Gasification in Detail - Types of Gasifiers - Entrained Flow Gasifiers
In the early 1990s, the Institute of Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) at the East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST) began its development of coal gasification technology in partnership with the Yankuang Coal Mine Group.
The ECUST gasifier can accommodate either coal-water slurry feeding, or dry-feeding (via N2 or CO2) applications. The entrained flow gasifier incorporates opposed multi-burner (OMB) technology, and a water-quench in a down-flow configuration. Operating conditions are dependent upon dry/wet feed, as well as the end product, but gasifier temperature and pressures fall in the range of 1,300 to 1,400°C, and 1 to 3 MPa.
Demonstration and Early Commercialization
In mid-2000, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China supported 22 ton-per-day (TPD) coal-water slurry pilot gasifier began operations at China’s Lunan Chemical Fertilizer Plant. In 2004, operations commenced for the first OMB coal-water slurry commercial-scale gasifier (750 TPD), located at the ammonia producing Hualu Hengsheng Chemical Co. One year later, a 1,150 TPD gasifier was started up in Lunan. Around the same time, dry-feed testing using CO2 began at the pilot plant, where promising synthesis gas compositions were produced at a broad range of operating pressures. Carbon conversion rates proven at the pilot scale with dry- feeding using N2 varied between 98 to 99%.
Eleven gasification plants are in operation employing a total of 28 ECUST gasifiers, all of which are located in China. The majority of the plants produce methanol, but several produce ammonia. The four poly-generation plants using the technology roll out the following combinations of products: methanol/ammonia/hydrogen, ammonia/methanol (2 plants), and methanol/power.
There are nine projects in development or construction stages using ECUST gasifier technology (29 gasifiers), eight to be located in China, and one planned for the United States (Valero Energy's Port Arthur Refinery).
- OMB Gasification - Industrial Application Updates of Slurry Feeding & Developments of Dry Feeding, Gasification Technology Conference, Nov.1, 2010 Washington DC.
- Lui, Ke; Song, Chunshan; Subramani, Velu; Hydrogen and Syngas Production and Purification Technologies, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2010, pg. 198-199.
- Ondrey, Gerald. “Coal-to-Chemicals,” Chemical Engineering, February 2011, pg. 18-19.
- Cooperative Research Efforts for CO2 to Reduce CO2 Emissions Presentation
Shan-Tung Tu, East China University of Science and Technology, May 2008.