Program Background and Project Benefits
Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies offer the potential for reducing CO2 emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Deploying these technologies in commercial-scale applications requires adequate geologic formations capable of (1) storing large volumes of CO2, (2) receiving injected CO2 at efficient and economic rates, and (3) retaining CO2 safely over extended periods. Research efforts are currently focused on conventional and unconventional storage formations within depositional environments such as: deltaic, fluvial, alluvial, strandplain, turbidite, eolian, lacustrine, clastic shelf, carbonate shallow shelf, and reef. Conventional storage types are porous permeable clastic or carbonate rocks that have fluids such as brine, oil, or gas in the natural void spaces of the rocks. Unconventional storage types include unmineable coal, organic shale, and basalt interflow zones1.
The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) selected 10 projects that received $49 million of DOE funding to characterize promising geologic formations for CO2 storage. The funding was provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), which was enacted to create new jobs, spur economic activity, and promote long-term economic growth. This research further advances DOE’s efforts to develop a national assessment of CO2 storage resources in deep geologic formations. These 10 projects are focusing on the regional site characterization of high-potential geologic storage formations. They will assess and develop comprehensive data sets of storage formation characteristics (porosity, permeability, reservoir architecture, cap rock integrity, etc.) to provide insight into the potential for selected geologic reservoirs across the United States to safely and permanently store CO2. An additional $50 million of ARRA funding was provided to augment the work that the existing projects are conducting. This additional funding is allowing these projects to further characterize reservoir geology, identifying additional storage opportunities for industrial CO2 sources. This additional funding is allowing these projects to drill additional and/or deeper wells, collect significantly better log and core data to populate models, collect additional geophysical data, and integrate additional data and conduct more extensive reservoir models.
The overall effort will provide greater insight into the potential for geologic formations across the United States to safely and permanently store CO2. The information gained from this endeavor will further DOE efforts to refine a national assessment of CO2 storage resources in deep geologic formations. Specifically, the modeling results from this research effort can be used to help predict the fate and transport of CO2 under an injection scenario and refine overall storage capacity within the Arbuckle formation in Kansas. Additionally, the results of this study will help in determining if CO2 EOR is economical for this region. The data gathered as part of this research effort will be shared with the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership’s (RCSP) Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP), integrated into the National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB), and utilized for the 4th Edition of the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.
The primary objective of the DOE’s Carbon Storage Program is to develop technologies to safely and permanently store CO2 and reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions without adversely affecting energy use or hindering economic growth. The Programmatic goals of Carbon Storage research are: (1) estimating CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations; (2) demonstrating that 99 percent of injected CO2 remains in the injection zone(s); (3) improving efficiency of storage operations; and (4) developing Best Practices Manuals (BPMs).
The specific objective of the project is to estimate the potential for CO2 storage in the OPAS by modeling CO2 injection within the Arbuckle Group saline aquifer and the Mississippian chert, Chester and Morrow Sandstone oil and natural gas reservoirs. Three separate geomodels will be constructed for the Wellington field (Sumner County) (one in the depleted Mississippian oil field and another model for the underlying Arbuckle saline aquifer) and the Regional Arbuckle saline aquifer that spans approximately 33 counties across south-central Kansas. Simulation studies are being conducted to estimate CO2 storage resources within these formations which will aid in identify potential geologic storage sites.
1DOE NETL 2010 - Geologic Storage Formation Classification: Understanding Its Importance and Impacts on CCS Opportunities in the United States, /technologies/carbon_seq/refshelf/BPM_GeologicStorageClassification.pdf