Reference Shelf – Publications, Presentations & Reports - Process & Technology Studies
The following are Gasification Process & Technology Studies:
- Independent Assessment of the Potential of Chemical-Looping in the Context of a Fischer-Tropsch Plant [PDF-1MB] (Dec 2007)
Simulations of an integrated coal to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids process, including a chemical looping scheme, under development by Ohio State University, were performed and the technical results from this analysis were then compared to a conventional coal-to-liquids (CTL) system. Results of the comparative technical analysis between the chemical looping scheme and the conventional CTL scheme indicate that the chemical looping case increased liquid production from the same coal feed by about 10% and the total carbon emissions per barrel produced is about 19% less for the proposed chemical looping system compared to the conventional CTL configuration.
- Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Studies - Healy Coal-to-Liquids Plant [PDF-3.6MB] (July 2007)
This study evaluates the feasibility of building a relatively small coal-to-liquids plant in central Alaska to provide a clean diesel product to Alaska’s refineries. The study concludes that the establishment of a 14,640 barrel per day F-T plant, using 4 million tons per year of coal, could be economic provided the price per barrel of the F-T product is at least $64 per barrel.
- Preliminary Feasibility Analysis of RTI Warm Gas Cleanup (WGCU) Technology [PDF-730KB] (June 2007)
- Metal sorbents for high temperature mercury capture from fuel gas (May 2007)
The paper “High temperature metal sorbents for mercury capture from fuel gas” was accepted for publication in the Elsevier Journal - Fuel. It was found that palladium can adsorb large quantities of mercury from simulated syngas upon extended exposures, whereas platinum captured somewhat less mercury. Sorbents with palladium concentrations of between 2 and 9% by weight on alumina were exposed to simulated syngas at temperatures of 204 oC – 371 oC. X-ray diffraction analysis of the used palladium sorbents exposed at 204 oC suggests the formation of a mercury-palladium alloy, with concentrations of 12.0 - 14.4 atom percent mercury. The large capacity for mercury by palladium sorbents bodes well for its commercial prospects in gasification systems.
- Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study [PDF-1.3MB] (May 2007)
The objective of this study is to prepare a source of information from which valid comparisons can be made for the water loss between the various fossil fuel power plants such as IGCC, PC , and NGCC. Previous estimates of water usage or water loss for conceptual power plant configurations have used water impacts of technology options as the basis for comparison . However, these previous estimates were made using available flow sheet data that were generally not complete, and as a result have generated potentially misleading comparisons. It is important that any comparison be made using data from complete water balances for the flow sheets and that all uses, makeup streams, discharges, internal generation and losses be accounted for in the balance and assessment of water streams in order to establish credible conclusions. By providing the following:
(1) an account of water usage throughout the power plant and a credible methodology that can be used for future studies,
(2) a baseline set of cases and water loss data for assessing potential improvements and evaluating R&D programs, and
(3) a basis for comparing water usage in various types of advanced power systems,
this report serves as a tool for reviewing design assumptions, technology capabilities, system performance, etc. and identifying areas where new technology approaches or gasifier designs could lead to substantially lower water requirements.
- Industrial Size Gasification for Syngas, Substitute Natural Gas and Power Production (Apr 2007) [ZIP-10MB]
This feasibility study was performed to evaluate the technical and economic viability of coal-derived syngas and substitute natural gas (SNG) using gasification technology fueled with an Eastern bituminous coal and a PRB coal. Results of the study show that there is a need for an industrial size coal gasification system to take advantage of the abundant, price stable coal resources in the U.S. to provide a coal-derived substitute natural gas to U.S. Industries.
- Baseline Technical and Economic Assessment of a Commercial Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facility [PDF-1.3MB] (Apr 2007)
This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a commercial 50,000 barrel per day coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility in the Illinois coal basin. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from medium-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.
- Technical and Economic Assessment of Small-Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facilities [PDF-1.8MB] (Feb 2007)
This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a small-scale coal-toliquids (CTL) facility in southwestern West Virginia. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from a high-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.
- Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study - Phase I Final Report [PDF-4MB] (July 2006)
This report summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a potential industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, local industry is investigating alternatives to natural gas as a feed stock for their process plants. This study evaluated a gasification plant that would supply syngas to meet the chemical needs of a local application and would also co-produce power to meet on-site demand, and possibly other byproducts for local use. The results of the study verified that conversion of a plant from natural gas to syngas is technically and economically feasible.
- Comparison of Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne IGCC and Commercial IGCC Performance [PDF-2.5MB] (June 2006)
This report compares the performance and cost of commercial Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants using General Electric Energy (GEE) and Shell gasifiers with conceptual IGCC plant designs using the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) compact gasifier. The PWR gasifier is also compared with the GEE gasifier in hydrogen production and carbon capture mode. With the exception of the PWR gasifier, the plants are designed with commercially available equipment to be operational in approximately 2010. All results should be considered preliminary and dictated in large part by the selected design basis.
- PWR Gasifier Peer Review Report [PDF-44KB], Attachment 1 [PDF-12KB], Attachment 2 [PDF-287KB] (Feb 2006)
This report presents the findings from the January 24, 2006, peer review that was performed to review the work that Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has done to date, their technical approach for future development, and to assess the potential benefit of the PWR gasifier and feed system technologies over state-of-the art coal gasification. It also presents the peer reviewers' findings related to the DOE analysis of the PWR refractory, and a DOE system study comparing the performance and economics of the PWR gasifier to the GE and Shell gasifiers.
- Novel Gas Cleaning/ Conditioning for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Volume I – Conceptual Commercial Evaluation Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures [PDF-564KB] (July 2005)
This final report provides the findings of the project to propose and confirm an alternative technological solution for solid fuel injection into proposed advanced combustion systems. This project was aimed at developing the Stamet Posimetric™ High Pressure Solids Feeder to provide a simple, accurate and reliable feed system needed to maintain a lead in the U.S. in advanced combustion system design and supply.
- Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Task 3 - Final Report [PDF-13.7MB] (May 2005)
This study evaluates the application of Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS® gasifier at an industrial application. The first of the three subtasks in this study examines the use of the gasifier for an upstate New York industrial setting using a Southeastern Ohio coal. Both air-blown and oxygen-blown gasifier schemes are evaluated for this subtask. The next subtask of the study is to develop an advanced design for an air-blown case based on the first subtask. The third subtask of the study investigates the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota.
- Polygeneration of SNG, Hydrogen, Power, and Carbon Dioxide from Texas Lignite [PDF-333KB] (Dec 2004)
The intent of this study is to investigate the feasibility of siting a lignite conversion plant in Texas at the mine mouth of the Wilcox lignite deposit. The concept is to coproduce at least three products: electric power, hydrogen or substitute natural gas (SNG), and carbon dioxide. The electric power would be sold to the grid, the hydrogen would be sent by pipeline to the Gulf Coast petroleum refineries, the SNG would be sold as a natural gas supplement, and the carbon dioxide would be pipelined to the West Texas oil fields for enhanced oil recovery.
- Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Task 1 and 2 - Final Report [PDF-2.7MB] (Sept 2003)
This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC co-production projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract. This final report includes the results from Tasks 1 and 2.
- Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Task 2 Topical Report Coke/Coal Gasification With Liquids Co production Volumes 1 and 2 [PDF-6.9MB] (Sept 2003)
This report describes Task 2 of a Department of Energy sponsored study (DOE contract DEAC26- 99FT40342) that extended the investigation of petroleum coke and coal fueled IGCC power plants to those that co-produce liquid transportation fuel precursors using Fischer- Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis technology. Task 2 was divided into three subtasks. These subtasks dealt with converting two of the optimized plants developed during Task 1 into IGCC power plants with liquid fuels co-production. The results of Task 2 showed that adding hydrocarbon liquids co- production to an IGCC power plant can be cost effective when oil prices are relatively high.
- Task 1 Topical Report: IGCC Plant Cost Optimization [PDF-26MB] (Revised: Aug 2003)
The "Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization" project examines current state-of-the-art coal gasification to provide baseline optimized design cases from which the Department of Energy can measure future progress towards commercialization of gasification processes and achievement of the Vision 21 program goals. This optimization focus or metric was to minimize the cost of electric power produced by IGCC plants primarily by reducing the plant capital cost, increasing the efficiency, increasing the overall system availability, coproducing products, and reducing the operating and maintenance costs.
- Feed System Innovation For Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) [PDF-60MB] (Feb 2003)
The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design.
- Process Screening Analysis of Alternative Gas Treating and Sulfur Removal For Gasification [1.9MB] (Dec 2002)
This report updates a 1987 SFA Pacific, Inc. report to the Electric Power Research Institute that dealt with acid gas treating and sulfur recovery for integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation. Not only are the emission regulations more stringent than those prevailing at the time of the first report, but there is now sufficient commercial experience in IGCC that points the way to the processes that will meet current and potential future regulations.
- An Environmental Assessment of IGCC Power Systems [PDF-182KB] (Sept 2002)
This paper presents an evaluation of the environmental performance of IGCC power generation technology and compares IGCC environmental performance with other competing coal-based technologies. Information presented is extracted from a DOE report entitled "Major Environmental Issues Affecting Implementation and Operation of Gasification-Based Technologies Utilized For Power Generation."
- Gasification-based Power Generation with CO2 Production for Enhanced Oil Recovery [PDF-179KB] (Sept 2002)
This paper examines the expected economic and CO2 emission performance of two fossil-based technologies for providing new electric generating capacity in the State of California in the time frame 2010-2030 are compared. The two technologies are state-of–the-art natural gas combined-cycle and coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle.
- The Cost of Mercury Removal in an IGCC Plant - Final Report [PDF-161KB] (Sept 2002)
This report estimates the cost of mercury removal for applying a carbon bed filter to an IGCC plant. The carbon filter bed is assumed to achieve 99 percent reduction of mercury emissions, with outlet levels less than 1 ppbw. The cost format was based on the methodology used in the EPA Mercury Study Report to Congress while the cost estimate (capital and O&M) was based on Parsons on-site data and experience. The costs of mercury removal by a carbon bed in an IGCC are found to be much lower than from a utility boiler with carbon filter beds.
- Hydrogen from Coal [PDF-452KB] (July 2002)
This report examines current and advanced technologies to produce hydrogen from coal. The performance and economics of these technologies are analyzed including configurations for carbon sequestration. For comparison, the economics of producing hydrogen from natural gas and photovoltaic water electrolysis are included.
- Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project -Project Performance Summary [PDF-2.5MB] (July 2002)
This project, part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, pioneered commercial introduction of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation technology. In 1992, the resultant Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture embarked on a demonstration of Global Energy's E-Gas ™ gasification technology in an IGCC mode at 262-MWe scale - then, the world's largest single-train IGCC.
- Novel Gas Cleaning/ Conditioning for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Base Program Final Report [PDF-1.6 MB] (Aug 2001)
This report describes the Base Program experimental activities completed to identify candidate sorbents and suitable operating conditions for each of the two stages of the Ultra-Clean process. Commercial process performance and economics are also estimated for this novel gas cleaning process.
- Novel Gas Cleaning/ Conditioning for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Volume 1 – Conceptual Commercial Evaluation Optional Program Final Report [PDF-9.3 MB] (Aug 2001)
Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the “filter-reactor”. This report describes and presents a commercial evaluation of this process.
- Novel Gas Cleaning/ Conditioning for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Base Program Final Report Test Plan Topical Report [PDF-169 KB] (Apr 2000)
This report describes the test plan for selection of candidate sorbent materials and evaluation of the sorbents in the laboratory–scale units to provide the necessary data to verify the technical and economical feasibility of the Ultra-Clean Gas Cleanup Process.