Program Elements / Goals / Targets / Objectives
FE’s Office of Clean Coal is organized into eight technology areas, one of which is Advanced Power Systems (APS). APS is subdivided into two closely related programs: Advanced Turbines, and Coal Gasification. Beginning with the APS goals and working down through the organization, the high level goals lead to increasingly specific goals and targets that support power system and turbine technology development objectives, as described below.
APS Goals and Targets
The APS goals stated below reflect DOE’s effort to introduce a “new breed” of power plant – one that is highly efficient, capable of producing multiple products, and virtually pollution-free (near-zero emissions). APS programs capitalize on progress achieved in other Clean Coal program areas, including carbon sequestration and fuel cells, and also strongly support technology requirements of the FutureGen Program.
- By 2010, complete R&D for advanced gasification combined-cycle technology that can produce electricity from coal at 45–50 percent efficiency (HHV).
- By 2012, complete R&D to integrate this technology with CO2 separation, capture, and sequestration into a near-zero emission configuration(s) that can provide electricity with less than a 10 percent increase in cost over conventional plants.
The APS target for the Advanced Turbines Program is:
- By 2010, test advanced syngas-fueled turbine combustors that will form the core of gasifier/turbine systems that contribute 2–3 percentage points to overall efficiency improvements (based on a Frame-FB Turbine).
Advanced Turbines Program Targets
Advanced turbines are being developed to operate on coal-derived fuels (syngas) and hydrogen. To achieve the APS goals, the Advanced Turbines Program has established the following targets:
- By 2010, operating on syngas: increase combined-cycle (CC) power block efficiency by 2–3 percentage points over baseline; reduce NOx emissions to 2 ppm in the turbine exhaust at 15 percent oxygen when fueled with syngas; and reduce capital costs of CC power island by 20–30 percent when compared to today’s turbines in existing integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plants.
- By 2012, operating on hydrogen: maintain 2010 efficiency gains (2–3 percentage points for CC power block over baseline) when fueled with hydrogen; reduce NOx emissions to near-zero when fueled with hydrogen; maintain 2010 capital cost reductions (20–30 percent from baseline) when fueled with hydrogen; and reduce the cost impact of CO2 compression by reducing the auxiliary power requirement by 30–40 percent compared to current projections.
Advanced Turbines Program Elements
Advanced turbines will be fuel flexible (i.e., capable of operating on hydrogen or syngas fuels), and therefore will enable electric power generation in IGCC applications configured to capture CO2, like those envisioned in FutureGen.
The Advanced Turbines Program is organized into three key program elements:
Hydrogen Turbines for FutureGen – To advance commercialization of advanced power plants based on IGCC technology, and to facilitate the capture and sequestration of CO2, the Advanced Turbines Program is pursuing development of advanced turbines fueled by syngas and pure hydrogen. Turbine systems and components targeted for improvement include combustor technology, materials research, enhanced cooling technology, and coatings development. These technologies are considered key components of FutureGen, which will use technology developed from the core R&D program, including Advanced Turbines, to build and operate the world’s first near-zero emissions power plant that will produce electricity and hydrogen from coal while capturing and storing CO2 through sequestration. It is intended that the successful prototype would be a model for other near-zero emission coal plants that can produce electricity at no more than a 10 percent increase in cost over a conventional plant, and produce hydrogen at $4/million Btu (wholesale).
Oxy-Fuel Turbines – To facilitate the development of near-zero emission coal-based power systems, Advanced Turbines also is developing oxygen-fired (oxy-fuel) turbines and combustors that provide high efficiency through the use of ultra-high-temperature power cycles. Bringing such oxy-fuel combustors and turbines to commercial viability requires development and integrated testing of a new combustor, turbine components, advanced cooling technology, and materials. Oxy-fuel combustion potentially can be used in plants based on both conventional and advanced technology. Studies have shown that plants equipped with oxy-fuel systems could reach nominal efficiencies in the 30 percent range with today’s steam turbines when fueled with natural gas and when capturing the CO2. With anticipated advances in gasification, oxygen separation, and steam turbine technology, plants using oxy-fuel systems are expected to achieve efficiencies in the mid-40 percent range, with near-100 percent CO2 capture and near-zero NOx emissions.
CO2 Compression and Other Advanced Research – To reduce the costs associated with sequestering CO2, Advanced Turbines is investigating novel approaches for CO2 compression. Various gaseous, liquid, and shock wave compression technologies are being evaluated; and successful development is expected to reduce the substantial power requirements and costs associated with compression. To enable CO2 sequestration from IGCC and oxy-fuel power plants, significant compression power is required to boost the pressure to typical pipeline levels (1,500–2,200 psia depending on the sequestration scheme and location). Preliminary studies estimate the CO2 compression-related output penalty at approximately 29 MW, or 3.9 percent of the gross power output of the advanced IGCC plant (FutureGen). Reducing this power requirement is essential to improving overall plant efficiency and facilitating CO2 sequestration at both existing and future power plants.
Program Element Performance Objectives
The critical R&D objectives supporting the achievement of program goals and targets are:
Hydrogen Turbines for FutureGen
By 2010 (on syngas):
- Reduce NOx emissions to 2 ppm in the turbine exhaust at 15 percent oxygen.
- Contribute to increasing power block efficiency by 2–3 percentage points over baseline (the performance currently achieved by the F-frame turbines at the Tampa Electric and Wabash River IGCC facilities).
- Contribute to reducing the capital costs of a CC power island by 20–30 percent over the previously established baseline.
By 2012 (on hydrogen with carbon capture):
- Develop a turbine fueled with hydrogen that facilitates integration with coal-based IGCC power plants designed for CO2 capture and sequestration.
- Demonstrate fuel flexibility, allowing for turbine operation on conventional syngas or 100 percent hydrogen (on a heat input basis).
- Develop emissions control technology capable of reducing NOx emissions to near-zero.
- In the near-term, efforts are focused on the development of oxy- fuel turbine and combustor technologies for highly efficient (50–60 percent), near-zero emissions, coal-based power systems.
CO2 Compression and Other Advanced Research
- Develop and test various liquid and gaseous compression technologies.
- Pursue the development of shock wave compression.