Project No: FWP-2012.03.02
Performer: NETL On-Site Research


Richard A. Dennis
Technology Manager, Turbines
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880

Patcharin Burke
Technical Monitor
National Energy Technology Laboratory
626 Cochrans Mill Road
P.O. Box 10940
Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940

Mary Anne Alvin
Technical Coordinator
National Energy Technology Laboratory
626 Cochrans Mill Road
P.O. Box 10940
Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940

Award Date:  10/01/2011
Project Date:  09/30/2014

DOE Share: $3,498,000.00
Performer Share: $0.00
Total Award Value: $3,498,000.00

Performer website: NETL On-Site Research - /research/on-site-research

Advanced Energy Systems - Hydrogen Turbines

Turbine Thermal Management

Project Description

The Turbine Thermal Management project is focused on basic and applied technology development in the areas of heat transfer, materials development, and secondary flow control. Specific objectives are as follows:

Aerothermal and Heat Transfer: Identify internal and external airfoil cooling concepts that provide composite benefit for reduced cooling flow and heat management, and which can be commercially manufactured. At least one new turbine cooling technology concept will be developed and demonstrated under realistic engine operating conditions. Concepts include National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-Regional University Alliance (RUA's) near-surface embedded micro-channel concept, porous media thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), and/or tripod-hole film cooling configurations.

Coatings and Materials Development: Develop bond coat, diffusion barrier, and extreme temperature TBCs as an integrated composite-architecture for utilization in next generation land-based engines. Expand NETL-RUA's programmatic direction and focus through initiation of research on ceramic matrix composites and oxide dispersion strengthened material systems for use at temperatures exceeding 1400 ºC. The performance and extended durability of these materials systems are being assessed through bench-scale isothermal and thermal cycling/flux testing.

Design Integration and Testing: Utilizing enhanced heat transfer internal and film cooling designs, commercially cast coupon test articles for heat transfer assessment at near room temperature and at high temperature under pressurized combustion gas conditions generated in NETL's aerothermal test facility in Morgantown, WV.

Secondary Flow Rotating Rig: Design and construct a world-class test facility for testing new cooling improvement strategies for the turbine rotating blade platform, and develop performance data relevant to initial concept designs and/or platform modifications. The primary focus of the turbine test facility is to increase turbine efficiencies by using disruptive new designs in sealing the interfaces between stationary and rotating airfoil components. The main driver of this effort is development of new designs that will lead to reduction in fuel usage by an order of magnitude or more. The facility will include a section of a turbine including a vane/blade/vane (i.e., 1.5-stage turbine), which will be operated at conditions replicating those in a modern gas turbine engine.

In 2014, the Turbine Thermal Management project will begin to explore pressure gain combustion and advanced supercritical CO2 cycles as a possible means to contribute to overall improved plant operating efficiency.

Program Background and Project Benefits

Turbines convert heat energy to mechanical energy by expanding a hot, compressed working fluid through a series of airfoils. Combustion turbines compress air, mix and combust it with a fuel (natural gas, coal-derived synthesis gas [syngas], or hydrogen), and then expand the combustion gases through the airfoils. Expansion turbines expand a working fluid like steam or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been heated in a heat exchanger by an external heat source. These two types of turbines are used in conjunction to form a combined cycle— with heat from the combustion gases used as the heat source for the working fluid— improving efficiency and reducing emissions. If oxygen is used for combustion in place of air, then the combustion gases consist mostly of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, and the CO2 can be easily separated and sent to storage or used for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Alternatively, the CO2/steam combustion gases can be expanded directly in an oxy-fuel turbine. Turbines are the backbone of power generation in the US, and the diverse power cycles containing turbines provide a variety of electricity generation options for fossil derived fuels. The efficiency of combustion turbines has steadily increased as advanced technologies have provided manufacturers with the ability to produce highly advanced turbines that operate at very high temperatures. The Advanced Turbines program is developing technologies in four key areas that will accelerate turbine performance, efficiency, and cost effectiveness beyond current state-of-the-art and provide tangible benefits to the public in the form of lower cost of electricity (COE), reduced emissions of criteria pollutants, and carbon capture options. The Key Technology areas for the Advanced Hydrogen Turbines Program are: (1) Hydrogen Turbines, (2) Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles, (3) Oxy-Fueled Turbines, and (4) Advanced Steam Turbines.

Hydrogen turbine technology research is being conducted with the goal of producing reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly electric power in response to the Nation's increasing energy challenges. NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of technologies to achieve power production from high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels derived from coal that is clean, efficient, and cost-effective; minimize carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; and help maintain the Nation's leadership in the export of gas turbine equipment. These goals are being met by developing the most advanced technology in the areas of materials, cooling, heat transfer, manufacturing, aerodynamics, and machine design. Success in these areas will allow machines to be designed that have higher efficiencies and power output with lower emissions and lower cost.



Aerothermal and Heat Transfer:

Figure 1. Results from Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies Conducted at the University of Pittsburgh for Advanced Internal Airfoil Cooling Concepts.

Coatings and Materials Development:

Figure 2. Virginia Tech’s Tripod Hole Film Cooling Configuration, Laboratory Test Equipment and Recent Experimental Results Demonstrating Enhanced Cooling Effectiveness over Current State-of-the-Art Film Cooling Configurations.

Figure 3. Microstructure of the Ames University HVOF Ni-ODS Overlay Coating on MarM-247 in the (a) Heat-Treated and (b) As-Sprayed Condition along with Corresponding X-Ray Spectra Indicating the Oxygen-Exchange Reaction and Precipitation of Oxide Dispersion Phase (Y4 Al2O9).

Figure 4. Ames Laboratory Grit Blasted Near Surface Embedded Micro-Channel Concept after Impregnation with Fugitive Thermoset Filler along the External Channels.

Design Integration and Testing:

Figure 5. Commercial Production of NETL-RUA’s Advanced Cooling Concepts at Mikro Systems Inc. (a) First Cast CM247 Fully Bridged Pin Fin Coupons; (b) CT Scan of Cast CM247 Fully Bridged Pin Fin Coupon Illustrating Absence of Blockage within the Pin Fin Array; (c) CT Scan of Trailing Edge Zig-Zag Cooling Configuration; (d) Tripod Hole Film
Cooling Hole Core.

Figure 6. Area-Average Overall Effectiveness Illustrated as a Function of Blowing Ratio during Testing of Haynes 230 Coupons Containing Fan-Shaped Film Cooling Holes in NETL’s High Temperature, Pressurized Aerothermal Test Facility.

Figure 7. The New Secondary Flow Rotating Rig Design at Penn State has been Completed and Is Currently Being Manufactured and Assembled.

Secondary Flow Rotating Rig: