DOE/NETL Methane Hydrate Projects

In Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

Last Reviewed 02/05/2010

DE-FC26-01NT41329

photo of a man showing the pressure core sampler on the deck of JOIDES Resolution

Pressure core sampler on deck
courtesy Texas A&M University

Project Goal

The goal of the project was to characterize hydrate accumulation at Hydrate Ridge (offshore Oregon) and improve the ability to use geophysical and subsurface logging to identify hydrates. A follow-on goal was to characterize hydrate accumulation at offshore Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

Background

This project focused on physically verifying the existence of hydrates at Hydrate Ridge through the collection of pressurized and non-pressurized core samples and logging data. This study developed and tested tools to sample and characterize methane hydrates using the systems and capabilities of the Ocean Drilling Program's Drilling Vessel (D/V) JOIDES Resolution. The JOIDES Resolution is a uniquely outfitted dynamically-positioned drill ship that has a seven-story laboratory complex onboard. This vessel has been contracted for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) since 1985 to conduct worldwide scientific coring operations.

Special tools are needed to: (1) characterize gas hydrates at ambient conditions within the borehole using geophysical tools and downhole instruments; (2) retrieve natural gas hydrates and surrounding sediment at in-situ conditions; and (3) rapidly identify gas hydrates in cores using non-invasive infrared techniques.

Performers

Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI) – prime contractor for the Ocean Drilling Program, project management
Texas A&M University/Texas A&M Research Foundation – Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Science Operations

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University – ODP logging services

Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL) – X-ray linear scanner

Location

Washington, D.C. 20036

Photo of Logging cores with the MSCL-V at IODP, College Station

Logging cores with the MSCL-V at IODP, College Station

Potential Impact of this research

The impact from the co-sponsorship of Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) was outstanding. This cruise, located approximately 50 nautical miles offshore from Newport Oregon, has been recognized as producing some of the most important achievements made from hydrate dedicated cruises conducted to date. More hydrate was collected during this cruise than from any others conducted. The data and interpretation of gas hydrates gathered during Leg 204 has been the subject of a large number of subsequent scientific papers at various symposiums and professional conferences, advancing our basic knowledge of this potential gas resource.

The impact from the second portion of DOE/NETL’s involvement in this project is also emerging as a significant contribution to scientific understanding of gas hydrate occurrence at plate tectonically convergent oceanographic margins. As in ODPLeg 204, IODP Expedition 311 located further to the north at offshore Vancouver Island is yielding new insight into how gas hydrates can become entrapped in higher porosity sand bodies in this geological setting. This encouraging finding is expected to influence future offshore research in gas hydrates.

Accomplishments

  • Successfully deployed enhanced pressure core sampler (PCS) on thirty of thirty-nine runs,
  • Successfully deployed enhanced in-situ temperature sensors at seventy-seven separate intervals downhole using two different wireline tools to establish subsurface temperature and heat flow gradients at all sites,
  • Successfully deployed sensors that provided continuous time series of temperature, pressure, and conductivity of 107 cores during their recovery through the water column,
  • Successfully deployed for the first time a resistivity-at-the-bit (RAB) logging-while-coring tool, which recovered eight cores while collecting resistivity data,
  • Successfully employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging-while-drilling tool to identify hydrates prior to coring (Not specifically part of the DOE cooperative agreement. This was the result of a joint collaboration with Schlumberger and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory funded by DOE/NETL),
  • Successfully employed infrared imaging cameras to locate and document hydrate occurrence within retrieved cores,
  • Successfully tested for the first time two European pressure coring tools that were used to transfer and log the gamma density of hydrate-bearing sediment while maintaining in-situ pressures using a vertical multi-sensor core logger, and
  • Collected more than 3,064 m of core, including 50 meters of hydrate core recovered and stored under pressure in a methane environment, and 35 m of additional samples recovered and stored at low temperature in liquid nitrogen.

The R/V JOIDES Resolution spent from July 6 to September 2, 2002 (ODP Leg 204) in the Hydrate Ridge area of the continental margin approximately 50 miles off the coast of Oregon. A total of nine sites on this accretionary ridge and on an adjacent slope basin were cored and logged at water depths of 2587 to 4029 feet (788-1228 m). A total of 45 holes were drilled in the process. Previously acquired three-dimensional seismic data provided images of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), used for selecting the drilling sites.

Comparison of IR images and hydrate samples extracted from the core liner
courtesy JOI & Texas A&M University

A number of technologies were applied to hydrate analysis on this expedition, using new technologies or upgraded equipment provided through DOE funding. For example, an enhanced pressure core sampler was employed to obtain core samples of hydrate bearing core at in situ pressures. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) data acquired at all but one drilling site was used to confirm the general position of key seismic stratigraphic horizons and to provide an initial estimate of gas hydrate concentration through the proxy of in situ electrical resistivity. Infrared thermal imaging was tested as a way to rapidly identify the distribution and texture of hydrate within cores after retrieval.

In addition, geochemical analyses of interstitial waters and of headspace and void gases provided information on the distribution and concentration of hydrate within the GHSZ, the origin and pathway of fluids into and through the GHSZ, and the rates at which the process of gas hydrate formation is occurring. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic descriptions of cores, measurement of physical properties, and thermal measurements completed the data set.

The phase one final report [PDF-2.75MB] includes the following findings:

  • Gas hydrates are distributed within a broad depth range within the GHSZ at Hydrate Ridge, and lithology is an important factor influencing hydrate concentration,
  • Different physical and chemical proxies for hydrate distribution and concentration give generally consistent results,
  • The gas hydrate system at Hydrate Ridge contains significant concentrations of higher-order hydrocarbons in some recovered samples,
  • Sediment chloride concentration values indicate that hydrate formation near the ridge summit is recent and rapid, and
  • Gas hydrate concentration is significantly greater beneath the ridge crest than beneath the adjacent slope basin.

Data, photographs, and pressurized core samples (stored in thirty, 6 foot by 3 inch-in-diameter pressure vessels) from the cruise are available from the Ocean Drilling Program's Science Operator at Texas A&M University (www-odp.tamu.edu [external site]) for research.

IODP Expedtion 311 resulted in the following:

  • Discovery of a thick section of gas hydrate lying near the seafloor in an active vent site, known as the “bull’s-eye vent.”
  • Discovery of important sand deposits containing gas hydrates, which provides encouragement for future exploitation of this resource in the oceanographic setting.
  • Successful pressure coring program for gas hydrates which is expected to yield important new data on gas hydrate composition at this location to compare with that collected at earlier sites such as Leg 204.
Additional details on IODP Expedition 311 can be found on the following link:http://iodp.tamu.edu/scienceops/expeditions/exp311.html [external site]

Current Status
This project is completed and the Phase I and Phase II final reports are listed below under "Additional Information". The potential remains for additional collaboration between DOE and JOI on subsequent research cruises.

Project Start: September 30, 2001
Project End: October 31, 2006

DOE Contribution: $1, 610,293
Performer Contribution: $523,214

Contact Information:
NETL  – William Gwilliam (william.gwilliam@netl.doe.gov or 304-285-4401)
JOI – Frank Rack (frack@joiscience.org or 202-232-3900)

Additional Information:
In addition to the information provided here, a full listing of project related publications and presentations as well as a listing of funded students can be found in the Methane Hydrate Program Bibliography [PDF]. Phase I Final Report  [PDF-2.75MB]

Phase II Final Report  [PDF-1.82MB]

Fire in the Ice - Article on ODP Leg 204

In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Ocurring Marine Methane Hydrate - ODP Leg 204[PDF-358KB] - October 2003


Peer-Reviewed Publications
Bangs, N., R. Musgrave, and A. Tréhu, 2005, Upward shifts in the southern Hydrate Ridge gas hydrate stability zone following postglacial warming, offshore Oregon, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, B03102, doi:10.1029/2004JB003293.

Janik, A., D. Goldberg, G. Guerin, and T. Collett, in review, Estimation of gas hydrate concentration and heterogeneity on Cascadia Margin from ODP 204 logging while drilling (LWD) measurements, in Collett, T., A .Johnson, C. Knapp and R. Boswell, eds., Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource and Associated Geologic Hazards, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Hedberg Special Publication.

Johnson, J., C. Goldfinger, N. Bangs, A. Trehu, and J. Chevallier, in review, Structural vergence variation and clockwise block rotation in the Cascadia accretionary wedge, offshore Oregon, Tectonics.

Kim, D., T. Uhm, H. Lee, Y. Lee, B. Ryu, and J.Kim, in review, Compositional and structural identification of natural gas hydrates collected at Site 1249 on ODP Leg 204, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering.

Liu, X., and P. Flemings, 2006, Passing gas through the hydrate stability zone at southern Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 241, p. 211-226.

Liu, X., and P. Flemings, in review, Dynamic multi-phase flow model of hydrate formation in marine sediments, Journal Geophysical Research.

Long, H., P. Flemings, and J. Germaine, in review,Interpreting in-situ pressure and hydraulic properties with borehole penetrometers in ocean drilling: DVTPP and piezoprobe deployments at southern Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, Journal Geophysical Research.

Milkov, A., G. Claypool, Y. Lee, and R. Sassen, 2005, Gas hydrate systems at Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon inferred from molecular and isotopic properties of hydrate-bound and void gases, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Volume 69, p. 1007-1026.

Milkov, A., G. Claypool, Y. Lee, M. Torres, W. Borowski, H. Tomaru, R. Sassen, P. Long, and the ODP Leg 204 Scientific Party, 2004, Subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon, Org. Geochem., Volume 35, p. 1067-1080.

Milkov, A., G. Claypool, Y. Lee, W. Xu, G. Dickens, W. Borowski, and the ODP Leg 204 Scientific Party, 2003, In situ methane concentrations at Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon: new constraints on the global gas hydrate inventory from an active margin, Geology, Volume 31, p. 833-836.

Milkov, A., G. Dickens, G. Claypool, Y. Lee, W. Borowski, M. Torres, W. Xu, H. Tomaru, A. Tréhu, and P. Schultheiss, 2004, Co-existence of gas hydrate, free gas, and brine within the regional gas hydrate stability zone at Hydrate Ridge (Oregon Margin): evidence from prolonged degassing of a pressurized core, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 222, p. 829-843.

Musgrave, R., N. Bangs, J. Larrasoaña, E. Gràcia, J. Hollamby, and M. Vega, 2006, Rise of the base of the gas hydrate zone since the last glacial recorded by rock magnetism, Geology, 34, p.117-120.

Riedel, M., P. Long, and T. Collett, 2006, Estimates of in situ gas hydrate concentration from resistivity monitoring of gas hydrate bearing sediments during temperature equilibration, Marine Geology, Volume 227, p. 215-225.

Riedel, M., T. Collett, M. Malone, and the IODP Expedition 311 Scientists, 2006. Proc. IODP, 311, Washington, DC (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.), doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.311.

Riedel, M., T. Collett, M. Malone, and the IODP Expedition 311 Scientists, 2006, Stages of gas-hydrate evolution on the northern Cascadia margin, Scientific Drilling Journal, Vol. 3, pp.18-24, doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.3.04.

Riedel, M., T. Collett, M. Malone, F. Akiba, M. Blanc-Valleron, M. Ellis, G. Guerin, Y. Hashi-Moto, V. Heuer, Y. Higashi, M. Holland, P. Jackson, M. Kaneko, M. Kastner, J. Kim, H. Kitajima, P. Long, A. Malinverno, G. Myers, L. Palekar, J. Pohlman, P. Schultheiss, B. Teichert, M. Torres, A. TréHu, J. Wang, U. Wortmann, and H. Yoshioka, 2006, Gas hydrate transect across northern Cascadia Margin, Eos, Volume 87, N. 33, p. 325-330-332.

Riedel, M., P. Long, C. Liu, P. Schultheiss, T. Collett, and ODP Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party, 2006, Physical properties of near-surface sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge: results from ODP Leg 204, in Tréhu, A., Bohrmann, G., Torres, M., and Colwell, F. eds., Proceedings of ODP, Scientific Results, Vol. 204, pp.1-29, doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.204.104.

Riedel, M., E. Willoughby, R. Hyndman, G. Spence, N. Chapman, R. Edwards, I. Novosel, and K. Schwalenberg, in review, Gas hydrates at the Northern Cascadia Margin, in Collett, T., A. Johnson, C. Knapp and R. Boswell, eds., Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource and Associated Geologic Hazards, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Hedberg Special Publication.

Riedel, M., E. Willoughby, M. Chen, T. He, I. Novosel, K. Schwalenberg, R. Hyndman, G. Spence, in review, Gas hydrate on the Northern Cascadia Margin: regional geophysics and structural framework, in Collett, T., A. Johnson, C. Knapp and R. Boswell, eds., Natural Gas Hydrates: Energy Resource and Associated Geologic Hazards, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Hedberg Special Publication.

Teichert, B., G. Bohrmann, and E. Suess, 2005, Chemoherms on Hydrate Ridge—Unique microbially-mediated carbonate build-ups growing into the water column, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim, Palaeoecol., Volume 227, p. 67-85.

Teichert, B., M. Torres, G. Bohrmann, and A. Eisenhauer, 2005, Fluid sources, fluid pathways and diagenetic reactions across an accretionary prism revealed by Sr and B geochemistry, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 239, p. 106-121.

Torres, M., B. Teichert, A. Tréhu, W. Borowski, and H. Tomaru, 2004, Relationship of pore water freshening to accretionary processes in the Cascadia margin: Fluid sources and gas hydrate abundance, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L22305, doi:10.1029/2004GL021219.

Torres, M., K. Wallmann, A. Tréhu, G. Bohrmann, W. Borowski, and H. Tomaru, 2004, Gas hydrate growth, methane transport, and chloride enrichment at the southern summit of Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin off Oregon, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 226, p. 225-241.

Tréhu, A., G. Bohrmann, F. Rack, M. Torres, and the ODP Leg 204 Scientific Party, 2003, ODP Leg 204: gas hydrate distribution and dynamics beneath southern Hydrate Ridge, JOIDES Journal, Volume 29(2), p. 5-8.

Tréhu, A., P. Flemings, N. Bangs, J. Chevallier, E. Gràcia, J. Johnson, C. Liu, X. Liu, M. Riedel, and M. Torres, 2004, Feeding methane vents and gas hydrate deposits at south Hydrate Ridge, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L23310, doi:10.1029/2004GL021286.

Tréhu, A., P. Long, M. Torres, G. Bohrmann, F. Rack, T. Collett, D. Goldberg, A. Milkov, M. Riedel, P. Schultheiss, N. Bangs, S. Barr, W. Borowski, G. Claypool, M. Delwiche, G. Dickens, E. Gràcia, G. Guerin, M. Holland, J. Johnson, Y. Lee, C. Liu, X. Su, B. Teichert, H. Tomaru, M. Vanneste, M. Watanabe, and J. Weinberger, 2004, Three-dimensional distribution of gas hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: constraints from ODP Leg 204, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 222, p.845-862.

Weinberger, J., K. Brown, and P. Long, 2005, Painting a picture of gas hydrate distribution with thermal images, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L04609, doi:10.1029/2004GL021437.

Other Publications
Collett, T., S. Barr, D. Goldberg, and G. Guerin, 2003, Downhole logging, in Trehu, A., G. Bormann, and R. Colwell, eds., Initial Reports—Gas hydrate beneath the seafloor of Hydrate Ridge: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, Volume 204, available online (click here [external site]).

Riedel, M., T. Collett, M. Malone, and the IODP Expedition 311 Scientists, 2006, Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311, Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates, published by IODP Management International, Inc., for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, prepared by U.S. Implementing Organization Science Services, Texas A&M University, available online (click here [external site]).

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2005, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 311 Preliminary Report, Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates, available online (click here [external site]).

Tréhu, A., G. Bohrmann, F. Rack, M. Torres, and et al., 2003, ., Initial Reports—Gas hydrate beneath the seafloor of Hydrate Ridge: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, Volume 204, available online (click here [external site]).

Winters, W., W. Waite, D. Mason, L Gilbert, 2006, Physical properties of repressurized sediment from Hydrate Ridge, in Tréhu, A., G. Bohrmann, M. Torres, F. Colwell, eds., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 204: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 1–19. doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.204.119.2006, available online (click here [external site]).

Presentations
Cespedes, N., A. Trehu, and M. Torres, 2006, Grain size variation of sediments from Expedition 311, paper OS33B-1714, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Collett, T., M. Riedel, and M. Malone, 2006, Gas Hydrate Research Coring and Downhole Logging Operational Protocol, paper OS11E-02, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Collett, T., D. Goldberg, A. Janik, and G. Guerin, 2004, Occurrence of Gas Hydrate and Associated Free-Gas Accumulations on Hydrate Ridge, Offshore Oregon, Dallas, TX, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Meeting, April 18-21.

Cook, A., and D. Goldberg, 2006, Strength of Gas Hydrate-bearing Sediments from IODP Expedition 311, Cascadia Margin, paper OS33B-1700, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Enkin, R., J. Baker, L. Esteban, A. Mullin, B. Paterson, T. Hamilton, and M. Riedel, 2006, Magnetic Properties of Sediments from IODP Expedition 311 - Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates: Records of Fossil Sulphate Methane Interface?, paper OS33B-1692, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Francis, T., 2004, The HYACINTH Project - Pressurized Samples from the Seabed for Continental Margin Research, Dallas, TX, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Meeting, April 18-21.

Goldberg, D., G. Guerin, A. Malinverno, K. Tagbor, and J. Alford, 2006, Formation Vp Derived From LWD Sonic Data at IODP Sites U1325-U1329, Cascadia Margin, paper OS33B-1713, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Guerin, G., and D. Goldberg, 2006, Analysis of Multimode Acoustic Waveforms in Gas Hydrate Bearing Sediments, IODP Expedition 311, Cascadia Margin, paper OS33B-1701, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Holland, M., P. Schultheiss, J. Roberts, and M. Druce, 2006, Gas Hydrate-Sediment Morphologies Revealed by Pressure Core Analysis, paper OS33B-1689, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Lu, H., I. Moudrakovski, J. Schicks, J. Ripmeester, and M. Zhang, 2006, The characteristics of gas hydrates recovered from Northern Cascadia margin by IODP Expedition 311, paper OS11E-08, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Lu, Z., 2006, Iodine and bromine concentrations in pore waters from two gas hydrate fields: IODP 311 and ODP 204, paper OS11E-07, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Malinverno, A., M. Kastner, M. Torres, and U. Wortmann, 2006, Gas Hydrate Saturations and Their Uncertainties From Chlorinity and Well Log Data at IODP Site U1325 (Exp. 311, Cascadia Margin), paper OS11E-04, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Pasteris, J., 2003, Development of In-Situ, Real-Time Raman Analysis of Clathrate Hydrates on the Sea Floor, Seattle, WA, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, November 2-5.

Paulson, M., J. Merrill, K. Moran, C. Baxter, and J. Ressler, 2006, Predicting Sediment Strength in Accretionary Complexes Using Geophysical Logs, paper T21A-0388, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Pinero, E., F. Martinez-Ruiz, E. Gracia, J. Larrasoana, and J. Danobeitia, 2006, Gas Hydrates-bearing Sediments from Southern Hydrate Ridge (ODP Leg 204): Geochemical and Mineralogical Approach, paper OS33B-1694, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Pohlman, J., M. Kaneko, V. Heuer, R. Plummer, and R. Coffin, 2006, Molecular and Isotopic Characterization of Gases from IODP Expedition 311: Source and Gas Hydrate Related Controls, paper OS11E-06, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Riedel, M., T. Collett, M. Malone, R. Hyndman, E. Willoughby, G. Spence, R. Chapman, N. Edwards, and K. Schwalenberg, 2006, IODP Expedition 311 – A review of gas hydrate research on the Northern Cascadia Margin, paper OS11E-01, San Francisco, CA, Americna Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Riedel, M., T. Collett, M. Malone, and Expedition 311 Scientific Party, 2005, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311— Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 5-9.

Riedel, M., T. Collett, M. Malone, and Expedition 311 Scientific Party, 2006, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311—Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates, International Conference on Sediment-hosted gas hydrates: new insights on natural and synthetic systems, Geological Society of London, January 25-26.

Schicks, J., M. Ziemann, R. Naumann, and J. Erzinger, 2006, Characterization of Gas Hydrate Samples from IODP 311 using High Resolution Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, paper OS33B-1698, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Stern, L., and S. Kirby, 2006, Natural gas hydrate in sediments imaged by cryogenic SEM: Insights from lab experiments on synthetic hydrates as interpretive guides, paper OS33B-1699, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Teichert, B., G. Bohrmann, E. Gràcia, J. Johnson, X. Su, J. Weinberger, and ODP Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party, 2003, Authigenic carbonates from Hydrate Ridge (ODP Leg 204), formation processes and evidence of fluid pathways, Nice, France, EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, April 6-11.

Teichert, B., G. Bohrmann, E. Gràcia, J. Johnson, X. Su, J. Weinberger, and ODP Leg 204 Shipboard Scientific Party, 2003, Authigenic carbonates from Hydrate Ridge (ODP Leg 204), IODP-ICDP, Mainz, Germany, March 26-28.

Teichert, B., G. Bohrmann, M. Torres, and A. Eisenhauer, 2004, Fluid pathways influencing gas hydrate occurrence at Hydrate Ridge, Bremen, Germany, Euro-Forum for Scientific Earth Drilling, March 17-19.

Teichert, B., M. Torres, G. Bohrmann, and A. Eisenhauer, 2005, Fluid sources, fluid pathways and diagenetic reactions across an accretionary prism revealed by Sr and B geochemistry, Potsdam, Germany, ICDP-IODP meeting, March 14-16.

Trehu, A., 2006, Heat flow in the outer Cascadia accretionary complex from boreholes and BSRs, paper OS33B-1715, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Villinger, H., M. Heesemann, A. Fisher, A. Trehu, and S. Witte, 2006, Deployment and Testing of the Third-generation Tool to Determine In-situ Temperatures While Piston Coring During Scientific Ocean Drilling, paper OS31D-1664, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Wang, J., 2006, The Lithological Constraint to Gas Hydrate Formation: Evidence of Grain Size of Sediments from IODP 311 on Cascadia Margin, paper OS33B-1708, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

Xu, W., 2006, The Role of Natural Gas Hydrates in Shaping the Global Continental Slopes, paper OS12C-07, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11-15.

 
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