CCS and Power Systems
Carbon Storage - Geologic Storage Technologies and Simulation and Risk Assessment
Reducing Uncertainties in Model Predictions Via History Matching of CO2 Migration and Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 Fate at the Sleipner Project, Norwegian North Sea
Performer: Trustees of Indiana University
Project No: FE0004381
This project is using four dimensional (4-D) seismic data from the Sleipner project in the Norwegian North Sea to conduct multiphase flow and reactive mass transport modeling of CO2 migration in the reservoir. The Sleipner project is the world’s first commercial scale geologic carbon dioxide storage project and is managed by StatOil. To date, a total of 13.5 million metric tons of CO2 have been injected over a period of 17 years, and 4-D seismic data (Figure 1) have delineated the CO2 plume migration history in the reservoir rock, the Utsira sandstone. StatOil has developed a geologic model for the top sandy strata in the Utsira Sandstone (known as "layer 9") from this data. The relatively long history of CO2 storage operation, combined with high fidelity seismic data, makes Sleipner one of the best places in the world to assess geologic and reservoir model uncertainties.
Researchers at Indiana University are using the geologic model provided by StatOil to develop a reservoir scale multi-phase reactive flow model for CO2 plume migration and dynamic evolution of CO2 trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic/structural, solubility, mineral, and residual/capillary) at Sleipner. Working with collaborators at University of Oslo, Indiana University is utilizing the comprehensive data, including seismic and well log data, to build a regional reservoir model. Up to 300 test wells have been drilled at Sleipner, of which 30 are within 12 miles of the injection site. Information collected from the wells includes lists of formation tops, geophysical logs, reservoir core material, selected cuttings of confining zone and reservoir rocks, and reservoir pressure measurements.
A model has been calibrated through historical matching using information of the progressive CO2 plume migration delineated by the 4-D seismic data. The calibrated reservoir model is being extrapolated to a regional scale model to predict CO2 fate 10,000 years after injection into the reservoir. A rigorous geochemical reaction kinetics framework is being implemented, and a number of sensitivity analysis and bounding calculations performed to help reduce the uncertainty in predicting geochemical reactions.
Figure 1. Time-lapse seismic images of the CO2 plume at Sleipner. The upper row is the north-south seismic section through the plume. The bottom row is plan views of the plume showing total integrated reflection amplitude (Chadwick et al., 2010).