Project No: FE0007099
Performer: Purdue University


Contacts

Richard A. Dennis
Technology Manager, Turbines
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
304-285-4515
richard.dennis@netl.doe.gov

Steven Richardson
Project Manager
National Energy Technology Laboratory
3610 Collins Ferry Road
P.O. Box 880
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
304-285-4185
steven.richardson@netl.doe.gov

Robert P. Lucht
Principal Investigator
Purdue University
585 Purdue Mall
West Lafayette, IN 47907
765-494-5623
lucht@purdue.edu

Duration
Award Date:  10/01/2011
Project Date:  09/30/2014

Cost
DOE Share: $468,995.00
Performer Share: $117,276.00
Total Award Value: $586,271.00

Performer website: Purdue University - http://www.purdue.edu

Advanced Energy Systems - Hydrogen Turbines

Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation

Project Description

This project is a detailed investigation of the structure and dynamics of fuel jets injected into a subsonic oxidizing crossflow in order to enhance the fundamental level of understanding of these important flows and to provide a validation database for comparison with detailed numerical models of the reacting jets in crossflow (RJIC). Advanced laser diagnostics, including high-speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) will be used to probe the flow fields in a high-pressure gas turbine combustion facility. PIV and planar laser induced fluorescence of OH radicals (OH PLIF) will be used to visualize fuel/air mixing and combustion at data rates of 5-10 kilohertz (kHz). One kHz CARS will be employed for temperature measurements using femtosecond lasers. The combustion facility will utilize three different fuels: a natural gas (NG) baseline and two high-hydrogen-content (HHC) fuels. Accurate high-resolution spatial and temporal measurements of the resulting turbulent flame structures will provide improved understanding of the complex processes of fuel/air mixing and turbulence-chemistry interaction with attendant impact on operability when using HHC fuels. Additionally, the representative crossflow will be forced into stationary and oscillatory conditions to simulate an unstable condition. The enhanced mixing and combustion of the fuel jet will be measured to quantify the relationship between the unsteady combustion field and the forced oscillatory field. The benchmark quality data sets resulting from these experiments will include comprehensive measurements of mean and fluctuating components of velocity, temperature, and species at high pressure and with crossflow conditions representative of modern gas turbine engines with practical applications within the turbine industry.

High-pressure reacting jet in vitiated crossflow test rig in operation with the new window assembly in place.

High-pressure reacting jet in vitiated crossflow test rig in operation with the new window assembly in place.


Program Background and Project Benefits

Turbines convert heat energy to mechanical energy by expanding a hot, compressed working fluid through a series of airfoils. Combustion turbines compress air, mix and combust it with a fuel (natural gas, coal-derived synthesis gas [syngas], or hydrogen), and then expand the combustion gases through the airfoils. Expansion turbines expand a working fluid like steam or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been heated in a heat exchanger by an external heat source. These two types of turbines are used in conjunction to form a combined cycle— with heat from the combustion gases used as the heat source for the working fluid— improving efficiency and reducing emissions. If oxygen is used for combustion in place of air, then the combustion gases consist mostly of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, and the CO2 can be easily separated and sent to storage or used for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Alternatively, the CO2/steam combustion gases can be expanded directly in an oxy-fuel turbine. Turbines are the backbone of power generation in the US, and the diverse power cycles containing turbines provide a variety of electricity generation options for fossil derived fuels. The efficiency of combustion turbines has steadily increased as advanced technologies have provided manufacturers with the ability to produce highly advanced turbines that operate at very high temperatures. The Advanced Turbines program is developing technologies in four key areas that will accelerate turbine performance, efficiency, and cost effectiveness beyond current state-of-the-art and provide tangible benefits to the public in the form of lower cost of electricity (COE), reduced emissions of criteria pollutants, and carbon capture options. The Key Technology areas for the Advanced Hydrogen Turbines Program are: (1) Hydrogen Turbines, (2) Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles, (3) Oxy-Fueled Turbines, and (4) Advanced Steam Turbines.

Hydrogen turbine technology research is being conducted with the goal of producing reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly electric power in response to the Nation's increasing energy challenges. NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of technologies to achieve power production from high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels derived from coal that is clean, efficient, and cost-effective; minimize carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; and help maintain the Nation's leadership in the export of gas turbine equipment. These goals are being met by developing the most advanced technology in the areas of materials, cooling, heat transfer, manufacturing, aerodynamics, and machine design. Success in these areas will allow machines to be designed that have higher efficiencies and power output with lower emissions and lower cost.

Purdue University will investigate the structure and dynamics of fuel jets injected into a subsonic oxidizing crossflow in order to enhance the fundamental level of understanding of these important flows and to provide a validation database for comparison with detailed numerical models of the reacting jets in crossflow (RJIC). The combustion facility will utilize three different fuels: a natural gas (NG) baseline and two high-hydrogen-content (HHC) fuels. Combustion research conducted under the Advanced Turbine Program seeks to improve the understanding of hydrogen combustion and develop improved tools to model combustion behavior. This research will lead to combustor designs that can successfully utilize hydrogen and reduce emissions.


Accomplishments