2 08/31/2014 Risk Assessment This project developed a comprehensive analysis of programmatic and technical risks associated with CO2 storage in deep brine reservoirs. The study quantified the risks associated with CO2 storage projects by: (1) employing Bayesian inference to evaluate storage risks; (2) utilizing the safety record of the CO2 based enhanced oil recovery industry (CO2-EOR) and pilot storage projects to identify and evaluate potential risks; (3) developing and quantifying the nature of programmatic risks; (4) utilizing diverse, highly qualified expert panels drawn from industry and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to evaluate changing perceptions of programmatic risks; and (5) assessing the possible consequences to water ecology and energy resources from potential leakage of CO2 from deep brine reservoirs.
FE0001116 Planetary Emissions Management, Inc. MA Near-Surface Leakage Monitoring for the Verification and Accounting of Geologic Carbon Sequestration using a Field Ready 14c Isotopic Analyzer 04/14/2014 Atmospheric Monitoring This four-year project—performed by Planetary Emissions Management, Inc. (PEM)—is developing a carbon-14 (14C) field-ready analyzer having a sensitivity of approximately 1 ppm of fossil fuel CO2 in ambient air. The primary focus of the application is within the near surface environment covering the project area, however, a gas stream from any component of a geologic carbon storage project or location may be analyzed. The analyzer is based on PEM’s already completed multi-isotopic Global Monitor Platform (GMP) and is being deployed for testing and validation at two reference sites: one where CO2 leaks from natural geologic reservoirs and the other a pilot CO2 injection site.
FE0002402 University of Texas at El Paso TX Recovery Act: Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion 05/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The objective of this project is to investigate oxy-fuel flame characteristics and assess their impact on the operability of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The individual objectives are to (i) measure fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion, (ii) investigate combustor operability issues of oxy-fuel combustion, and (iii) engage and train students in the multiple facets of the project.
FE0002146 Lehigh University PA Recovery Act: Thermal Integration of CO2 Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture 06/29/2012 Pre-Combustion Capture This project seeks to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output by analyzing potential internal uses for heat produced during compression process of carbon capture. Among the thermal integration opportunities to be analyzed are to (1) regenerate post-combustion CO2 capture solvents, (2) preheat boiler feedwater and (3) predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal.
FE0002054 North Dakota State University ND Recovery Act: Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines 11/30/2011 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project will develop coating systems to protect the interior of pipelines and process equipment used in the transport post-combustion flue gases from corrosion and other potential stresses resulting from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide with additional contaminants/constituents. The secondary objectives will be designing and preparing polymers resistant to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide with additional constinents which improve physical properties of such a coating film.
FE0002546 Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd. WV Recovery Act: Re-Utilization of Industrial CO2 for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material 12/31/2013 ICCS (Research) This project will demonstrate an innovative process for capturing and utilizing carbon dioxide (CO2) from a coal-fired industrial source to grow algae in an open-pond configuration. A unique phase change material (PCM) will be used in the open-pond approach to tackle three significant challenges in algae biofuels technology. The PCM is an immiscible liquid that floats on and covers a significant portion of the open-pond surface, reducing water evaporation and providing a near-hermetic seal to prevent introduction of invasive species. The PCM also absorbs infrared solar radiation during the day and releases it at night when the temperature drops. Phase 1 of the project focuses on research and development, conceptual design, permitting, and project management activities to prepare for the second phase. Phase 2will provide construction and two-year operation of a pilot-scale outdoor system that will supply sufficient data to substantiate commercialization efforts. The Department of Energy (DOE) will determine if the Phase II effort will be initiated based on the merits of Phase I results.
FE0000493 Ramgen Power Systems, LLC WA Recovery Act: Ramgen Supersonic Shock Wave Compression and Engine Technology 03/31/2015 Novel Concepts

This four-year project—performed by Planetary Emissions Management, Inc. (PEM)—is developing a carbon-14 (14C) field-ready analyzer having a sensitivity of approximately 1 ppm of fossil fuel CO2 in ambient air. The primary focus of the application is within the near surface environment covering the project area, however, a gas stream from any component of a geologic carbon storage project or location may be analyzed. The analyzer is based on PEM’s already completed multi-isotopic Global Monitor Platform (GMP) and is being deployed for testing and validation at two reference sites: one where CO2 leaks from natural geologic reservoirs and the other a pilot CO2 injection site.
FE0002141 University of Wyoming WY Recovery Act: Wyoming CCS Technology Institute: Workforce Training, Technology Transfer, and Information Clearinghouse 06/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL, in partnership with the University of Wyoming and the Wyoming CCUS Technology Institute (WCTI), has developed a regional sequestration technology training center for Wyoming (Figure 1) and the greater Rocky Mountain region that will establish training programs to facilitate national and global development and deployment of CCUS technology. The WCTI will accomplish this by providing several types of CCUS educational programs, promoting transfer of regional CCUS technology expertise, providing the public, CCUS industry and other interested parties with a variety of professional services, and working with all stakeholders to advance CCUS from demonstration through commercial deployment. These programs will include professional workshops, short-courses focused on specific research and technical topics, online courses, webinars/e-symposia, and communication through newsletters, email tech alerts, and a comprehensive website.
FE0002112 University of Wyoming WY Recovery Act: Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO2 Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming 09/30/2014 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) This project will determine whether quantitative measurement techniques for Rn activity and CO2 flux can be applied as a means of assessing caprock integrity, and provide training opportunities for two graduate students and one undergraduate student in geologic and geochemical skills required for implementing and deploying this technology for CO2 Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA).
FE0001826 Georgia Institute of Technology GA Recovery Act: CO2 Geological Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - "From Pore-Scale Processes to Macroscale Implications" 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) NETL partnered with the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT) to explore the consequences of coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-mechanical (HCTM) processes related to the injection of CO2 into the subsurface. This work expanded the results from a previous study on the interactions of groundwater acidification and dissolution of minerals and precipitation on pore-scale processes. The scope of work included general analyses in the governing parameter domain, interfacial properties of water, mineral, CO2 and/or surfactant system, interaction between clay particles and CO2, reactive fluid flow as a result of CO2 dissolution, two-phase flow between immiscible CO2 and formation fluid, CO2 break through and sealing strategies, and CH4-CO2 hydrate replacement and hydro-mechanical implications. The project team explored coupled phenomena, identified different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigated their implications in CO2 geological storage. In particular, the research: (1) Explored spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); (2) experimentally determined the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO2 systems, including CO2-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO2-water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency (Figure 1); (3) analyzed the interaction between clay particles and CO2, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO2 using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; (4) coupled advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO2-dissolved water along a rock fracture; (5) upscaled results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; (6) measured CO2 breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; (7) explored sealing strategies; and (8) experimentally measured CO2-CH4 replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO2 injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO2 injection and to attain long-term storage.
FE0002224 University of Alabama AL Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research 06/30/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The project utilizes undergraduate honors students in independent research on the sealing capacity of geologic formations; development of an advanced undergraduate/graduate level course that includes climate change, and carbon sequestration; support of six graduate students who are developing protocols for assessment of seal layer integrity; and analysis of cap rock samples from geologic formations under consideration for sequestration of CO2.
FE0001830 Colorado State University CO Recovery Act: Multi-Objective Optimization Approaches for the Planning of Carbon Geological Sequestration Systems 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The objective of this project is to provide training opportunities for graduate students in order to improve the human capital and skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. The graduate students shall develop an integrated simulation-optimization framework that may be used to assess the opportunity of implementing geologic sequestration at any given geological site. This project shall represent the first attempt to apply mathematical optimization to support the planning of geologic sequestration
FE0002415 Alcoa, Inc. PA Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using An In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization 07/31/2012 ICCS (Research) This project will demonstrate and optimize a process to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas streams using in-duct scrubbers and sequester it through alkaline clay mineralization. The process uses the captured CO2 to convert an industrial waste, bauxite residue, into a beneficial soil amendment, carbonated alkaline clay. This process will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and will convert a high-volume, highly caustic waste product from aluminum production into a saleable soil-building product.
FE0002472 Calera Corporation CA Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2 Use Award 09/30/2015 ICCS (Research) Calera Corporation will design, build, and operate a Building Materials Demonstration Plant to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plant flue gas into carbonate mineral building materials for use in the construction industry. This study will develop a plan to scale-up the full carbonate mineralization technology for commercial deployment. Using Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology, anthropogenic CO2 can be used in an economical and environmentally sound process to create useful products. The demonstration plant will operate in conjunction with an existing power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. The beneficial use products derived from the mineralized CO2 will be tested and optimized to maximize their marketability and value. Producing marketable building materials from carbonate minerals with this technology may reduce the net operating costs of sequestering CO2. In addition, with the addition of an electrochemical portion of the project, the potential exists for the co-production of a range of potentially valuable chemical products.
FE0002474 Novomer, Inc. NY Recovery Act: Catalytic Transformation of Waste CO2 into Valuable Products 09/30/2013 ICCS (Research) Novomer, along with its subcontractor, proposes to develop polycarbonates from a petrochemical, carbon dioxide, and a proprietary catalyst system first discovered at Cornell University. The system activates inert Carbon Dioxide, enabling it to react with a commodity petrochemical that results in permanent storage of Carbon Dioxide in new chemical structures which are up to 50% by weight Carbon Dioxide. The Energy Department will provide $2.1 million of the proposed $2.63 million Phase I project cost.
FE0001888 Phycal, Inc. OH Recovery Act: Beneficial CO2 Capture in an Integrated Algal Biorefinery for Renewable Generation and Transportation Fuels 03/31/2014 ICCS (Research) This project integrates unique technologies for algal biomass production, lipid yield enhancement, and lipid extraction with mature technologies to produce beneficial energy products through algal capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial emissions. Phycal will create an integrated microalgal biorefinery (IBR) pilot project using algal feedstock to create energy products for conversion to fuel for transportation and power generation. Previous DOE programs have shown algal production offers a significant and sustainable domestic potential yield of biomass while sinking large amounts of CO2. Phycal's pilot-scale IBR could lead to commercial production of algal biofuels as early as 2016.
FE0002586 Skyonic Corporation TX Recovery Act: Skymine Beneficial CO2 Use Project 06/30/2015 ICCS (Research) This project will develop a plan for pilot scale evaluation of the SkyMine process to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from from a cement manufacturing facility flue gas stream and convert the absorbed CO2 through co-production of carbonate and bicarbonate materials. This pilot-scale project will conduct testing of the SkyMine carbon utilization process at a scale sufficiently large to evaluate the technical viability and the economics of process.
FE0001390 University of Cincinnati OH Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 06/30/2012 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The overall objective of this project is to develop viable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing concepts based upon self-healing glass-based seals. In this project composite seals combining suitable "self-healing" glasses with fillers and/or fibers shall be developed and evaluated. The ultimate goal is a reliable, stable, cost-effective sealing system for SOFCs.
FE0000303 LG Fuel Cell Systems, Inc. OH SECA Coal-Based Systems - Rolls-Royce 01/31/2014 Pressurized Systems LG Fuel Cell Systems (LG), formerly Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems, will lead a team to develop low cost solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for use in highly-efficient and technologically-integrated central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas. The project consists of three elements, cost reduction research and development (R&D), systems R&D, and a manufacturing element. The project will utilize LG proprietary segmented-in-series SOFCs at pressures up to seven atmospheres. These cells are created by screen-printing the active cell layers (anode, cathode, and electrolyte) onto ceramic flat substrates. Each ceramic flat substrate contains a large number of small planar cells connected in series (segmented-in-series design).
FE0000773 LG Fuel Cell Systems, Inc. OH LG Fuel Cell Systems SOFC Model Development 03/31/2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells The overall objective of this project is to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model(s) for performance calculations of the Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (RRFCS) fuel cell in support of product development and design. The RRFCS fuel cell includes the integrated planar cell, cell assemblies that form bundles, bundle assemblies that form strips and multiple strips that define the fuel cell block. The fuel cell block is the fundamental repeat unit, and when replicated, defines a 1MW(e) fuel cell module.
FE0000753 Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station TX Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer Studies of Parameters Specific to the IGCC Requirements: High Mass Flow Endwall Contouring, Leading Edge Filleting and Blade Tip Ejection under Rotating Turbine Condition 09/30/2013 Hydrogen Turbines This project is designed capture and explore quantitative aerodynamic and film cooling effectiveness data essential to understanding the basic physics of complex secondary flows. This includes their influence on the efficiency and performance of gas turbines, and the impact that differing film cooling ejection arrangements have on suppressing the detrimental effect of these secondary flows.
FE0000752 Pennsylvania State University (PSU) PA An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels 09/30/2013 Hydrogen Turbines This project emphasizes enhancing the scientific understanding the underlying factors affecting combustion for current IGCC syngas turbines and using that knowledge to developed detailed, validated combustion kinetics models that would be useful to support the design and future R&D needed to transition to nearly pure high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels derived from coal syngas. The research scope fundamentally seeks to shed light on (and resolve) previously reported literature discrepancies between published experimental data and modeling predictions of early ignition behavior of syngas and HHC fuels under controlled laboratory conditions (e.g., shock tubes, rapid compression machines, counterflow burners) by pursuing very comprehensive experimental studies and detailed reaction kinetics modeling.
FE0000765 University of Texas at El Paso TX Novel Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology 01/31/2013 Hydrogen Turbines This project is focused on developing novel coatings for high-H2 fired gas turbine components such that high efficiencies and long lifetimes may be achieved in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) powerplants. Nanostructured Hafnia-based coatings will be developed for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). A fundamental understanding of TBCs will be acquired and a knowledge database of next generation TBC materials with high-temperature tolerance, durability, and reliability will be generated.
FE0002196 University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) ND Recovery Act: Efficient Regeneration of Physical and Chemical Solvents for CO2 Capture 05/31/2013 Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (GSTR) The objective of this project is to evaluate the use of composite polymer membranes and porous membrane contactors for the recovery of CO2 from CO2-rich solvent streams from coal gasification syngas. This work will also be applicable to similar post-combustion carbon capture systems. This project will support at least 2 graduate students during the research effort.
FE0001156 Montana State University MT Development and Deployment of a Compact Eye-Safe Scanning Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Spatial Mapping of Carbon Dioxide for Monitoring/Verification/Accounting at Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites 03/31/2014 Atmospheric Monitoring This project has developed, tested, and deployed a scanning eye-safe diode laser-based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL; LIDAR = Laser Induced Differential Absorption Radar). This instrument was designed to perform near-surface mapping of CO2 number densities for MVA to determine possible CO2 leakage to the atmosphere at geologic carbon storage sites. Horizontal testing of the CO2 DIAL instrument was conducted to determine its performance at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site during a controlled release experiment, and at the Kevin Dome site in north-central Montana, where the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership will be conducting a larger-scale carbon storage demonstration project. At both sites, the DIAL instrument measured CO2 concentrations that compared favorably to those measured by commercial CO2 instrumentation.
FE0001160 University of Wyoming WY Feasibility of Geophysical Monitoring of Carbon-Sequestrated Deep Saline Aquifers 09/30/2013 Monitoring, Verification, Accounting, and Assessment Monitoring carbon-sequestrated deep saline aquifers using existing geophysical tools is a challenge. This three-year project , performed by the University of Wyoming (UW) with assistance from WesternGeco (Houston, Texas), combines reservoir flow simulation with 3-D, multicomponent seismic waveform modeling to investigate whether seismic waveform inversion can accurately predict and account for post-injection CO2 saturation within carbon-sequestrated deep saline aquifers. If successful, this research could establish the feasibility of a practical and cost-effective technique to monitor these aquifers, which are considered to be among the most promising geologic formations for high-capacity sequestration of CO2 captured from power plant emissions and other sources.
FE0000470 Arizona State University AZ Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual-Phase Ceramic Carbonate Membrane Reactor 09/30/2014 Membranes This project will develop a high temperature, chemically stable, and carbon dioxide perm-selective dual phase membrane and conduct experimental studies on its use in a membrane reactor for water-gas-shift reaction to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide rich streams. The goal is to identify experimental conditions for water-gas-shift reaction in the dual-phase carbon dioxide selective membrane reactor that will produce the hydrogen and CO2 streams with 93 percent and 95 percent purity. The project includes modeling studies on the performance of the WGS reaction in the new dual-phase membrane reactors and process economic analysis.
FE0000646 Gas Technology Institute (GTI) IL Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process 03/31/2012 Membranes The overall objective of this program is to develop cost effective separation technology for CO2 capture from synthesis gas based on a hollow fiber membrane contactor that has the potential to provide a step change reduction in the cost of separating and capturing CO2. The objectives of Phase I work are the development of hollow fiber membranes suitable for the membrane contactor application with improved mass transfer, establishing feasibility of the proposed technology for CO2 separation from synthesis gas, and performing initial process design and economic analysis based on test data. The objectives of Phase II work will scale up the process from lab to a larger bench scale.
FE0000489 Research Triangle Institute (RTI) NC Recovery Act: High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-Up and Demonstration Project 09/30/2015 Syngas Processing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is designing, building, and testing the warm temperature desulfurization process (WDP) at pre-commercial scale (50 megawatt electric equivalent [MWe]) to remove more than 99.9 percent of the sulfur from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). RTI is integrating this WDP technology with an activated methyl diethanolamine (aMDEA) solvent technology to separate 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) from shifted syngas. The Polk Power Station, an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, will supply approximately 20 percent of its coal-derived syngas as a slipstream to feed into the pre-commercial scale technologies being scaled-up. This project builds on the technical progress on the warm syngas cleaning technologies made during field testing with real syngas from Eastman Chemical Company's gasifier under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99FT40675. Successful warm gas cleanup, in combination with carbon capture and storage, will demonstrate high-purity syngas at significantly lower costs than current technologies.
NT0007428 Ohio State University Research Foundation OH Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process 09/30/2012 University Carbon Research The proposed project, Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) Process, is to conduct comprehensive and consistent co-simulation that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the chemical looping system using the combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT® and process simulator Aspen Plus® on the platform of NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The proposed project will provide (1) detailed and reliable information for general thermodynamic analysis on SCL systems, (2) reaction mechanisms between porous oxygen carries and gas reactants, (3) distributed gas-solid contacting pattern involved in main reactors, and (4) overall material, heat and energy balance in different configurations of the whole SCL process.
FE0000465 URS Group, Inc. TX Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture 09/30/2013 Pre-Combustion Capture The project aims to develop high performance sorbents that are capable of achieving 90% CO2 removal, having high loading capacities, and operate at the high temperatures and pressures typically encountered upstream of a WGS reactor.
FE0001127 University of Missouri MO Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments 09/30/2014 Sensors and Controls The project is to develop single-crystal sapphire fiber based sensors for in situ measurement of temperature (up to 1600°C) and dynamic gas pressure in harsh environments. It will also conduct fundamental and applied research that leads to successful single-crystal sapphire fiber hybrid extrinsic/intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (HEIFPI) sensors. A multidisciplinary research team from Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST) and University of Cincinnati (UC) will collaboratively focus on solving the fundamental and engineering challenges. MST and UC will model the HEIFPI sensor in response to temperature and pressure. A fully optimized measurement system integrated with high quality sapphire sensors is the objective.
FC26-05NT42439 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology NM Development of Nanocrystalline Doped Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases 12/31/2011 Sensors and Controls The objective of this project is to develop a new type of nanocrystalline doped-ceramic-coated optical fiber sensor suitable for in-situ and real time gas monitoring in fossil energy systems. One technical objective is to identify single-phase or heterophase doped-ceramic sensor materials with desirable chemical, structural, and optical properties for the detection of fossil fuel gases. Another goal is to synthesize nanocrystalline ceramic films and protective silicalite layers on structured optical fibers. Another objective is to design and fabricate structured fiber devices for enhanced sensor performance. A final objective is to test the developed sensors in simulated high temperature and pressure fossil fuel environments.
FE0000469 TDA Research, Inc. CO A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture 09/30/2012 Sorbents The project objective is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO2 sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO2 capture. First year objectives include optimizing chemical and physical properties of the sorbent, scaling-up sorbent production, and beginning long-term sorbent testing in the presence of contaminants for approximately 10,000 cycles in a laboratory reactor. Second year objectives include designing and building a prototype test unit and testing the unit in the presence of actual syngas. Technology success will be based on the sorbents ability to remove CO2 at a lower cost than current technologies.
FE0000857 Oregon State University OR Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems 07/31/2013 Plant Optimization Technologies This work will focus on deriving, implementing and testing agent objective functions that promote coordinated behavior in large sensor networks. The long-term objective of the proposed work is to provide a comprehensive solution to the scalable and reliable sensor coordination problem to lead to safe and robust operation of advanced energy systems.
FE0001180 Stanford University CA Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High Temperature Coal Gasifiers 09/30/2014 Sensors and Controls The objective of this project is to design, build, and test a tunable diode laser sensor capable of measuring gas concentrations and temperature in a gasification system. Two crucial sensors needs for the production and utilization of syngas have been identified: (1) to control the temperature of the gasifier by adjusting feed rates of fuel and oxygen to the gasifier and (2) to control the air dilution at the intake to the gas turbine. To address these needs, the laser-based sensor will be capable of measuring H2O, CO, CO2, and CH4; concentrations in the high-temperature, high-pressure gasifier environment. The CH4 concentration in the output syngas stream serves as a surrogate monitor of gasifier temperature. CO and CO2 concentrations have the potential to be used as a control variable for the gasifier and the subsequent utilization (e.g., gas turbine) of the syngas. Measuring water vapor absorption of laser light is used for real-time in situ temperature sensing.
FE0001045 Ceramatec, Inc. UT Novel, Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Separation 12/31/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids This project will produce a prototype membrane that will separate hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) at operating conditions found at a typical coal gas facility without the use of precious metals. The membrane will be a multi-stacked wafer of ceramic or ceramic-composite material which will meet the following standards of operation: (1) hydrogen flux of greater than 200 standard cubic feet per hour per square foot (scfh/ft2), (2) manufacturing cost of less than $100/ft2, and (3) efficient operation at relevant conditions. This research will enhance performance and efficiency as well as reduce the cost of hydrogen separation membrane technology. These advances are key to DOE's goal of achieving an affordable method of producing hydrogen from syngas in an environmentally clean manner.
FE0001321 University of Florida FL Novel Magnetically Fluidized-Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids This project will develop a magnetically fluidized bed reactor system that uses a chemical looping process with metal oxide sorbents to separate hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Chemical looping is a strategy for extracting high purity hydrogen and isolating sequestration-ready carbon dioxide from syngas near gasification operating conditions to obtain improved thermal efficiency over more traditional gas separations methods that operate at low temperatures and pressures. Metal oxide sorbents with magnetic properties will be studied for the potential to reduce pressure drop, provide more uniform solids distribution, and to aid in solids transport within the fluidized bed reactors. The project will experimentally explore, model, and evaluate the feasibility of this method as a pathway for meeting the DOE goal of reducing the cost of hydrogen from coal and for facilitating the production of affordable, environmentally clean energy from coal resources.
FE0000435 University of Southern California CA Methanol Economy 12/31/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Methanol Economy project at USC is developing the fundamental science to convert CH4 and/or CO2 into methanol (or dimethyl ether, DME) as a fuel and feed-stock. Initially, direct electrophilic bromination of CH4 to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to methanol/DME will be probed. Subsequently, bireforming of CH4 and CO2 and steam to syngas for conversion to methanol and DME will be studied. Some aspects of chemical and electrochemical reduction of CO2 will also be investigated. The main goal is to develop renewable sources of energy carriers that can help reduce U.S. dependence on fossil fuels, and recycle CO2 into new fuels and materials.
FE0001050 Worcester Polytechnic Institute MA Supported Molten-Metal Membrane (SMMM) for Hydrogen Separation 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids WPI proposes a novel dense membrane technology for the separation of H2 from syngas based on non-precious group metal (PGM) supported molten-metal membranes (SMMMs). These would comprise a thin film (3-25 mm) of a liquid metal or alloy, with a melting point in the range of 200-500C, and supported on a porous ceramic or porous metal support. The proposed membranes would be inexpensive, more robust to species such as CO, and substantially resistant to poisons such as sulfur. In addition, they would obviate issues related to solid dense membranes; sintering, H2 embrittlement, thermal mismatch between the membrane and the support, and formation of pin-holes.
FE0001293 University of Texas at Dallas TX Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non-Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membranes 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The overall objectives of the proposed research by UTD are to prepare novel, non-precious metal mixed matrix membranes, in flat and hollow fiber geometries, based on polymer composites with nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). Membrane performance to separate hydrogen from synthesis gas (e.g. H2, CO, CO2, H2O) generated during coal gasification will be evaluated in an integrated water gas shift membrane reactor using NETL test protocols (DOE/NETL-2008/1335). The goal is to exploit the high surface areas, adsorption capacities, and sieving capabilities of the nanoporous ZIF additives to achieve unprecedented, selective transport of hydrogen under operating conditions defined by 2015 DOE targets.
FC26-05NT42456 University of Kentucky KY Production and Storage of Hydrogen from Coal Using C1 Chemistry 12/31/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a multi-university research consortium with participants from the Universities of Kentucky, West Virginia, Pittsburgh, Utah, and Auburn. The proposed three-year research program is focused on: (1) developing novel processes for the production of hydrogen using C1 chemistry; (2) developing novel hydrogen storage materials; and (3) synthesis and dehydrogenation of hydrogen-rich carrier liquids. The feedstocks include synthesis gas derived from coal, gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons produced from coal-derived syngas, coalbed methane, and natural gas.
FC26-05NT42441 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems 06/30/2014 Sensors and Controls The objective is to develop novel modified fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in standing hole optical fibers. To overcome the response time limitation of currently available holey fibers (due to gas phase diffusion constraints), a novel process will be developed to produce holes perpendicular to the fiber axis. An investigation of the feasibility of upgrading the technology to single crystal sapphire by use of sol-gel processing and laser backside photochemical etching will be accomplished, thereby providing a quantum leap in temperature capability of the gas sensor.
FE0003311 Petra Nova Parish Holdings, LLC TX Recovery Act: W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project 12/31/2019 Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI)

Petra Nova Parish Holdings, a joint venture between NRG Energy and JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration, will retrofit a CO2 capture plant on an existing coal-fired power plant (W.A. Parish Generating Station) located in Thompsons, Texas, which is southwest of Houston. The project will demonstrate the ability of the CO2 capture technology supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) to capture 90% of the CO2 emitted from a 240 megawatt electrical (MWe) flue gas stream. The MHI CO2 capture technology, called the KM CDR Process (Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery), was jointly developed by MHI and the Kansai Electric Power Company. This process uses the proprietary KS-1™ solvent that facilitates low energy requirements, solvent consumption, and waste products, when compared with a conventional solvent.

The project is designed to capture and store 1.4 million tonnes of CO2 per year. At 240 MWe, this will be the largest post-combustion CO2 capture project installed on an existing coal-fueled power plant. This project has the potential to enhance the long term viability and sustainability of coal-fueled power plants across the United States and worldwide. The University of Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology will design and manage the CO2 monitoring plans for this project.
FE0000660 University of Kentucky KY Coal - Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction 06/30/2012 Plant Optimization Technologies The goal of this project is to create a center with a unique fully equipped laboratory capable of fabricating pilot quantities of new energy efficient construction materials from coal products and testing them. The center will be operated by a full time staff devoted to developing new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion products or CCP's
FE0000458 Pennsylvania State University (PSU) PA CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents 08/31/2012 Post-Combustion Capture Under this project, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) will develop a new generation of solid polymer-based sorbents for more efficient capture and separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The project is based on the concept of a "molecular basket" sorbent (MBS) which was invented and developed at PSU. The idea of MBS development is to load CO2-philic polymers onto high surface area mesoporous materials. This process increases the number of approachable sites on/in the sorbent and enhances the sorption/desorption rate by increasing the gas-sorbent contacting interface and by improving the mass transfer in the sorption/desorption process. The expected result of this project will be a concentrated CO2 stream that can be directed to CO2 sequestration or CO2 utilization.
FE0003466 University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) ND National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Year 6) 05/31/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The second Cooperative Agreement (DE-FE0003466) supporting the National Center for Hydrogen Technology (NCHT) Program will continue to build on the proven approach and accomplishments obtained during the first five years of the program. The Center will continue to focus on the research and development activities that are required to develop advanced hydrogen production and delivery technologies from fossil fuels. The result of these activities will improve current technology and make available new, innovative technology that can produce and deliver affordable hydrogen from coal, the most abundant fuel resource of the U.S., as well as from other fuels, with significantly reduced or near-zero emissions.
FE0003693 Southern University and A&M College System LA Computer Simulation and Experimental Validation on the Oxidation and Sulfate Corrosion Resistance of Novel Chromium Based High Temperature Alloys 02/28/2013 HBCUs, Education and Training The following investigations, to be carried out within a two-year period, are proposed: (1) the simulation method development: Develop reliable interatomic potentials from the highly accurate ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) calculation for Cr-Y and Cr-Ta systems. (2) The application of the simulation method for novel material design: Set up Cr-Y and Cr-Ta models and perform the HPC MD simulation on the Cr based alloy models to study the high temperature properties and the oxidation and sulfate corrosion resistance capabilities. (3) Method validation: Perform experiments on the oxidation and sulfate corrosion resistance of the most promising systems identified by the simulation. The isothermal oxidation and corrosiveness kinetics of Cr based alloy samples will be studied at high temperature in air and at sulfate corrosive environment by thermal-gravity analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and in a high temperature rig. The primary theoretical method of investigation is the ab initio molecular dynamics method based on the density functional theory (DFT).
FE0003742 University of Texas at El Paso TX Investigation of Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles 06/30/2013 HBCUs, Education and Training The overall project goal is to develop a high speed particle imaging method by which to obtain a full-field visualization of rotational motions of non-spherical particles in quasi-2-dimensional semi-dilute (volume fractions of 10 or 15%) flows and to take into account drag force interactions between bidisperse non-spherical grains and fluid flow.
FE0003801 University of California - Merced CA High-Fidelity Multi-Phase Radiation Module for Modern Coal Combustion Systems 11/15/2013 Simulation-Based Engineering The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gas–particulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a radiative transfer equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which had been extensively used in previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.
FE0003798 Tennessee State University TN Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Nb-Si Alloy 12/30/2013 High Performance Materials The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to next generation hot section material operating at temperature beyond 1350°C which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. The main objectives of the proposed projects are: (1) developing a supercell approach to evaluate physical properties of alloys which maintains various order and disorder bulk phases and interfaces; (2) applying the supercell approach to study the physical properties of Nb-Si alloy. The results will be used to guide the search for optimal Nb-Si alloy design with a balanced set of physical properties.
FE0003840 Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) PA High Resolution Modeling of Materials for High Temperature Service 12/31/2013 High Performance Materials This project will develop high resolution methods for modeling the three dimensional mechanical response of metallic alloys when exposed to high temperatures. The methodology will include three (3) dimensional microstructure generation from microscopy data, and an image-based method for high resolution simulation of mechanical response. The technical focus will be on simulating plastic deformation and damage accumulation of polycrystalline materials at the grain scale.
FE0003872 West Virginia University (WVU) WV University Coal Research: AOI[3] High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and H2S Sensors 05/15/2014 Sensors and Controls Researchers at West Virginia University (WVU) will develop micro-scale, chemical sensors and sensor arrays composed of nano-derived, metal-oxide composite materials to detect H2 and H2S within high-temperature environments (500-1200ºC). Most micro-patterned semi-conductor based chemical sensors use thin film deposition and wet/dry etching processes. This work will demonstrate an innovative microcasting process for forming chemi-resistive sensors with 20-100 µm feature size of various geometries composed of nano-composite electrodes that display high-temperature microstructural and morphological stability. In order to achieve this goal, the work will concurrently address issues relating to electrode stability, selectivity, and sensor miniaturization.
FE0003892 Clemson University SC Multiscale Modeling of Grain Boundary Segregation and Embrittlement in Tungsten for Mechanistic Design of Alloys for Coal Fired Plants 06/30/2013 University Carbon Research Based on a recent discovery of premelting-like GB segregation in refractory metals occurring at high temperatures and/or high alloying levels, the proposed research will investigate GB segregation and embrittlement in tungsten (W) based alloys as model systems. The overall objective is to develop a theoretical framework in combination with a multiscale modeling strategy for predicting GB segregation and embrittlement. The project is divided into three tasks (seven subtasks) in two phases . The key objectives for a 2-year Phase I are developing (a) a quantitative model for predicting GB segregation in ternary W alloys, (b) a multiscale modeling strategy to predict GB embrittlement from GB segregation, and (c) the experimental validation and support. A 1-year Phase II will validate and refine models and conduct several exploratory studies.
FE0004007 University of Missouri MO Ab Initio Modeling of Thermomechanical Properties of Mo-Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Conversion 12/31/2013 High Performance Materials The main objective of this project is to carry out extensive computational modeling on Mo-based composite alloys that can be used in a high temperature high pressure environment for applications in fossil energy conversion technology. Specifically the objectives are: (1) To develop a new method for calculating thermomechanical properties at extreme conditions based on ab initio calculation of the phonon spectra; (2) to explore materials for fossil energy applications in the Mo-Si-B system using a supercell approach; (3) to understand the fundamental mechanism for the enhanced thermomechanical properties of the modeled structures in relation to their electronic structures; and (4) to establish effective collaborations with scientists at DOE laboratories and at other institutions to accelerate the materials development for fossil energy technology.
FE0004329 Research Triangle Institute (RTI) NC Conversion of CO2 into Commercial Materials Using Carbon Feedstocks 05/31/2014 Chemicals This project aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a CO2 utilization process for producing carbon monoxide and a variety of other useful products based on reduction of CO2 using abundant low-value carbon sources such as petcoke, sub-bituminous coal, lignite, and biomass. The chemical process is based on the reverse Boudouard reaction, in which carbon (C) reduces CO2 to produce carbon monoxide (CO). The reduced product (CO) can then be used to create other chemicals. A preliminary techno-economic analysis for the process showed that it had a promising rate of return on investment. The project also included an investigation of direct chemical production using CO2; specifically, the potential for producing ethylene and dry reforming of methane. Several catalysts developed and optimized in this project demonstrated production of ethylene at temperatures between 800°C and 900°C. For dry reforming, a catalyst formulation developed on this project demonstrated reactivity at temperatures between 500°C and 600°C. These results show that with suitable catalysts, CO2 utilization can be used to produce many of the large volume commodity chemicals currently manufactured.
FE0000397 Montana State University MT Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) II - Investigating Fundamental Scientific Issues Affecting the Long-Term Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide 09/30/2014 Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment The Zero Emission Research and Technology Center (ZERT) is a research collaborative focused on understanding the basic science of underground (geologic) storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use. The ZERT II project will develop a comprehensive approach to measurement, monitoring, mitigation, and risk assessment for geologic CO2 sequestration, including fundamental studies of geophysical and geochemical interactions of CO2 with formation waters and minerals, development of new monitoring methods or suites of methods, parameterization of potential leakage / seepage mechanisms and assessment of reservoirs relevant to these mechanisms.
FE0003997 Illinois Institute of Technology IL Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems 07/31/2014 Simulation-Based Engineering A CO2 sorbent regeneration process will be experimentally and computationally studied. The experimental effort will include obtaining the data necessary to determine the intrinsic reaction rates and diffusivity parameters for the CO2absorption/regeneration and the WGS reactions. A multi-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is proposed which includes a population balance equation governing the particle porosity distribution (PPD) evolution. The CFD/Population Balance Equation (PBE) model will be numerically solved and simulations of the regenerative carbon dioxide removal process will be performed; the Finite size domain Complete set of trial functions Method Of Moments (FCMOM) numerical technique will be used and developed to solve the PBE. The simulation results will be used to determine the optimum reactor configuration/geometry and the operating conditions for the CO2 removal and hydrogen production.
FE0003780 University of Texas at San Antonio TX Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor 08/31/2013 HBCUs, Education and Training The project will conduct materials and device research and development. The initial phase of work will focus on the sensing mechanism of LaBaCo2O5 thin films. Work includes optimization of the fabrication conditions and determination of the general characteristics and sensing mechanism of the highly epitaxial LaBaCo2O5.5 thin-films including surface exchange, reactivity and stability. The second phase of work will fabricate and demonstrate a resistive chemical sensor system for high temperature applications.
FE0003859 University of Pittsburgh PA AOI[3]: Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-Based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature 08/31/2014 Sensors and Controls The scope of the work proposed is two-fold. Researchers will first use a laser nano-fabrication technique to produce 3D structurally functional metal-oxide nano-materials for high-temperature gas sensing. Then, functional metal oxides will be integrated on high-temperature optical sensor platforms. Researchers will fabricate three-dimensional photonic crystals using functional metal oxides, utilizing a robust and simple approach to construct multi-beam interference patterns using a single diffractive optical element. Additionally, femto-second laser processing techniques will be used to produce high-temperature stable fiber grating sensors and long-period grating based in-fiber interferometer. The final aspect of the research effort includes coating metal-oxide nano-films inside the hollow core optical fibers to enhance the Raman and the photo-luminescence signals for gas sensing. The large surface area of nano-composite metal-oxides will serve as effective gas absorbers to reduce the fiber length needed for high-sensitivity measurements. Using coated hollow-tube waveguides, a number of spectroscopy studies will be performed to assess the feasibility of fuel gas sensing at high temperature.
FE0004498 Brown University RI Chemical Fixation of CO2 to Acrylates Using Low-Valent Molybdenum Sources 09/30/2013 Carbon Use and Reuse Brown University researchers have demonstrated the viability of a bench scale reaction to utilize carbon dioxide and ethylene as reactants in the production of valuable acrylate compounds with low-valent molybdenum catalysts. Exploratory experiments have been conducted to identifying those factors which control the current catalyst limiting step in acrylic acid formation. The project consisted of three project phases. Phase I expanded the range of molybdenum complexes capable of coupling CO2 and ethylene by defining the available ligand architectures which facilitate acrylate formation. Phase II leveraged computational and experimental mechanistic investigations to determine the catalyst coordination environment and reaction conditions necessary to enhance the catalytic limiting step, reductive acrylate elimination. Phase III included the design and preparation of an optimized molybdenum catalyst(s) for a bench scale reaction to test the feasibility of molybdenum catalyzed acrylate formation from CO2.
FE0004727 University of California - Irvine CA Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coating Systems in HHC-Fueled Turbines 08/31/2013 Hydrogen Turbines This program will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the degradation of critical turbine system materials in HHC-fueled systems, and guide the development of more robust materials sets ultimately advancing the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Program. These developments will assist in developing coal-derived fuel based turbine systems, facilitating use of domestic energy resources.
FE0004510 Fusion Petroleum Technologies TX Experimental Design Applications for Modeling and Assessing Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Saline 08/31/2014 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management This project has developed and demonstrated a method to rapidly, cost effectively, and efficiently perform technical assessments of major engineering and scientific issues considered to be critical to the design, implementation, and operation of a saline aquifer CO2 storage sites and enhanced oil recovery operations. The research effort integrated well completion design, including effects of geomechanical stresses, into a static reservoir model coupled with reactive transport simulation. Model simulations enable CO2 storage sites assessment of geologic and fluid effects and factors on CO2 injection, capacity, and plume migration.
FE0004630 Colorado School of Mines CO Validation of Models Simulating Capillary and Dissolution Trapping 12/31/2014 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management The primary objective of this project was to improve the understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms affected by formation heterogeneity. The basic processes of CO2 trapping are not easily understood through field testing, so a set of multi-scale laboratory tests were conducted to further analyze CO2 trapping mechanisms. The focus of the research was to analyze capillary and dissolution trapping mechanisms since they are considered to be the most relevant processes facilitating permanent CO2 storage in the absence of geologic structural traps. The ultimate goal was to contribute towards improving numerical modeling tools for designing stable CO2 storage operations with optimized storage efficiency and minimized leakage risks.
FE0004731 Stanford University CA Interdisciplinary Investigation of the CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations 09/30/2013 Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment The over-arching objective of this project is to conduct a multiscale, multiphysics, interdisciplinary laboratory study that assesses the feasibility of depleted organic-rich gas shale reservoirs for large-scale CO2 sequestration. This project elucidates mechanisms of CO2 injectivity, the formation geomechanical response, CO2 transport through fractures and matrix, storage security through a trap and seal framework, and lays the foundation for accurate estimates of storage rates as well as capacity. Experiments provide data for verification and validation of models to estimate CO2 sequestration capacity and storage effectiveness of gas shales under realistic conditions. Four broad research task areas are examined: (1) physical and chemical aspects of CO2/shale interactions, (2) transport and mobility of critical state CO2 in hydrofracs, natural fractures and pores, (3) ground water/shale/stored CO2 interactions, and (4) trap and seal analysis of CO2 storage in gas shale reservoirs. The scope of activities represents more than 124 man months of effort.
FE0005795 Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. CA Recovery Act: Slipstream Testing of a Membrane CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants 09/30/2015 Membranes Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) and partners will validate at pilot scale a cost-effective membrane process to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The MTR innovative membrane design utilizes two key innovations: high CO2 permeance membranes and a countercurrent sweep module design. This project will advance MTR's membrane technology to the 1 MWe level. MTR will continue to operate an existing 0.05 MWe slipstream field test system, located at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC), to optimize membrane materials and module designs. A 1 MWe membrane skid capable of 90% CO2 capture from a 20 ton CO2 per day slipstream of coal-fired flue gas will be designed, constructed, and installed at the NCCC for a six-month field test. MTR's air sweep process design will be evaluated in collaboration with Babcock & Wilcox to determine the performance impact of retrofitting existing boilers. The Electric Power Research Institute will evaluate the benefits of flue gas water recovery, measure the quality of the water produced, and define water management for the integrated CO2 capture process. Results from the 1 MWe skid test program will be used to update a comparative economic analysis of the MTR membrane process to clarify the potential of the MTR membrane process and identify key cost-reduction milestones and success criteria necessary to meet the Department of Energy program goals. Predecessor Project: DE-NT0005312 Successor Project: DE-FE0013118
FE0004343 ADA-ES, Inc. CO Recovery Act: Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture 09/30/2015 Sorbents ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) will design, construct, and operate a 1 megawatt electric (MWe) pilot-scale test unit to evaluate the performance and cost of an advanced solid sorbent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) post-combustion capture technology for coal-fired power plants. ADA-ES evaluated over 100 potential CO2 sorbents to select sorbents for scale-up that are stable, have relatively high CO2 capacity, and have lower heats of reaction than carbonate-based solids. The project will utilize progress on sorbent technology validated at bench scale in a separate Department of Energy (DOE) project (DE-NT0005649) and will refine and optimize sorbent capture and regeneration processes through pilot testing and process modeling. Project results will be used to develop a preliminary full-scale commercial design in preparation for demonstration at the next scale. Predecessor Project: DE-NT0005649 Successor Project: DE-FE0012914
FE0002994 West Virginia University Research Corporation (WVU) WV WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station 10/31/2014 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has entered into a collaborative agreement with the West Virginia University's National Research Center for Coal and Energy (WVU-NRCCE) to further expand on the existing research efforts previously initiated with the construction of the Hydrogen Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) facility located at the Yeager Airport in Charleston, WV. This expansion will be focused on the development of a second hydrogen fuel production, storage and dispensing facility to be located in Morgantown, WV. When completed in the following year, this facility will be capable of generating, storing, and dispensing hydrogen as a fuel source for various types of hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) and fuel cell-powered vehicles and equipment. Hydrogen is considered a fuel of the future because it does not produce air pollutants when used - clean water is the only byproduct. The electricity for the electrolysis of water to produce pure hydrogen fuel at the Morgantown facility will come from coal-based power generation. The open system architecture design centers on two value propositions: (a) that two cents worth of water holds a kilogram of hydrogen and is an excellent feedstock for production by electrolysis using electric power, and (b) that off-peak grid electricity is undervalued and can be effectively used in hydrogen production. The purpose of this Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station project at West Virginia University shall begin with site development and installation of some of the key equipment needed for a Research Development Test & Evaluation (RDT&E) platform that will produce and dispense hydrogen fuel (H2). The WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station will duplicate the design and performance of the Yeager Airport Hydrogen Fueling Station by using modular layout and an open architecture. This open architecture will support the evaluation of components, devices, subsystems and systems for hydrogen energy. As with the Yeager Airport H2 Station, a modular layout will allow for site flexibility and adaptability. The site development and installation of some major pieces of station equipment will move USDOE, West Virginia and West Virginia University closer to creating a hydrogen corridor by taking steps to establish a second, northern terminus along the I-79 corridor.
FE0004222 Solidia Technologies, Inc. NJ Utilization of CO2 in High Performance Building and Infrastructure Products 11/01/2015 CO2 Use Solidia Technologies, Inc. (Solidia) is working to create an energy-efficient, carbon dioxide (CO2)-consuming inorganic binder based on a patented synthetic Wollastonite material known as Solidia CementTM (SC) that will act as a suitable substitute for Portland Cement (PC). The process developed by Solidia utilizes a binding phase based on carbonation chemistry rather than conventional hydration chemistry (i.e., curing by adding water). During CO2-curing, SC was demonstrated to consume 250kg of CO2 per metric ton SC produced (30% by weight). The project initially started with an investigation of the effect of temperature, pressure, and particle size on the carbonation reaction rate and yield. Solidia further optimized the curing process at bench scale by analyzing the effect of water distribution and drying on the curing process. Solidia then successfully produced several full-scale product forms (railroad ties, concrete block, and hollow core slab) that exceeded performance standards. Solida is currently performing commercial trials at several precast concrete manufacturers to demonstrate feasibility of retrofitting to existing facilities at comparable production economics.
FE0004224 PhosphorTech Corporation GA Nano-Based Photocatalyst Structure for CO2 Reforming by Sunlight 09/30/2013 Carbon Use and Reuse Researchers at PhosphorTech Corporation have modified conventional photocatalyst materials to improve their ability to convert/reform CO2 into other useful chemicals in a cost-effective and energy efficient manner. A photocatalyst is a material that speeds up a chemical reaction when subjected to sufficient light energy (sunlight in this study). To date, even the most efficient conventional photocatalysts suffer from extremely low concentration yields (0.01-0.1 volume percent), making them impractical for commercial applications. Researchers are making efforts to improve performance in order to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of these technology types for reforming CO2.
FE0004271 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) MA Integrated Electrochemical Processes for CO2 Capture and Conversion to Commodity Chemicals 09/30/2013 Carbon Use and Reuse Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Siemens investigated the feasibility of integrating CO2 from emission sources (power plants, manufacturing facilities, cement plants, or fertilizer facilities) into a chemical reaction process that creates organic carbonate commodity chemicals for later use. The researchers also designed electrochemical processes which allow for continuous capture of CO2 followed by cyclic organic carbonate synthesis using organocatalysts. They conducted multiple lifecycle analyses of the electrochemical process and commodity chemicals synthesized during chemical CO2 storage process. The basis of the capture technology is the chemical affinity of electrochemically active carriers for CO2 molecules. These carriers facilitate the effective capture of CO2 from a dilute gas stream (effluents from CO2 emitters) through the formation of chemically activated species. The organocatalytic CO2 conversion processes have been demonstrated to be a high-yielding continuous synthesis for the production of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxide as well as an efficient cyclic carbonate synthesis from CO2 and olefins.
FE0004381 Indiana University IN Reducing Uncertainties in Model Predictions Via History Matching of CO2 Migration and Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 Fate at the Sleipner Project, Norwegian North Sea 03/31/2015 Geochemical Impacts This project used four dimensional (4D) seismic data from the Sleipner project in the Norwegian North Sea to conduct multiphase flow and reactive mass transport modeling of CO2 migration in the reservoir. Researchers at Indiana University used the geologic model provided by StatOil to develop a reservoir scale multi-phase reactive flow model for CO2 plume migration and dynamic evolution of CO2 trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic/structural, solubility, mineral, and residual/capillary) at Sleipner. The reactive flow model was calibrated through history matching with progressive CO2 plume migration delineated by 4D seismic data. The calibrated reservoir model was then extrapolated to a regional scale model of multi-phase reactive mass transport to predict the fate of CO2 10,000 years after injection. A rigorous geochemical reaction kinetics framework was implemented and a number of sensitivity analysis and bounding calculations were used to aid in the reduction of uncertainty in predictions of geochemical reactions.
FE0004542 Clemson University SC Proof of Feasibility of Using Well Bore Deformation as a Diagnostic Tool to Improve CO2 Sequestration 02/28/2015 Wellbore Clemson University has characterized wellbore deformation under conditions anticipated during geologic CO2 storage, identifying and evaluating techniques for interpreting the results of simultaneous measurements of displacement and pressures during well testing or operations, and evaluating capabilities and requirements for downhole geomechanical instrumentation. Wellbores can deform in response to the injection or recovery of fluid. In extreme cases, the deformation is catastrophic and the well can be compromised. Wellbores can potentially deform during carbon storage operations, and effective monitoring of this process can be used to detect early precursors to fracturing within the injection formation, induced faulting, and failure of wellbore seals so they can be addressed before becoming catastrophic.
FE0004555 Georgia Tech Research Corporation GA Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels 09/30/2014 Hydrogen Turbines This Georgia Tech project will improve the state-of-the-art understanding of turbulent flame propagation characteristics of high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels. The turbulent flame speed has a leading order influence on important combustor performance metrics such as flashback and blow-off propensities, emissions, life of hot section components, and combustion instabilities limits, including operating limits required to prevent harmful combustion dynamics. This research specifically addresses three of the combustion topic areas identified by Department of Energy (DOE) as of great importance for HHC systems: (1) turbulent burning velocities, (2) flash-back, and (3) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) impacts. The results of this effort will also enable advances in several other combustion topic areas; e.g., predicting combustion dynamics (which requires flame shape predictions) and improving large eddy simulation capabilities by providing turbulent burning rate sub-models for HHC fuels. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. Prior work used optical flame emission in measurement of global turbulent consumption speeds of hydrogen (H2)/carbon monoxide (CO) fuels. For this project, researchers will extend these previous efforts to a broader reactant class, including mixtures diluted with CO2, water (H2O), and nitrogen (N2). Depending upon the degree of dilution, these mixtures will simulate both gasified fuel blends and systems with EGR. This data will be used to further the development of physics-based, mixture-dependent models of turbulent burning rates and to guide selection of conditions for determining more localized measurements of turbulence/chemistry interactions. Specifically, high-repetition-rate particle image velocimetry and hydroxyl radical planar laser induced fluorescence systems will be used to determine local flame speeds under realistic turbulent conditions. This is necessary for developing an improved understanding of strained flame statistics, and for testing and refining propagation models based on leading point concepts. The work plan will initially focus on uniform, premixed reactant mixtures, and then expand in focus by investigating turbulent burning rates in inhomogeneous premixed flows. An example would be obtaining measurements of turbulent propagation speeds in mixtures with stratified fuel/air profiles.
FE0004566 University of Kansas Center for Research KS Prototype and Testing a New Volumetric Curvature Tool for Modeling Reservoir Compartments and Leakage Pathways in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer: Reducing Uncertainty in CO2 Storage and Permanence 12/28/2014 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management The project was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a new seismic tool, volumetric curvature (VC), to identify the presence, extent, and impact of paleokarst heterogeneity and faulting structures on geologic CO2 storage in the Arbuckle Group, a saline carbonate formation in southwestern Kansas. Existing seismic and well data were reprocessed and analyzed using VC analysis. An integrated geologic model was then developed to indirectly confirm the presence of VC identified compartments, as well as to estimate geologic storage capacity, optimum CO2 injection rate that could occur, potential CO2 plume migration, reservoir containment, and CO2 leakage risk. A horizontal well was installed to intersect the paleokarst features and confirm that the imaged seismic feature was present.
FE0004588 University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) ND Environmental Considerations and Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment 09/30/2014 Hydrogen Turbines This collaborative effort studying technologies important to the reliability of high hydrogen fueled gas turbines has been structured utilizing three phases. Phase I: Leading Edge Model Development and Experimental Validation The initial task for The Ohio State University's (OSU's) turbine reacting flow rig (TuRFR) facility will be to determine if the deposition mechanism for faired cylinders is similar to deposition for turbine vanes. If this approach is feasible, then the relative impact of leading edge diameter on deposition can be investigated using varying diameter cylinders instead of vanes. The deposition measurements will then be made and sent to the University of North Dakota (UND) for surface modeling. During Phase I, UND will study the response of turbulence approaching large cylindrical stagnation regions, the associated heat transfer augmentation, and boundary layer development on the cylinder's surface. Additionally, UND will begin the development of candidate internal cooling geometries for cooling a region of a turbine vane leading edge. Phase II: Experimental Deposition and Roughness Study: OSU will utilize the TuRFR facility, modified to generate higher levels of turbulence, to study the influence of turbulence on deposition rates in turbines. These results will be used to improve predictive modeling and made available to UND for heat transfer measurements. UND will use surfaces generated by OSU as part of their leading edge heat transfer and boundary layer studies. UND will also develop and test candidate internal cooling schemes for large regions on a turbine vane's leading edge. Phase III: Mitigation of Deposition Using Downstream Full Coverage Film Cooling OSU will use faired (rounded to reduce drag) cylinders to explore various film cooling designs to assess their effectiveness at reducing deposition. Actual turbine vane geometry will be used to explore the influence of select film cooling patterns on deposition. UND will investigate the combined influence of turbulence and realistic roughness on film cooling effectiveness and surface heat transfer. As a basis of comparison, they will initially look at the influence of turbulence on film cooling effective-ness and heat transfer for selected full coverage geometries.
FE0004633 Advanced Resources International, Inc. VA Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO2 Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales 06/30/2013 Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment The objective of this effort is to assess the factors influencing effective CO2 storage capacity and injectivity in the Marcellus shale, the Utica shale, including equivalent shales in Vermont; and the Devonian Ohio shale. The work addresses approaches and/or technologies to improve injectivity and utilization of pore space. Specifically, it provides a better understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms leading to improved storage permanence and capacity estimates in gas shales, and the effects on storage and injectivity given variable gas shale reservoir types, rock properties, and stratigraphic and structural properties. This effort builds on previous efforts, primarily in New York and Kentucky, to assess the CO2 storage potential of gas shales. The primary focus is on establishing the reservoir engineering and operational requirements to overcome the constraints imposed by shale reservoirs to achieve cost-effective CO2 storage. In other words, the goal of effort is not just to answer how much CO2 can be stored in gas shales; but also to identify the critical factors that can influence optimum CO2 storage volumes and injection rates in gas shales.
FE0004734 Louisiana State University LA Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems 03/31/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines New thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials can be tested for mechanical, physical, and chemical properties by altering the bond coat and top coat compositions. Current studies on TBCs are usually performed by trial-and-error approach. As the trial-and-error process is usually very expensive and time consuming, the Louisiana State University and Southern University team proposes to design a high performance TBC with enhanced top and bond coat through a reliable and efficient theoretical/computational approach. This can be used systematically to identify promising TBC bond coat and top coat compositions. Using high performance computing (HPC) simulations, an ab initio (i.e., from first principles) molecular dynamics (MD)-based design tool can screen and identify TBC systems with desired physical properties. Such computations work from basic or fundamental laws of nature to derive effects without intervening assumptions or special models, in principle producing well-founded results. The new TBC systems will be demonstrated experimentally under IGCC environments.
FE0004771 State University of New York (SUNY) - Stony Brook NY Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings for Operation in High Hydrogen Content Fueled Gas Turbines 12/31/2014 Advanced Combustion Turbines Recent research data indicate that the current bill of coating materials is not directly compatible with the moisture-rich, ash-laden environment present with coal-derived high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels. Thus, Stony Brook University research focuses on a multi-layer, multifunctional strategy that includes discretely engineered coating layers to combat various technical issues through a concerted effort integrating material science, processing science, and performance studies, including recent developments in advanced, in situ thermal spray coating property measurement for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. This project will further the science-based understanding of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and elevate the roles that processing and novel materials can play in extending bond coat and top coat lifetimes, and provide a new framework for examining the processing-performance relationship in multilayer thermal barriers as a pathway for reliable integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coating development, and provide new insight for the thermal spray industry. In this project, TBCs will be developed through investigation into how processing affects the oxidation behavior of metallic bond coats in water vapor environments, and by developing ceramic top coat architectures using thermal spray processing of emerging zirconate materials that have shown promise as advanced thermal barriers. Novel, in situ particle and coating state sensors will be used to accelerate process development and understand processing-microstructure relationships and process reliability. A systematic evaluation of multilayer coatings on nickel superalloys will determine properties (including microstructure, compliance, residual stress, thermal conductivity, and sintering behavior) and degradation mechanisms due to high-temperature water vapor and ash exposure as well as erosion.
FE0004895 Worcester Polytechnic Institute MA Engineering Design of Advanced H2 CO2 PD and PD/Alloy Composite Membrane Separations and Process Intensification 03/31/2016 Novel Technologies to Advance Conventional Gasification Worcester Polytechnic Institute will demonstrate hydrogen separation from coal-derived syngas using palladium (Pd) and Pd alloy membranes on porous metal supports. The goal of the project is to carry out a comprehensive engineering design for advanced hydrogen-carbon dioxide (H2-CO2) Pd and Pd-alloy composite membrane separations with process intensification technologies that reduce the number of unit operations required for H2 production from a coal (coal-biomass)-based syngas.
FE0005132 Technology Management, Inc. OH Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels 03/31/2012 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells This project aims to demonstrate small scale SOFC technology readiness for commercial scale-up. Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), the project performer, estimates that the system can reduce fuel consumption by approximately 50% compared to conventional reciprocating engine systems and proposes to validate these savings by empirical data. In addition, use of this technology operating on bio-based fuels can eliminate carbon emissions to the atmosphere associated with the power produced (equivalent to approximately 9.6 metric tons CO2/kW/year as compared to power produced from a conventional coal-fired power plant). This demonstration is noteworthy because today there are few practical alternatives for ordinary consumers to obtain their home electric energy from biofuel, a potentially attractive feature to some environmentally conscious consumers.
FE0005293 CoalTek, Inc. GA Development of Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes for Co-Gasification 12/31/2013 Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification This project will demonstrate an application of a CoalTek, Inc. (CoalTek) proprietary microwave process for treating energy feedstock materials. The process combines coal and biomass to produce an economically viable and suitable single-stream feedstock for co-gasification. Phase I of the project will focus on microwave processing, batch-scale production, and laboratory characterizations of briquettes with the objective to identify the combinations of biomass and coal types that provide the most suitable briquetted product for co-gasification. Phase II will use a larger scale, continuous mode process to (1) demonstrate the performance of the co-briquetted fuels during co-gasification in two different pilot-plant designs, i.e., fixed-bed and fluidized-bed gasifiers, and (2) enable realistic cost estimates for the construction and operation of a commercial-scale biomass-coal briquetting plant based on CoalTek's proprietary microwave process.
FE0005339 Georgia Tech Research Corporation GA Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends 09/30/2015 Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The objectives of this Georgia Tech study are to obtain experimental reactor data and develop kinetic rate expressions for pyrolysis and char gasification for the coal-biomass blends under conditions free from transport limitations, to develop a detailed understanding of the effect of pyrolysis conditions on the porous char structure, to build mathematical models that combine true kinetic rate expressions with transport models for predicting gasification behavior for a broad range of pressures and temperatures, and to investigate the physical and chemical parameters that might lead to synergistic effects in coal-biomass blends gasification.
FE0005349 Gas Technology Institute (GTI) IL R&D to Prepare and Characterize Robust Coal/Biomass Mixtures for Direct Co-Feeding into Gasification 12/31/2014 Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The GTI research team will subject lignocellulosic biomass (plant biomass that is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), in the form of loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop), to hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), creating a densified coal-like product by exposing biomass feedstocks to heat and pressure in the presence of water. The process will deconstruct the lignocellulosic feedstock to produce aqueous and solid streams. The first stage of this work will occur at a small bench-scale facility at the Desert Research Institute to determine optimal HTC processing parameters and develop accurate mass and energy balances. The second stage will utilize larger sample sizes at a larger, dedicated Process Development Unit (PDU). Initially, the HTC product will be mixed with ground coal, pelletized, and assessed for strength and grindability. The durability of lignin and similar binders in wood when subjected to HT will be assessed. In a later phase, loblolly pine samples will be processed using HTC and internally mixed with ground coal within the PDU so that it can be directly formed to a final densified product, which will also be assessed for strength and grindability. GTI will use Aspen software (Aspen Technology, Inc.) to carry out process simulations based on engineering results attained during the project. These simulations will provide the technical basis for developing a techno-economic analysis to evaluate the economic viability of HTC for producing a new coal/HTC biomass fuel.
FE0005373 Princeton University NJ Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity VIA Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass 03/31/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The objective of this project is to develop preliminary conceptual design concepts and conduct a series of techno-economic systems analyses to provide an improved understanding of the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that produce electricity and a fuel or chemical co-product from a mixture of coal and biomass, with capture and underground storage (CCS) of by-product CO2.
FE0005376 University of California - Irvine CA Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels, and Chemicals 09/30/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The overall goal of the project is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals.
FE0005451 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Advanced Systems: Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks 06/30/2014 Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification

The project team is developing engineered systems for manufacturing coal-biomass briquettes or pellets containing 10 to 30 percent biomass that are ideally suited for transportation, storage, and direct co-feeding into industrial gasifiers. An in-depth experimental study to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels is underway, testing sub-bituminous coal mixed with biomass feedstocks of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass, or corn stover. Enabling technology for this project includes the application of novel binding additives and, when required, an advanced conditioning process for upstream sizing, upgrading, and drying. Upon completion, the project will provide information on the equipment, necessary conditions, and process requirements for the manufacture of optimal coal-biomass feedstock for co-gasification.
FE0005476 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Investigation of Coal-Biomass Catalytic Gasification Using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics 09/30/2015 Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification This Virginia Tech project is a collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics that incorporates efficient methods for solving complex heterogeneous chemistry. The goal is to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. To achieve this goal, sub-bituminous coal will be mixed with biomass feedstocks of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass, or corn stover and catalysts added to lower the gasification temperatures, thereby improving the gasification process. The outcome of this research will be characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels and development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. Finally, the reaction kinetics modeling will be implemented into NETL multiphase flow code—Multiphase Flow with Interphase Exchange (MFIX)—to efficiently simulate the chemistry and recommendations will be made regarding fluidization characteristics.
FE0005622 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA FY 2010 Congressionally-Directed Project for the Center for Advanced Separation Technology (CAST) 09/30/2014 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Develop advanced technologies that can be used to exploit domestic energy resources and help developing countries reduce their CO2 emissions. In addition, new gas-gas separations technologies to be developed at CAST will have crosscutting applications for a wide spectrum of the Fossil Energy R&D programs.
FE0005703 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health 10/31/2015 Sensors & Controls In this three year project, Virginia Tech Center for Photonics Technology will develop a first-of-a-kind, high-temperature distributed sensing platform capable of monitoring the space- and time-varying thermal properties of an entrained flow gasifier refractory wall. The sensor operates using optically-generated transient, traveling long-period gratings in a photonic crystal optical fiber to achieve fully-distributed measurement of temperatures above 1000°C with centimeter-level spatial resolution.
FE0005712 General Electric (GE) Company NY Model-Based Optimal Sensor Network Design for Condition Monitoring in an IGCC Plant 12/31/2012 Plant Optimization Technologies General Electric Global Research Center will develop model based techniques for (1) enhancing the availability of the gasifier and radiant syngas cooler (RSC) including refractory hot surface degradation and RSC fouling and their impact on sensors; (2) implementing a nonlinear, model-based estimation algorithm to monitor the refractory condition and RSC fouling; and (3) nonlinear optimizing for optimal sensor placement (OSP) to achieve condition monitoring requirements in the presence of practical constraints on sensor types and locations. The performance of the OSP algorithm and resulting condition monitoring solution will be demonstrated using representative test cases for gasifier refractory degradation and RSC fouling. The approach will be applicable to condition monitoring of other critical components in coal-fired power plants.
FE0005717 West Virginia University Research Corporation (WVU) WV Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors of In-Situ Corrosion 06/30/2015 Sensors and Controls The primary objectives of this project are to develop in-situ corrosion monitoring sensors for ultrasupercritical (USC) boiler tubes, that is based on WVU's patent pending technology on high temperature electrochemical characterization devices and development of thermal-electric based energy harvesting and telecommunication devices for the self-powered wireless ready sensor system. Successful completion of this project will provide an in-situ corrosion monitoring system and life-prediction toolbox for USC boiler tubes that meets the requirements of next generation USC boiler systems.
FE0005749 Texas Tech University System TX Model-Based Sensor Placement for Component Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis in Fossil Energy 12/31/2015 Sensors & Controls The overall objective of this work is the development of model-based sensor placement algorithms for maximizing the robustness and effectiveness of the sensor network to monitor the plant health both at the unit level and at the systems level. This will be achieved by developing a two-tier sensor network algorithm capable of performing component condition monitoring and system-level fault diagnosis. The algorithms will be implemented on a coal-based plant-wide simulation of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a rigorous gasifier model. The work is also extendable to similar fossil energy plants.
FE0004285 McGill University - Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning (RIAL) Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production 03/31/2014 Mineralization/Cements Researchers at McGill University worked to develop a CO2 curing process for the precast concrete industry that can utilize CO2 in place of steam as a reactant to accelerate strength gain, reduce energy consumption, and improve the durability of precast concrete products. Carbon dioxide curing of concrete is considered a CO2 storage process. As gaseous CO2 is converted to thermodynamically stable calcium carbonate, the CO2 becomes embedded in calcium silicate hydrate. Concrete masonry blocks and fiber-cement panels are ideal candidate building products for carbon storage, as they are mass-produced and conventionally cured with steam. In order to make the process economically feasible, self-concentrating absorption technology was studied to produce low cost CO2 for concrete curing. The compact design of the CO2 chamber and low cost carbon capture technology should result in a net process cost of less than $10 per ton of CO2 stored. The proposed research examined the possibility of achieving a cost-effective, high-performance concrete manufacturing process through a prototype production using specially designed chambers, called CO2 claves, to replace steam kilns and implement forced-diffusion technology to maximize carbon uptake at minimal process costs.
FE0004679 Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station TX Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels 09/30/2013 Hydrogen Turbines This project will result in a detailed database of flame speed and kinetic information, and demonstrate the validity of a comprehensive kinetics model that can predict NOx formation, flame speed, and ignition behavior in the presence of high levels of dilution and minor levels of likely contaminants. These results will lead to deeper understanding of the turbulent flame speed behavior and NOx-formation kinetics of HHC fuels for IGCC applications.
FE0003595 Crow Tribe of Indians MT Montana ICTL Demonstration Program 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The main objectives for this project are: demonstrating Accelergy's integrated carbon to liquids technology (ICTL) utilizing Montana bituminous coal and indigenous biomass feeds; develop engineering and econometric models on conversion of coal and biomass/algae to liquids using a Montana planning basis; and implement a comprehensive education and training program to prepare the local community for future jobs in the ICTL arena.
FE0004375 Yale University CT Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent CS in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks 09/30/2014 Geochemical Impacts This project provided rigorous estimates of the carbon storage potential of mafic and ultramafic rocks through the process of in-situ mineral carbonation. Mafic and ultramafic rocks contain low levels of silica and high levels of calcium-rich minerals that react with CO2 to form solid carbonate minerals, thus permanently isolating it from the atmosphere. The project involved two related, interdisciplinary parts: (1) geochemical experiments and modeling on individual minerals and rock assemblages to determine kinetics and thermodynamics of the main mineral carbonation reactions, and (2) geomechanical experiments and modeling to elucidate processes accompanying the carbonation reactions, such as flow and deformation, which can significantly alter the effective reaction rates in actual rock formations.
FE0004478 Montana State University MT Advanced CO2 Leakage Mitigation Using Engineered Biomineralization Sealing Technologies 03/31/2015 Mitigation Montana State University developed a biomineralization-based technology for sealing preferential flow pathways in the vicinity of injection wells. The engineered biomineralization process produces biofilm and mineral deposits that reduce the permeability of geologic media while modifying the geochemistry of brines to enhance CO2 solubility and mineral precipitation. This process can be targeted to the geologic media surrounding carbon storage injection wells to provide long-term sealing of preferential CO2 leakage pathways. The project had three main objectives: (1) construct and test a mesoscale high pressure rock test system (HPRTS); (2) develop biomineralization seal experimental protocol; and (3) create biomineralization seals in different rock types to simulate different potential field conditions.
FE0004787 Gas Technology Institute (GTI) IL Hybrid Membrane Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture 12/31/2013 Membranes Gas Technology Institute, partnering with PoroGen Corporation and Aker Process Systems, proposes to develop cost-effective separation technology for CO2 capture from flue gases based on a combination of absorption and hollow fiber membrane technologies. In a three-phase effort, they plan to develop a highly chemically inert and temperature stable PEEK hollow fiber membrane optimized for CO2 capture in a membrane contactor, an integrated membrane absorber and desorber, and an energy efficient process for CO2 recovery from the flue gas. The contactor can be utilized for removal of numerous other gas pollutants such as NOx and SOx, for separation of CO2 from hydrogen in refinery streams, and for separation of CO2 from natural gas (natural gas sweetening).
FE0004847 Columbia University NY Radiocarbon as a Reactive Tracer for Tracking Permanent CO2 Storage in Basaltic Rocks 09/30/2015 Geochemical Impacts Columbia University researchers are testing and evaluating carbon-14 (14C) as a reactive tracer to assess CO2 transport in a basaltic storage reservoir. Evaluation of mineral trapping through carbonation is also being completed. Studies are conducted at the CarbFix CO2 pilot injection site in Iceland. The study evaluated 14C in combination with trifluormethylsulphur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) as a conservative tracer to monitor the CO2 transport in a storage reservoir. In addition, the study is helping to verify in situ mineral carbonation by performing laboratory analyses on retrieved fluid and rock samples. Researchers obtained fluid and rock samples from the CarbFix CO2 pilot injection site in Iceland where the injected CO2 is labeled with 14C. Samples were analyzed to study the extent of mineral carbonation in a basaltic storage reservoir. Carbon-14 in combination with d13C, total dissolved carbonate and SF5CF3 analyses are being used to quantify carbonation and to estimate in situ reaction rates for the basalt reservoir. The 14C, d13C, and the total dissolved or precipitated carbon data from the fluid and rock samples were used to estimate a carbon mass balance for the CarbFix site. The study drilled a 600 meter borehole and retrieved core and samples to also verify the mineral carbonation.
FE0004967 United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) CT Advanced Palladium Membrane Scale-Up for Hydrogen Separation 10/31/2012 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Advancements in hydrogen (H2) membrane separation are critical to allow the development of a viable H2 economy based on coal/biomass processing with CO2 capture. To reach the technology targets set by the Department of Energy (DOE), United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with Power+Energy, Inc. (P+E) and the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), proposes to demonstrate the membrane-based separation of H2 from coal-derived syngas at the pre-engineering/pilot scale using an improved Palladium (Pd) based membrane technology.
FE0004992 Western Research Institute (WRI) WY Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal 06/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Western Research Institute proposes to build and test several pilot scale hydrogen separation devices for use in a gasification product stream. The outcome of the project will be a demonstration of manufacturing practices in addition to the delivery of the engineering for a hydrogen production system ready for testing at large scale.
FE0005859 General Electric (GE) Company NY Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Stream Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultras 01/20/2014 High Performance Materials GE Global Research, GE Energy, and the University of Pennsylvania will model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra supercritical coal power plants. The work will demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions and to determine and model key mechanisms contributing to the damages of creep-fatigue-environment interactions.
FE0005865 University of Missouri MO Large Scale Simulations of the Mechanical Properties of Layered Transition Metal Ternary Compounds 12/31/2014 High Performance Materials This project focuses on the computational development of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn 1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with the rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and directional bonding (both covalent and ionic) these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most desirable properties such as damage-resistance, oxidation resistance, excellent thermal and electric conductivity, machinability, and fully reversible dislocation-based deformation. These properties can be explored in the search for new phases and composites that can meet performance goals set by DOE for applications in the next generation of fossil energy power systems.
FE0005867 CFD Research Corporation AL Computational Capabilities for Predictions of Interactions at the Grain Boundary of Refractory Alloy 09/30/2014 High Performance Materials The objectives of this project are to develop, demonstrate, and validate computational capabilities for predictive analysis of interactions at the grain boundary of refractory alloys. The simulation capabilities will include Quantum Mechanics (QM) based ReaxFF potentials integrated into an open-source Molecular Dynamic (MD) code including the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS-MD) simulator developed by Sandia National Laboratories.
FE0005868 University of Tennessee TN Computational Design of Creep-Resistant Alloys and Experimental Validation in Ferritic Superalloys 12/31/2014 High Performance Materials The objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) develop and integrate modern computational tools and algorithms required to assist in the optimization of creep properties of high-temperature alloys for fossil-energy applications; and (2) achieve a fundamental understanding of the processing-microstructure-property-performance links underlying the creep behavior of novel ferritic superalloys strengthened by B2 and/or L21 intermetallics. In the first objective, researchers seek to integrate tools and methods associated with predictive first-principles calculations, computational thermodynamic and kinetic modeling, and meso-scale dislocation-dynamics simulations. In the second objective, some of the computational results we will be validated by measuring selected microstructural attributes in representative model ferritic superalloys with a hierarchical microstructure, where the Fe-based disordered matrix is strengthened by one or two ordered precipitate(s).
FE0004844 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology NM Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance 10/31/2014 Risk Assessment The principal objective of this project was to determine the influence of diagenetic and structural features at the reservoir/caprock interface on transmission of CO2 into and through the caprock. The study focused mainly on the influence of deformation structures and fractures on fluid flow. The project team investigated interfaces in three different reservoir/seal pairs. The first stage of the project involved a brief field campaign to perform basic descriptions of the interfaces and conduct detailed sampling. The second stage involved laboratory analysis of the samples to describe their petrographic, geochemical, mechanical, and petrophysical properties. Finally, the descriptive information acquired in the first two steps was used as input data for a detailed coupled thermal hydrologic mechanical chemical modeling investigation of the implication for transmission across the storage zone/caprock interface. Some of the findings of this study are that differences in permeability at the reservoir-caprock interface caused by deformation bands and fractures have a large impact on fluid flow and that seals have the capacity to store large quantities of CO2 if permeable fractures terminate below the top of the seal.
FE0005654 URS Group, Inc. TX Evaluation of Concentrated Piperazine for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Flue Gas 12/31/2018 Solvents URS Group, in collaboration with the University of Texas and Trimeric Corporation, will investigate the use of concentrated piperazine (PZ) as a solvent for absorbing CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas while employing a novel, high-temperature, two-stage flash regeneration design. The project objectives are to quantify and validate the robustness of concentrated PZ in an integrated absorption/stripping system with solvent regeneration at 150°C; optimize the equipment design and energy performance of the two-stage flash system; and identify and resolve other potential operational and design issues including process control, corrosion, foaming, and solids precipitation. The project results will be used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a full-scale implementation of this process. Previous evaluations of concentrated PZ have indicated greater than 90% capture with significant progress toward the Department of Energy (DOE) cost of electricity goal. This project continues the development of the PZ-based CO2 absorption process through field tests at the University of Texas' Separations Research Program plant and DOE's National Carbon Capture Center.
FE0004360 University of Illinois IL Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure 03/31/2014 Solvents Collaborators at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Energy Commercialization, LLC will investigate the use of a carbonate salt (potassium or sodium carbonate) as a solvent for absorption-based, post-combustion CO2 capture. A preliminary techno-economic evaluation shows that energy use with the Hot Carbonate Absorption Process (CAP) is about half that of its monoethanolamine (MEA) counterpart. The Hot-CAP process integrates a high temperature (70-80 degrees Celsius) CO2 absorption column, a slurry-based high pressure (up to 40 atm) CO2 stripping column, a crystallization unit to separate bicarbonate crystals and recover the carbonate solvent, and a recovery unit for the calcium sulfate byproduct of SO2 removal. The research team will perform a proof-of-concept study aimed at generating process engineering and scale-up data to help advance Hot-CAP technology to the pilot-scale demonstration level within three years.
FE0002829 University of Texas at Arlington TX Center for Renewable Energy Science and Technology 01/15/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The CREST research team will optimize catalysts used for the conversion of southwestern lignite into synthetic crude oil that can be shipped to nearby Texas refineries and power plants for development of transportation fuels and power generation. Research will also be undertaken to convert any potential by-products of this process such as CO2 to useful chemicals and gases which may be recycled and used as feedstock to the synthetic fuel process. The overall project is divided into three tasks including a management task outlined in the following document.
FE0004278 American Air Liquide, Inc. DE CO2 Capture by Sub-Ambient Membrane Operation 11/30/2012 Post-Combustion Capture The objective of this two-year bench-scale project is to develop a cost-effective hybrid system for CO2 capture based on the performance achieved by the sub-ambient temperature operation of the Air Liquide hollow fiber membrane. The membrane will be coupled with cryogenic processing technology in a closed-loop test system that will verify the effect of possible contaminants, such as SOx, NOx and water, on membrane performance at levels relevant to coal-fired power plants. Experimental results will be used to refine the integrated process simulation and to design a slipstream facility.
FE0004522 Paulsson, Inc. CA Development and Test of a 1,000 Level 3C Fiber Optic Borehole Seismic Receiver Array Applied to Carbon Sequestration 02/28/2015 Geochemical Impacts The objective of this study was to develop a reservoir-assessment tool based on novel and robust borehole seismic technology that can generate ultra-high resolution P and S wave images for detailed characterization and precise monitoring of CO2 storage sites. Paulsson investigators built and tested a prototype downhole seismic system capable of deploying a thousand 3C downhole receivers using fiber optic sensor technology deployed on drill pipe. The system was tested at a CO2 storage site. There are three primary components of a downhole seismic system: (1) the seismic sensor, (2) the deployment system, and (3) the surface electronics and recording system. The planned approach for the sensor involved designing a high-temperature fiber optic receiver. For a deployment system, a small diameter, high strength drill pipe using offshore drill pipe manufacturing technology was used. The drill pipe was used as the backbone for the high-temperature deployment system and power is supplied through the tubing to clamp the receiver pods to the borehole wall. The strain on the fiber was recorded, analyzed, and transformed into a seismic record using an interferometric technique with all electronics and instruments placed at the surface.
FE0004832 University of Wyoming WY Maximization of Permanent Trapping of CO2 and Co-Contaminants in the Highest-Porosity Formations of the Rock Springs Uplift 03/31/2014 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management The project made accurate predictions for the trapping of injected mixed supercritical (sc)CO2, in the deep saline aquifer of the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) in Southwest Wyoming. Such predictions were based on new, state-of-the-art experimental measurements of relevant flow functions that were used in a recently developed, high-performance, high-resolution simulation tool. Results of state-of-the-art laboratory experiments using core samples from the RSU were used in a physically-based dynamic core-scale pore network model that led to improved understanding of mixed scCO2 trapping mechanisms, This, in turn, allowed the identification of pore-level flow conditions under which permanent capillary trapping can be maximized, which were subsequently communicated to a high performance simulation tool. This tool allowed for geomechanical deformation of the surrounding formations, equilibrium calculations for mixed scCO2, water, and salt, and was used for uncertainty quantification using geological models.
FE0004956 University of Texas at Austin TX Area 1: Influence of Local Capillary Trapping on Containment System Effectiveness 03/31/2014 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management The overall objective of this project is to obtain the first rigorous assessment of the amount and extent of local capillary trapping expected to occur in typical storage formations. The University of Texas Austin is gathering variogram models typical of CO2 storage formations and generating a large number of geostatistical realizations of permeability from these models. The realizations are being populated with key petrophysical properties using crossproperty correlations and the spatial properties of the resulting model formations are being analyzed to determine the potential for local capillary trapping. The emplacement and buoyancy-driven migration of CO2 and the onset of a leakage path in the overlying seal is being simulated and the simulation was analyzed to determine the extent of filling of the local capillary traps and the degree of immobilization within them. Final-scale CO2 saturation distributions were extracted from the simulations and bench-scale buoyant displacements in heterogeneous 2D sand packs were performed.
FE0004962 University of Texas at Austin TX Area 2: Inexpensive Monitoring and Uncertainty Assessment of CO2 Plume Migration 09/30/2014 Fluid Flow, Pressure, and Water Management The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) developed a prototype modular computational approach for monitoring the location of the CO2 plume as it moves through the subsurface during the injection process—the period when the CO2 is pumped through an injection well into the targeted rock formation. The approach utilized project injection rate and pressure data as a basis for the modeling input. This enabled modeling and monitoring capabilities at negligible incremental cost because injection rate and pressure data is recorded for operational reasons in every carbon storage project. A goal of the modular computational approach is to take advantage of the inherent flexibility it provides, allowing for other types of data, such as surface deflection or seismic imaging, to be easily included with the rate/pressure data to reduce the uncertainty of the inferred plume location.
FE0005054 Ameren Energy Resources IL Recovery Act: FutureGen 2.0: Oxy-Combustion Large Scale Test 09/01/2015 Futuregen 2.0 On August 5, 2010, Secretary Chu announced DOE's intent to award $1 billion in Recovery Act funding to the Ameren Energy Resources, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W), and Air Liquide Process & Construction, Inc. (AL), and the FutureGen Industrial Alliance (FGA), to build FutureGen 2.0. FutureGen 2.0 will help ensure that the United States remains competitive in a carbon constrained economy, creating jobs while reducing greenhouse gas pollution. FutureGen 2.0 is expected to be the world's first, commercial-scale, oxy-combustion power plant, and will help to open up the over $300 billion market for coal unit repowering and position the nation's electric power sector to utilize technologies that could capture and sequester significant amounts of CO2. To ensure timely implementation, a two track approach was devised where Ameren, B&W and AL will repower the Ameren power unit with oxy-combustion technology and capture and compress the CO2 for transport while the FGA will manage the process of CO2 transportation, storage as well as development of visitor and educational facilities.
FE0005540 University of Texas at Austin TX Improving Durability of Turbine Components Through Trenched Film Cooling and Contoured Endwalls 09/30/2014 Hydrogen Turbines Wind tunnel facilities at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and University of Texas at Austin (UT) have been specifically designed to simulate film cooling of turbine vanes, blades, and endwalls. These facilities incorporate equipment that simulates the deposition of contaminants in the turbine by using molten wax particles to simulate the molten contaminant particles that occur at actual engine conditions. The wax particles used in the test facilities are sized appropriately to simulate the inertial behavior of particles that exist in engine conditions. The use of wax also allows for the simulation of the liquid-to-solid phase change that is essential to the primary deposition mechanism. UT will be focusing on the performance of shallow trench film cooling configurations for various positions on the suction and pressure sides of a simulated vane with active deposition. Meanwhile, Penn State will be investigating the effect of active deposition on various endwall cooling configurations. Preliminary results show that deposition could be simulated dynamically using wax and that the effects of deposition could be quantified using infrared thermography. New endwall and vane surface film cooling configurations will be developed to minimize deposition and maximize cooling performance under contaminated conditions.
FE0005799 ION Engineering, LLC CO Ion Novel Solvent System for CO2 Capture 09/30/2013 Post-Combustion Capture ION Engineering, LLC and its subcontractors will conduct bench-scale testing of an amine-based solvent that employs an ionic liquid instead of water as the physical solvent, greatly reducing the regeneration energy while lowering process water usage. In addition to a 60 percent reduction in regeneration energy requirement, an ionic liquid-amine solvent mixture offers higher CO2 working capacity, reduced corrosion, reduced solvent loss, and other benefits when compared to conventional aqueous amine solvents.
FE0004908 Praxair, Inc. NY Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Coal Gasification 09/30/2015 Syngas Processing Praxair is conducting research to develop hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) technology to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) in coal-derived syngas for IGCC applications. The project team has fabricated palladium based membranes and measured hydrogen fluxes as a function of pressure, temperature, and membrane preparation conditions. Membranes are a commercially-available technology in the chemical industry for CO2 removal and H2 purification. There is, however, no commercial application of membrane processes that aims at CO2 capture for IGCC syngas. Due to the modular nature of the membrane process, the design does not exhibit economy of scale—the cost of the system will increase linearly as the plant system scale increases making the use of commercially available membranes, for an IGCC power plant, cost prohibitive. For a membrane process to be a viable CO2 capture technology for IGCC applications, a better overall performance is required, including higher permeability, higher selectivity, and lower membrane cost.
FE0002697 Petroleum Technology Research Centre International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project 09/30/2015 Fit-for-Purpose The project is an international collaboration which brings together Canada, the U.S., the European Community, and Japan, as well as numerous other industrial and government sponsors. The research program integrates studies with the $2 billion commercial EOR and storage operations of Cenovus Energy and Apache at the Weyburn and Midale oil fields in the Williston Basin, Saskatchewan. The project is being completed through several phases with an overall goal of enhancing the knowledge base and understanding of CO2 geologic storage conducted with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) operations. CO2 EOR and storage operations are studied in the Weyburn and Midale oil fields to understand controlling conditions and processes such as site suitability, reservoir capacity, reactive transport, storage integrity, wellbore performance, risk assessment, and effective monitoring and validation techniques.
FE0004228 Akermin, Inc. MO Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO2 Capture 09/30/2013 Post-Combustion Capture Akermin proposes the development and demonstration of a bench scale level reactor with the ability to capture up to 90% of CO2 from a simulated flue gas using a solvent with significantly lower regeneration energy at rates comparable to the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA). Over the course of the project, Akermin will identify the most suitable strains of carbonic anhydrase for carbon capture under industrial conditions, optimize a micellar polymer structure for enzyme immobilization and interface with contactor systems, and demonstrate its efficacy in a bench scale unit capable of processing up to 500 standard liters of gas per minute.
FE0005508 Parker Hannifin Corporation OH High-Bandwidth Modulation of H2/Syngas Fuel to Control Combustion Dynamics in Micro-Mising Lean Premix 01/31/2012 Hydrogen Turbines Parker aims to advance its micro-mixing injector platform, which has already demonstrated low NOx emissions, to improve combustion operability, in particular by attenuating combustion dynamics. This will be accomplished by developing and implementing a high-bandwidth piezo valve with the capability to adaptively modulate fuel flow to the premixer.
FG02-06ER46299 West Virginia University (WVU) WV Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells 12/31/2013 AEC Development

West Virginia University (WVU) will identify the fundamental mechanisms of carbon deposition and coal contaminant poisoning of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and develop novel materials to minimize the impact of these contaminants on fuel cell performance. The effects of trace contaminants found in coal will be characterized, and remedies for any adverse effects proposed. The research will focus on the modeling, manufacture, and testing of SOFCs fueled by simulated coal gas.
FE0005372 Stanford University CA Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels 09/30/2013 Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The overall objective of the proposed 36-month effort is to develop the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas (syngas) under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power and liquid fuels. The scope of work involves testing coal/biomass mixtures in our entrained flow reactors and pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer in order to obtain the data needed to develop a model that accurately predicts char mass loss rates in the types of environments established in commercial entrained flow gasifiers.
FG02-08ER46497 Auburn University AL Effect of SOFC Interconnect-Coating Interactions on Coating Properties and Performance 06/14/2012 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Auburn will attempt to provide a fundamental understanding of how solid oxide fuel cell interconnects are protected from oxidation and performance degradation by coatings. This project will help to explain why some coatings of particular compositions work particularly well while others do not. It is expected that the project will result in information which will guide further coating and interconnect steel development.
FE0006696 Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. FL Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines 09/30/2014 Hydrogen Turbines The scope of this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program Phase III project includes the design, analysis, fabrication, assembly, installation, and testing of prototype spar-shell turbine airfoils and associated hardware, culminating in the validation of performance and functionality in a commercial gas turbine.
FC26-02NT41585 Gas Technology Institute (GTI) IL Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors 12/31/2011 Gasification Systems

Gas Technology Institute is developing a reliable, practical, and cost effective means to monitor coal gasifier flame characteristics using a modified version of an optical flame sensor already under development.

The effort to make ultra-clean gasification commercially competitive includes increasing the life of gasifier injectors (which feed fuel into the gasifier). As the injectors age and wear out, the flames they produce change. Monitoring these flames will allow plant operators to more accurately predict when they have to be changed, reducing gasifier maintenance costs.
FE0007377 University of Wisconsin WI Multi-Scale Computational Design and Synthesis of Protective Smart Coatings for Refractory Metal Alloys 08/31/2014 High Performance Materials The proposed effort will advance the performance of refractory metals by integration of high temperature coating processes uniquely by means of modeling and experimental verifications in a focused, staged development. The ultimate goal of the proposed study will be to deliver the key enabling coating technology for at least a 400 degrees Celsius (°C) increase of the metal operating temperature from 1200°C to 1600°C.
FE0007045 University of California - Irvine CA Development of Criteria for Flameholding Tendencies within Premixer Passages for High Hydrogen Content Fuels 03/31/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines This research will provide a systematic evaluation of flameholding tendencies in various combustor fuel/air premixer passage geometries. This evaluation will be completed for different fuel types (including high hydrogen content [HHC] fuels) at operating conditions (temperature, pressure, etc.) typical of those encountered in industrial-scale turbines. The observations made relative to flameholding tendencies will be analyzed and used to develop design guides that can be used to infer when flameholding will occur as a function of the parameters studied. The high pressures and temperatures required to simulate the environment of a premixing passage for a natural gas-fired gas turbine will be generated at the University of California, Irvine Combustion Lab high pressure facility. The facility is capable of generating a preheated airflow at temperatures up to 1200 degrees Fahrenheit, pressures exceeding ten atmospheres, and a maximum flow rate that exceeds three pounds per second. To provide the planned conditions, a modular test apparatus will be used.
FE0007220 Southern University and A&M College System LA An Integrated Study of a Novel Thermal Barrier Coating for Niobium Based High Temperature Alloy 01/31/2015 High Performance Materials This project will focus on development of advanced thermal based coatings (TBC) to improve the performance of coatings for Nb-based, high-temperature alloys. A computer model to predict the properties of novel thermal barrier coatings will be developed and validated. Concurrent laboratory testing will be used to validate predictions of the model.
FE0007156 Ohio State University OH Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition 09/30/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines The particulate deposition model developed by The Ohio State University (OSU) in prior University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) work will be modified to better account for the fundamental physics of particle impact and sticking, including particle and surface properties. Experimental data from OSU's Turbine Reacting Flow Facility (TuRFR) deposition cascade facility will be used to validate the revised model. The TuRFR facility will be modified to provide for the generation of inlet temperature profile non-uniformities (hot streaks), which will be tracked through the turbine nozzle passage using surface temperature infrared imagery and exit plane temperature measurements. Hot streak evolution and the effect of the hot streaks on deposition will be evaluated. Film cooling will then be added to both the experiments and the computation to evaluate its effect on hot streak migration and deposition. Finally, the model's ability to track hot streak migration will be exercised on a full turbine stage (vane and rotor) using data acquired in the OSU Gas Turbine Laboratory transient turbine test rig. The model will also be used to predict deposition in the rotating configuration, although there will be no experimental validation of deposition in the rotating frame.
FE0007332 Tennessee Technological University TN An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of McRally Bond Coats for Advanced Syngas/Hydrogen Turbine Applications 09/11/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines The proposed metal chromium-aluminum-yttrium (MCrAlY; where M = nickel [Ni], cobalt [Co] or a mixture of Ni and Co) bond coats will be synthesized via an electrolytic codeposition process, followed by a post-plating heat treatment. In contrast to traditional electro-codeposition processes where sulfate or sulfamate bath is used for Ni/Co deposition, a sulfur-free electrolyte will be employed to control the impurity levels in the MCrAlY coatings. The reduced sulfur (S) levels will be expected to improve oxide scale adhesion. The amounts of Cr, Al, and particularly the Y reservoir, in the MCrAlY bond coat will be optimized to extend the lifetime of the thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. Reactive elements such as Y hafnium (Hf) or Y zirconium (Zr) will be co-doped into the MCrAlY coatings by modifying the composition of the CrAlY alloy powder. The composition of the CrAlY alloy (where equals Hf or Zr, etc.) will be carefully designed, based on the literature data for model MCrAlY alloys and other types of MCrAlY coatings. Other parameters of the electrolytic codeposition process will be systematically studied using a design-of-experiment approach to provide a fundamental understanding of their synergistic effects and to optimize the coating composition and microstructure.
FE0007225 University of Texas at El Paso TX Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High-Temperature Sensors 01/31/2015 Sensors and Controls This project is intended to investigate and deliver high-temperature oxygen sensors based on pure and doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanostructures operating at 800 °C and above in a corrosive atmosphere. The impetus is designing the Ga2O3-based nanostructured materials for application as oxygen sensors operating at extremely high temperatures in fossil fuel energy systems with a demonstrated reliability, stability and without any interference from other pollutants/emissions.
FE0007099 Purdue University IN Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation 09/30/2014 Hydrogen Turbines This Purdue University project is a detailed investigation of the structure and dynamics of fuel jets injected into a subsonic oxidizing crossflow in order to enhance the fundamental level of understanding of these important flows and to provide a validation database for comparison with detailed numerical models of the reacting jets in crossflow (RJIC). Advanced laser diagnostics, including high-speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) will be used to probe the flow fields in a high-pressure gas turbine combustion facility. PIV and planar laser induced fluorescence of OH radicals (OH PLIF) will be used to visualize fuel/air mixing and combustion at data rates of 5-10 kilohertz (kHz). One kHz CARS will be employed for temperature measurements using femtosecond lasers. The combustion facility will utilize three different fuels: a natural gas (NG) baseline and two high-hydrogen-content (HHC) fuels. Accurate high-resolution spatial and temporal measurements of the resulting turbulent flame structures will provide improved understanding of the complex processes of fuel/air mixing and turbulence-chemistry interaction with attendant impact on operability when using HHC fuels. Additionally, the representative crossflow will be forced into stationary and oscillatory conditions to simulate an unstable condition. The enhanced mixing and combustion of the fuel jet will be measured to quantify the relationship between the unsteady combustion field and the forced oscillatory field. The benchmark quality data sets resulting from these experiments will include comprehensive measurements of mean and fluctuating components of velocity, temperature, and species at high pressure and with crossflow conditions representative of modern gas turbine engines with practical applications within the turbine industry.
FE0007107 University of Texas at Austin TX Large Eddy Simulation Modeling of Flashback and Flame Stabilization in Hydrogen-rich Gas Turbines using a Hierarchical Validation Approach 09/30/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines The proposed work at the University of Texas aims to develop large eddy simulation (LES) models for simulating high hydrogen content (HHC) gas turbine combustion, with specific focus on premixing and flashback dynamics. The project is divided into three components: (1) LES model development using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and canonical experimental data, (2) targeted experimental studies to produce high quality mixing and flashback dynamics under engine relevant conditions, and (3) validation of LES models using a validation pyramid approach and transfer of models to industry using an open source platform.
FE0007450 University of Colorado CO Quantifying the Uncertainty of Kinetic-theory Predictions of Clustering 09/20/2014 Simulation-Based Engineering The main goal of the project is to quantify the uncertainty associated with kinetic-theory predictions of the clustering instabilities present in high-velocity gas-solid flows. There are two major objectives. The first is to generate benchmark data with an eye toward determining the relative importance of the physical mechanisms that give rise to the instabilities. Although it has been established previously that inelastic collisions and gas-phase effects can independently lead to instabilities in granular and gas-solid flows, their relative importance has not been examined, nor has the expected important effect of friction. The second objective is to apply kinetic-theory (continuum) models, with no adjustable parameters, to the same flow geometries used for the benchmark data. Kinetic-theory models have been shown to predict such instabilities, though previous validation work, such as snapshots and/or movies of particle clusters, is largely qualitative in nature.
FE0006932 Princeton University NJ Implementation and Refinement of a Comprehensive Model for Dense Granular Flows 09/30/2015 Simulation-Based Engineering This project will implement and validate a new granular stress model in Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) while continuing to improve the model to capture more complex flow behavior. The proposed work consists of the following major goals. Goal 1: Implement in MFIX, the steady shear rheological model developed recently by the PI group; perform MFIX simulations of various test problems such as hopper, chute, and Couette flows using this rheological model and no-slip and partial slip boundary conditions already available in MFIX; and compare against experimental and discrete element method (DEM) simulation data. Goal 2: Develop improved wall boundary conditions for the particle phase that can be applied in all three regimes of flow and implement them in MFIX. Examine the effect of refined boundary conditions on flow characteristics in the test problems mentioned in Goal 1. Goal 3: Further develop the rheological model to allow for dynamic evolution of the stresses, make appropriate modifications to the MFIX implementation, and conduct appropriate validation tests.
FE0006947 University of Utah UT In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments 03/31/2015 Sensors and Controls This project's objective is to develop novel sensors and refractory measurements and assessment methods that can provide real time measurement of refractory temperature, thickness, and change in material properties.
FE0007190 State University of New York (SUNY) - Albany NY Heat Activated Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Chemical Sensors 09/30/2015 Sensors and Controls The goal of this project is to develop cost-effective sensing technologies able to function in harsh, high-temperature operating environments. SUNY investigators intend to develop a photo-detector and a chemical sensor tailored to emissions of interest that will sense a passive light source with sufficient energy in the selected wavelength.
FE0007272 University of Washington WA High Temperature Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered at Multiple Length Scales for Energy Harvesting 12/20/2014 High Performance Materials This project will identify the most promising compositions of ferroelectric materials that can be used to make highly efficient thermoelectric devices for waste heat recovery in coal fired power and industrial plants. Combinatorial methods will be used to rapidly screen a broad composition range with high Curie temperatures, followed by an investigation of the thermoelectric properties. Processing approaches to making the materials will be also developed.
FE0006946 Iowa State University IA Multiphase Flow Research-Uncertainty Quantification Tools for Multiphase Gas-Solid Flow Simulations using MFIX 09/30/2015 Simulation-Based Engineering The goal of this project is to develop and validate for multiphase gas-solids flow simulations, a non-intrusive uncertainty quantification (UQ) procedure based on polynomial chaos methodology together with a quadrature-based reconstruction of the multivariate probability density function required by the approach, and to implement the procedure as a new algorithm in the NETL Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) multi-phase flow simulation package. The new UQ procedure will first be tested and validated on gas-particle flow problems for which analytical or simple algebraic solutions exist. The procedure will then be installed in MFIX and tested on two (2) complex gas-solid flow scenarios that represent different gas-solids flow regimes.
FE0007520 Tuskegee University AL Study of Particle Rotation Effect in Gas-Solid Flows Using Direct Numerical Simulation with a Lattice Boltzmann Method 09/30/2014 Simulation-Based Engineering This project will develop a new fundamental drag model for solid-gas flows using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) method. The new model will consider the effects of particle rotation on the hydrodynamics of gas-solid flows.
FE0007004 University of Central Florida FL Wireless, Passive Ceramic Strain Sensors for Turbine Engine Applications 03/31/2015 Sensors and Controls The University of Central Florida will develop an accurate and robust wireless passive high-temperature sensor for in situ measurement of strains inside turbine engines in coal-based power generation systems.
FE0007271 University of Pittsburgh PA Degradation of TBC Systems in Environments Relevant to Advanced Gas Turbines for IGCC Systems 09/30/2014 Hydrogen Turbines This University of Pittsburgh project will determine the degradation mechanisms of current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) in environments comprised of particulate matter and gas mixtures which are representative of gas turbines using coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The observed degradation processes will be used to guide the development of improved coatings for hot section components in the potentially harsh gas turbine environments in which fuels derived from coal and even perhaps biomass are burned. The unresolved complexities associated with TBC durability include enhanced attack of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coating by chemical reaction, physical damage of the topcoat by molten deposit penetration, and accelerated bond coat corrosion. This work is investigating how the interaction between the ash and oxidants affect TBC degradation by using lab-scale testing. Important outcomes from this study will include understanding TBC degradation; modeling integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments to develop better coatings; and extending the service life of TBCs by mitigating degradation. This research is using the high-temperature corrosion testing facilities at the University of Pittsburgh. The deposits currently being used are based on fly ash, and accordingly, consist of calcium oxide (CaO), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and iron oxides (FeOx). Additions of potassium sulfate (K2SO4) and iron sulfide (FeS) are used to simulate other ash constituents. The tests are being conducted on two different TBC system types provided by Praxair Surface Technologies (PST) of Indianapolis, Indiana. PST will also conduct thermal gradient tests for assessing TBC durability with and without deposits. Both exposed and unexposed test samples are being extensively characterized using the suite of capabilities available at the University of Pittsburgh.
FE0007325 University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) ND Preparation and Testing of Corrosion- and Spatiation- Resistant Coatings 06/30/2016 Advanced Combustion Turbines This University of North Dakota project is designed to refine the evaporative metal bonding (EMB) method, then apply the refinements to bonding a layer of corrosion- and spallation-resistant alloy, advanced powder metallurgy technology (APMT) to turbine parts composed of two nickel superalloy compositions and test the parts to determine if lifetimes have been increased. The work involves measurement of the temperature-dependent diffusion rates of zinc, the bonding metal used in the EMB process. The component superalloys of interest are CM247LC®, and Rene 80. The corrosion and spallation resistant super alloy layer is APMT. This information will help the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-led project team better design the heat treatments needed to create the bonds between the super-alloys and the APMT plating and assure that the zinc completely diffuses out of the turbine components created. The team will also model force distributions in the clamped structures being plated with APMT to assure that the compressive force used to hold the APMT and superalloys together during bonding is adequately distributed over the surfaces being joined. This modeling capability will allow the team to better design the clamping fixtures and force distribution plates (buffers) that will be used to bond plates of the APMT to more complex superalloy turbine parts. To determine the appropriate conditions for corrosion testing of the bonded parts in simulated turbine conditions, the team will measure trace constituents in combusted syngas produced in the EERC entrained-flow gasifier. This will consist of combusting a slipstream of cleaned coal derived synthesis gas (syngas) produced from the gasifier, quenching the combusted gas with nitrogen, and collecting the submicron particulates on Nuclepore surface filters and gaseous constituents in activated carbon, zeolite traps, or gas impingers. After determining the best heat treatment and clamping methods, the team will bond plates of APMT to the surface of superalloy test samples (buttons) and turbine parts provided by Siemens. Siemens will also apply thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to some of the bonded parts and evaluate them. The EERC will perform laboratory hot corrosion tests simulating post-combustor turbine gas compositions, including relevant trace species defined in pilot-scale testing used to bond plates of the APMT to more complex superalloy turbine parts.
FE0007382 University of Connecticut (UConn) CT Low Thermal Conductivity, High Durability Thermal Barrier Coatings for IGCC Environments 01/15/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines The University of Connecticut, in cooperation with Pratt & Whitney and Siemens Energy, will use a novel solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process to deposit low thermal conductivity, high durability yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and to utilize surface protective layers (SPLs) to provide high temperature contaminant resistance and increased surface temperature capability, while minimizing the use of rare earth elements. The SPPS process provides a unique TBC microstructure that consists of through-thickness vertical cracks for strain tolerance, ultra-fine splats for spallation crack resistance, and the ability to produce very low thermal conductivities. The low thermal conductivities, or low-K (with K representing heat conductivity), will result from planar arrays of fine porosity called inter-pass boundaries (IPBs) and the ability to vary porosity content over wide ranges. The IPBs are generic conductivity lowering features that can be implemented for any TBC. Pratt & Whitney and Siemens Energy will contribute valuable specimens and will test the down-selected low-K TBCs. The low-K YSZ TBC structure will be created using the SPPS process. Taguchi methods for design of experiments will be used to systematically determine the deposition parameters to minimize the thermal conductivity. Cyclic durability tests of the low-K TBC will be conducted to verify that the excellent durability of the SPPS TBC is preserved. A protective surface layer of gadolinium-zirconium will be added to the low-K YSZ TBC to increase the maximum allowable surface temperature by at least 100 degrees Celsius (°C) and improve its calcium-magnesium-alumina-silicate (CMAS) resistance, while minimizing the heavy use of rare earth elements. This improved contaminant resistance will be verified by testing in CMAS and moisture. Contaminant resistance will be further enhanced by employing two novel approaches, one using aluminum-titanium additions to the YSZ, and the other by deliberately adding calcium sulfate, shown to block CMAS when deposited by natural processes in service engines. The spallation failure mechanisms of the low-K TBC will be defined to provide guidance for subsequent improvements and a sound basis for life prediction methodologies.
FE0007466 Battelle Memorial Institute WA CO2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration 05/31/2014 Solvents Battelle Pacific Northwest Division, Fluor Corporation, and Queen's University have teamed together to develop a new CO2-capture technology for treating post-combustion emissions. This new process couples the unique attributes of non-aqueous, switchable organic solvents (CO2 binding organic liquids - CO2BOLs) with the newly discovered polarity-swing-assisted regeneration (PSAR) process. This process requires significantly lower temperatures and energies for CO2 separation relative to conventional technology, making significant cost savings possible. Combining the polarity assist with CO2BOLs is estimated to provide more than 42% energy savings over aqueous alkanolamine systems. Further, the low regeneration temperatures of the proposed technology also allow a unique energy integration method that can reduce overall parasitic loads by more than 65% compared to commercial systems.
FE0007270 Case Western Reserve University OH An Information Theoretic Framework and Self-Organizing Agent-Based Sensor Network Architecture for Power Plant Condition Monitor 10/31/2016 Sensors & Controls The main objective of this project is to develop an information theoretic sensing and control framework that encompasses distributed software agents and companion computational algorithms that maximize the collection, transmission, aggregation, and conversion of data to actionable information for monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis and control of advanced power plants.
FE0007453 Linde, LLC NJ Slipstream Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel Amine Based Post-Combustion Process Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas 11/30/2016 Solvents Linde LLC (Linde), along with BASF and the Electric Power Research Institute, will design, build, and operate a 1 megawatt electrical (MWe) equivalent slipstream pilot plant at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to further refine a post-combustion capture solvent technology developed by Linde and BASF. The technology incorporates BASF novel amine-based solvent, OASE® blue, along with Linde process and engineering innovations. The post-combustion capture technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes with the capability to reduce regeneration energy requirements by using novel solvents that are stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. The project objectives are to design and build the 1 MWe pilot plant; conduct parametric testing to confirm that the pilot plant meets the performance targets and to obtain appropriate design information; perform a detailed data analysis to assess and develop the design basis for scale-up; and operate the pilot plant continuously under stable conditions to confirm the solvent stability and key material compatibility. The long-term test results will be used to update a techno-economic analysis for a 550 MWe coal-fired power plant incorporating the novel amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture technology and confirm that it can meet the Department of Energy carbon capture performance goals.
FE0007531 Rice University TX Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast and Surface-Enhanced Separation of Carbon Dioxide for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture 12/31/2015 Solvents

Rice University is investigating a novel solvent-based absorption process for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture that combines the absorber and desorber columns, separated by a microporous ceramic membrane, into a single integrated unit. This novel capture process uses ceramic foam contactors with complex, highly-interconnected structures for the absorption and desorption of CO2. The ceramic gas-liquid contactors have favorable characteristics for mass transfer with large geometric surface areas up to ten times that of conventional packing. Additionally, the process will include metal oxide catalysts that enhance CO2 desorption from amine-based solvents at lower temperatures, resulting in reduced energy consumption and less solvent degradation and evaporation. Commercially available solvents with well-documented performance will be examined. A bench-scale prototype will be developed to implement the complete CO2 separation process and tests will be conducted to study various aspects of fluid flow in the process. A model will be developed to simulate the two-dimensional fluid flow and optimize the CO2 capture process. Test results will be used to develop a final techno-economic analysis and identify the most appropriate absorbent as well as optimum operating conditions to minimize capital and operating costs. This analysis will indicate the feasibility of integrating the process into a 550 megawatt electric (MWe) coal-fired power plant.
FE0006823 Blackhorse Energy, LLC TX South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration Demonstration Project 09/30/2014 Clastics and Carbonates

Blackhorse Energy, LLC is evaluating the early Eocene-aged Wilcox formation located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana. The Wilcox formation is a mature developed oil reservoir (named the Livingston Reservoir) approximately 10,000 feet below ground surface. The depositional environment for this formation is a beach/barrier nearshore marine bar (Figure 1). The reservoir has been undergoing traditional secondary EOR techniques (water flooding) to increase oil production since 1987. This project will utilize tertiary EOR techniques by injecting approximately 52,000 metric tons of supercritical CO2 and CO2 foam (a CO2 based substance that tends to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved) into the formation to advance the oil recovery process and examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic storage of CO2.

This small-scale injection project will use remote time-lapse monitoring to measure, track, and assess how effectively overlying zones contain the injected CO2, determine the physical and geochemical fate of CO2 in the reservoir, and refine the storage resource estimate. Other MVA tools that will be used to monitor the migration of injected CO2 include advanced logging tools and fiber optic technology. Innovative injection well design will test the ability of short-radius, horizontal well technology to increase geologic storage of CO2 in the reservoir by increasing the available injection length within the reservoir. The monitoring and existing field production wells will be leveraged for data gathering to further characterize and understand the Wilcox depositional environment in south
FE0006827 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Central Appalachian Basin Unconventional (Coal/Organic Shale) Reservoir Small Scale CO2 Injection Test 12/31/2017 Fit-for-Purpose Virginia Tech is evaluating the long-term storage potential of CO2 in coal seams and organic shales by injecting up to 20,000 metric tons of CO2 into these unconventional reservoirs in central Appalachia. This project is designing and implementing characterization, injection, and monitoring activities to test unconventional formations (coal and organic shales) ability to store CO2 economically and safely as well as track the migration of CO2 throughout the injection and post-injection phases. In addition, this research will test the injectivity of CO2 into unmineable coal seams and the potential for enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) by stressing the coal under continuous CO2 injection for a period of one year.
FE0007060 University of Michigan MI Development and Experimental Validation of Large-Eddy Simulation Techniques - Syngas Combustion 08/31/2015 Advanced Combustion Turbines The scope of this University of Michigan computational effort addresses the development of a fully validated large-eddy simulation (LES)-modeling capability to predict unstable combustion of high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels. To incorporate effects of preferential diffusion, pressure variations, and variations in mixture composition, an unsteady flamelet-based LES combustion model will be extended. The integrated LES-validation effort includes (1) an a priori analysis of critical modeling assumptions using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of jet-in-cross-flow configurations, and (2) a posteriori model validation in LES application of a swirl-stabilized gas turbine combustor. The LES-combustion model will be used to develop detailed simulations to characterize facility-induced nonidealities in flow-reactor experiments. Effects arising from high-Reynolds number turbulence transition, mixture stratification, and other mechanisms associated with turbulence/ chemistry interaction on the autoignition behavior will be quantified through parametric calculations. The information gained from these efforts will be used to develop a low-order model that can be utilized for chemical-kinetics investigations and for guiding and improving future flow reactor designs in order to reduce facility effects. The experimental effort includes high-pressure measurements of HHC fuel combustion in a dual-swirl gas turbine combustor, development of a comprehensive experimental database for LES model validation by considering stable and unstable gas turbine operating conditions, and obtaining improved understanding about fundamental combustion-physical mechanisms that control flame-holding, liftoff, and flashback for HHC fuels. A range of pressures, HHC fuel compositions, and equivalence ratios will be investigated experimentally.
FE0007741 Novozymes North America, Inc. NC Low-Energy Solvents for Carbon Dioxide Capture Enabled by a Combination of Enzymes and Ultrasonics 06/30/2015 Solvents Novozymes proposes to design, build, and test an integrated bench-scale system that combines the attributes of the bio-renewable enzyme catalyst carbonic anhydrase with low-enthalpy absorption liquids and novel ultrasonically enhanced regeneration for a CO2 capture process with improved efficiency, economics, and sustainability. The application of ultrasonic energy forces dissolved CO2 into gas bubbles, thereby increasing the overall driving force of the solvent regeneration reaction. The technologies are projected to reduce the net parasitic load to a coal-fired power plant by as much as 51% compared to conventional monoethnolamine (MEA) scrubbing technology.
FE0007260 Florida International University FL Development of a Two-Fluid Drag Law for Clustered Particles using Direct Numerical Simulation and Validation through Experiments 12/31/2014 Simulation-Based Engineering This project will develop and validate new drag force correlations for the case of particle clustering, based on direct numerical simulation of gas-solids flow structures in risers and vertical columns; and validation of the proposed drag law by using the Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) multiphase flow simulation code to compare the experimental data generated in this project with computational results generated by MFIX simulations.
FE0007603 University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) ND Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents 12/31/2014 Sorbents The objective of this project is to scale up and demonstrate a hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO2 capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas. The technology is a novel solid sorbent based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and low-cost method of heat management. The project will develop key information for the CACHYSTM process sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYSTM system.
FE0007580 TDA Research, Inc. CO Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants 09/30/2015 Sorbents TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) will work with Babcock & Wilcox, MeadWestvaco Corporation, the University of California-Irvine, the Gas Technology Institute, and the Illinois Clean Coal Institute to develop a low-cost, high-capacity carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent and show its technical and economic ability to selectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. TDA advanced physical adsorbent consists of mesoporous carbon with surface functional groups grafted onto a patented TDA mesoporous carbon support. The sorbent binds CO2 more strongly than common adsorbents, providing the chemical potential needed to remove the CO2, however, because CO2 does not form a true covalent bond with the surface sites, the regeneration can be carried out with a small energy input. The heat input to regenerate the sorbent is only 4.9 kilocalories per mole of CO2, which is much lower than that for chemical absorbents or amine-based solvents. The mesoporous carbon sorbent was previously developed and validated under a DOE-funded project (DE-FE0000469) for pre-combustion CO2 capture. TDA will advance the adsorbent technology by improving the material capabilities and process design, and by conducting an evaluation with a fully-equipped bench-scale prototype unit using coal-fired flue gas to validate the technical viability of the concept. A techno-economic analysis will be performed to estimate the impact of the CO2 capture system on the plant efficiency and cost of electricity.
FE0007405 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University VA Embedded Active Fiber Optic Sensing Network for Structural Health Monitoring in Harsh Environments 09/30/2016 Sensors & Controls Virginia Tech will develop a first-of-a-kind technology for remote fiber optic generation and detection of acoustic waves for structural health monitoring. The technology requires no electric power supply at the monitoring site and the detected acoustic signature as well as the additional returned optical signal allow extraction of information about multiple material conditions including temperature, strain, corrosion, and cracking.
FE0007977 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) CA Liquid CO2 Slurry (LCO2) for Feeding Low Rank Coal (LRC) Gasifiers 09/30/2013 Gasification Systems

This project will exploit the availability of CO2 in a gasification power island for the benefit of IGCC-CCS integrated plants. EPRI will leverage the findings of laboratory tests to support the development and evaluation of mechanical engineering designs of LRC/LCO2 slurry preparation systems, which in turn will be used to develop higher resolution IGCC plant performance and cost models. The project aims to validate that LCO2 can achieve higher solid loading than water slurry, study the design criteria for a LCO2-coal slurry preparation/mixing system that is superior to conventional feed systems, and demonstrate potential plant thermal efficiency improvement over a water-coal slurry-based feed system.
FE0007966 TDA Research, Inc. CO Advanced Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems 09/30/2013 Gasification Systems

TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is demonstrating the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low-rank coals. The plant uses an integrated carbon dioxide (CO2) scrubber/water gas shift (WGS) catalyst to capture more than 90 percent of the CO2 emissions, while increasing the cost of electricity by less than 10 percent compared to a plant with no carbon capture.

TDA is optimizing the sorbent/catalyst and process design, and assessing the efficacy of the integrated WGS catalyst/CO2 capture system, first in bench-scale experiments and then in a slipstream field demonstration using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. The results will feed into a techno-economic analysis to estimate the impact of the WGS catalyst/CO2 capture system on the thermal efficiency of the plant and the cost of electricity.