Search Publications

Search Publications


Back Button

Welcome to the Energy Analysis Search Publications page. Hundreds of Energy Analysis related publications can be found in this repository. To get started, begin filtering the results below by using the quick filters located on the Search Publications Landing Page or search within filtered results by using the search box below. 


Sort Preference:


Search Terms
Group: Life cycle analyses

Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction and Power Generation

Date: 8/30/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is an update to the NETL 2014 life cycle analysis report of environmental profile for natural gas production and delivery in the United States. This report expands the scope of the environmental profile to include a broad range of impacts and updates the greenhouse gas (GHG) profile to reflect year 2012 production statistics and emission factors based on the current state of science as in 2015. The national methane emission rate is 1.6 percent and ranges between 1.2 and 2.2 percent. This national emission rate is a production weighted composite of 31 different combinations of extraction technologies and regions. The report also evaluates the life cycle environmental profile for producing electricity from natural gas. On 100- and 20-year time frames, the life cycle GHG emissions for baseload electricity from the existing fleet of natural gas fired power plants are 514 and 613 kg CO2e/MWh, respectively.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal Exports from the Powder River Basin

Date: 8/4/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this study was to compare environmental implications of exporting United States (U.S.) coal resources to Asian markets with respect to alternative global sources of steam coal. This study seeks to evaluate and understand potential environmental consequences of exporting PRB coal compared to global alternative sources of coal. This study was informed by a 10-person industry based Technical Steering Committee to improve the quality of the analysis. The key question addressed by the study: Is there a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan? Given the uncertainty in the model parameter values, there is not a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan.


Is net carbon negative crude achievable with CO2 enhanced oil recovery?

Date: 6/15/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the 2016 Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Conference in June, 2016, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal Exports from the Powder River Basin

Date: 6/15/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the 2016 Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Conference in June, 2016, and provided the complete technical details behind and the full life cycle impacts of exporting coal from the Powder River Basin in the U.S. to electricity markets in Asia. Key takeaways are the relative large contribution of the transportation of the coal when traveling distance.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 4/12/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at North American Energy Ministers Trilateral Climate Change and Energy meeting on Advancing the Deployment of CCUS in Mexico City in April, 2016, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CCS

Date: 4/5/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at a?California Air Resources Board workshop in April, 2015 and provided the technical details behind and results from an LCA of carbon capture and sequestration from fossil power systems such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC),?renewable fuel systems, and ethanol production.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Natural Gas and Power Production

Date: 2/23/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the EPRI Winter Meeting, Natural Gas Interest Group in February, 2016 and provided the technical details behind and results from the life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of natural gas extraction across the United States and its use in power production relative to coal-fired power.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of ROZ – CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 1/12/2016
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at USAE ROZ Workshop in January, 2016, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


A Life Cycle Analysis Perspective of CCUS - Goal and Scope Definition

Date: 11/12/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at an International Energy Agency Meeting in London in November, 2015, and provided the background on the complexity of determining the greenhouse gas emissions from this type of complex interconnected energy system. It also showed results across the wide range of possible permutations of this type of system.


LCA XV NETL Overview

Date: 10/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options requires the comparison of those options on a common basis, which includes not only the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, but of infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user. Further, environmental costs and benefits must be weighed against economic analyses with identical boundaries. At the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, life cycle analysis (LCA) is used as tool and framework for performing these types of evaluations. This overview will describe the LCA process at NETL, including unique application of stochastic methods to environmental and economic analyses, and show highlights from several recent studies such as a complete inventory of natural gas extraction, and a comparison of advanced power technology options.


Approaches to Developing a Cradle-to-Grave Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Petroleum Fuels Produced in the U.S. with an Outlook to 2040

Date: 10/7/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The U.S. crude consumption mix has changed dramatically since the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) first performed a comprehensive LCA of petroleum derived fuels (NETL, 2008). According to the Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook, domestic production will account for nearly 60% of U.S. crude consumption by 2015 (EIA, 2015). This study examines the life cycle GHG footprint of diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel projected to 2040. The results of this analysis encompass a cradle-to-grave inventory of GHG emissions by utilizing open-source models (Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) and Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM)) paired with Monte Carlo simulation to account for changes to crude extraction, transport and refining as well as forecast uncertainty from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook (El-Houjeiri et al, 2013; Abella & Bergerson, 2012). Study results are documented in a forthcoming peer reviewed journal article.


U.S. Coal Exports – Life Cycle GHG comparison of PRB coal to foreign export competitors in the Asian Market

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this study was to compare environmental implications of exporting United States (U.S.) coal resources to Asian markets with respect to alternative global sources of steam coal. This study seeks to evaluate and understand potential environmental consequences of exporting PRB coal compared to global alternative sources of coal. This study was informed by a 10-person industry based Technical Steering Committee to improve the quality of the analysis. The key question addressed by the study: Is there a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. Given the uncertainty in the model parameter values, there is not a definitive difference between the life cycle GHG profiles between sourcing coal from the U.S. (PRB), Australia, or Indonesia for Japan, South Korea, or Taiwan. This document was presented at the LCAXV conference in October, 2015.


Managing Uncertainty in Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas Energy Systems: Two Case Studies

Date: 10/6/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Two case studies are presented that show how Monte Carlo can reduce uncertainty in LCA results. The first case study is based on NETL's upstream natural gas model. Parameterized life cycle models provide flexibility in the specification of uncertainty ranges around parameters. The second case study demonstrates the ways in which too many parameters can confound the interpretation of results when a different question is being asked, namely picking the “better” scenario. The uncertainty can be reduced by identifying the common parameters between scenarios and holding those values constant while Monte Carlo simulation is applied to the remaining parameters. While this negatively affects the absolute values generate by the models, it provides a more direct comparison between the scenarios and allows us to focus on the parameters that differentiate options and identify true opportunities for improvement. This document of study results was presented at the LCA XV Conference in October, 2015


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model Documentation

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility.NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


NETL Fischer-Tropsch Black Box Model

Date: 9/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Black Box Model is to allow for the screening of the impacts of F-T finished fuels production based on the input of a unique syngas composition. Utilizing the composition of the raw syngas, the model calculates the following outputs based on a facility sized to produce 50,000 bbl/day of liquid product: CO2 emissions, liquid product flows, required syngas input, and the net export electricity from the facility. NETL completed this model/study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier (EFG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 10 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Transport Reactor Integrated Gasifier (TRIG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations Modeled and Validated Scenarios

Date: 9/8/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This study evaluates the technological/process, life cycle environmental, and economic perspective of 20 discreet F-T jet fuel production scenarios. The technological/process model provides a process level evaluation of the 10 alternate CBTL facility scenarios considered in this study. Aspen Plus simulation models for the CBTL facility scenarios were developed to determine the composition and flows of all of the major streams in the plants. These were used to develop conceptual level cost estimates for capital and operating costs for the major process units. NETL completed this study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Natural Gas and Power Production

Date: 6/15/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the 2015 Energy Information Administration (EIA) Energy Conference. It discusses the importance of understanding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power and natural gas sectors, and then goes into more detail on the life cycle GHG emissions from natural gas and from power generation in general.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of the model is to perform scenario analysis to optimize GHG performance under varies CBTL configurations.  This model expands upon the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model by providing the user the ability to choose from three coal types (Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud sub-bituminous coal, or North Dakota Lignite) and three biomass types (Southern pine, switchgrass, or municipal solid waste). The model will also allow the user to adjust the fraction of the captured CO2 that is vented and adjust the overall efficiency of the plant.  The model includes environmental performance data for CBTL plants modeled under the CCAT case studies and two additional NETL studies: Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact and Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 4: Coal-to-Liquids via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.


Coal and Biomass to Liquids (CBTL) Greenhouse Gas Optimization Tool Documentation

Date: 3/11/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report is the user documentation for the NETL CBTL Jet Fuel Model submitted under a separate approval routing. The documentation is intended to accompany the model. The documentation explains how to the use the model. The documentation does not contain any energy analysis findings. NETL completed this model/report as part of a study for the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


CBTL Jet Fuel Model

Date: 2/27/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

An Excel-based model was developed to allow in-depth user access to the technological process, economic, and life cycle environmental results that were completed in support of this study, for each of the different CBTL jet fuel production scenarios (total of 49 unique result sets when counting both TRIG and EFG scenarios). The CBTL Jet Fuel Model incorporates a stochastic analysis of modeled results, drawing on input statistical distributions for the 17 environmental and 40 economic parameters. A stochastic analysis was performed by using the Palisade Corporation’s @RISK Excel add-in. NETL completed a CRADA with Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) to provide techno-economic and life cycle analysis modeling support for CBTL alternative jet fuel production, which forms key references to their report to the Defense Logistics Agency (their project sponsor/funder).


Grid Mix Explorer (Report)

Date: 1/28/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Grid Mix Explorer is to allow the user to customize the makeup of their electricity grid specific to their life cycle case or desired scenario, and to generate a life cycle inventory for that particular mix of technologies.


Grid Mix Explorer (Model)

Date: 1/28/2015
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Grid Mix Explorer is to allow the user to customize the makeup of their electricity grid specific to their life cycle case or desired scenario, and to generate a life cycle inventory for that particular mix of technologies.


Life cycle GHG Footprint of a U.S. Energy Export Market for Coal and Natural Gas

Date: 10/7/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the LCA XIV Conference and shows that the majority of life cycle GHG emissions come from power plants; even the LNG export scenarios, which lose approximately 10% of transported natural gas to parasitic loads, have lower life cycle GHG emissions than the coal scenarios.


Indirect Impacts of Renewable Electricity Penetration and the Growing Importance of a Life Cycle Perspective

Date: 10/7/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In this presentation, given at the LCA XIV Conference, it is observed that the percent of direct emissions to total emissions from the U.S. electricity mix decreases by 1.34%, and indirect emissions associated with wind, solar thermal, geothermal, and natural gas increase from 2010 to 2040. As such, the field of LCA becomes more important in the next 30 years in determining both the direct and indirect GHG emissions associated with comparative energy technologies, as well as other potential environmental impacts, where differences in indirect and direct emissions would be captured in framing economy wide policies.


Developing an Approach for the Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Petroleum Fuels: Outlook to 2040 – Crude Extraction and Transport

Date: 10/7/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation, given at the LCA XIV Conference, starts with the original NETL baseline, which is consistent with other published values for conventional fuel production in the U.S, and updates it to determine the life cycle GHG footprint of diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel over time to 2040. The results of this analysis encompass a cradle-to-grave inventory of GHG emissions by utilizing updated models to account for changes to crude extraction, transport and refining.


Understanding the Importance of Leakage Rates to the GHG Footprint of Natural Gas Production

Date: 10/7/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the LCA XIV Conference. It further examines the boundary assumptions behind recent methane leakage studies. It then provides details behind a life cycle model that can be used to reconcile inconsistent boundary choices and inform critical policy questions regarding future use of fossil fuels.


Evaluating GHGs from Transportation: Alternative Fuels and Alternative Metrics

Date: 10/6/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In this presentation, given at the LCA XIV conference, the production and end-use combustion of diesel from conventional petroleum and alternative coal to liquid (CTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) technologies with carbon capture and storage (CCS) are compared using a number of different climate change metrics. In addition to traditional static LCIA GHG metrics such as global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP), we model the emissions and their impact over time using technology warming potential (TWP) and temperature results.


Value of LCA and its Applicability to Natural Gas Analysis

Date: 6/18/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses the value of an LCA perspective on natural gas with a focus on upstream natural gas. It also discusses the current natural gas research.


Natural Gas and Power LCA Model Documentation (NG Report)

Date: 5/29/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Natural gas is considered a cleaner burning and more flexible alternative to other fossil fuels today. It is used in residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to having an expanding role in power production. However, the primary component of natural gas is methane, which is also a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG). Methane losses from natural gas extraction vary geographically and by extraction technology. This analysis inventories the GHG emissions from extraction, processing, and transmission of natural gas to large end users, and the combustion of that natural gas to produce electricity. In addition to GHG emissions, this analysis inventories other air emissions, water quality, water use, land use, and resource energy metrics.


LCA GHG Report (LNG Report)

Date: 5/29/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from liquefied natural gas (LNG) exported from the U.S. and combusted by power plants in Europe or Asia and compares them to regional coal combusted by power plants in Europe and Asia. This analysis also calculates the GHG emissions from natural gas that is extracted in Russia and delivered by pipeline to European and Asian power plants. This analysis is based on data that were originally developed to represent U.S. energy systems: foreign natural gas and coal production were modeled as represented by U.S. natural gas production and average U.S. coal production. The results show that the use of U.S. LNG exports for power production in European and Asian markets will not increase GHG emissions, on a life cycle perspective, when compared to regional coal extraction and consumption for power production.


Time series analysis of radiative forcing in a co-fired power system

Date: 5/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation considers the effect of GHG emission timing from of a power plant using different feedstocks -- coal, hybrid poplar, and roundwood. It also focuses on methods and aspects of the biomass systems, such as GWP metric, DLUC and ILUC, biomass uptake and emission, and modeling choice.


Estimating the GHG Footprint of Large-scale, Interconnected Energy Systems

Date: 5/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses the benefits of LCA in regards to energy analysis. It compares technology options, evaluates policy impact on systems, considers coal and natural gas boundaries, and evaluates metrics.


Comprehensive Analysis of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Jet Fuel: Oxygen Blown, Transport Reactor Integrated Gasifier (TRIG) and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Catalyst Configurations

Date: 2/19/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) has received funding from the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Energy to demonstrate how liquid fuel can be produced from coal and meet the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 greenhouse gas (GHG) requirement for DOD fuel purchases of synthetic fuel. Section 526 of EISA requires that any fuel purchases have a life-cycle CO2 emission less than conventional petroleum fuel. This study evaluates different scenarios for the conversion of coal and biomass to jet fuel using oxygen blown, transport reactor integrated gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch catalyst configurations.


Understanding the Life Cycle Environmental Footprint of the Natural Gas Value Chain

Date: 2/1/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This is a presentation given to the North Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), Gas Subcommittee meeting on February 9, 2014. The agenda includes the importance of understanding methane emissions from the natural gas sector, the Department of Energy Office's role in reducing methane emissions from the natural gas value chain, and a primer on life cycle analysis and understanding the life cycle environmental footprint of the natural gas value chain


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 1/20/2014
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0 determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


LCA and the U.S. Natural Gas Resource

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

From a life cycle perspective, baseload power is NETL's preferred basis for comparing energy sources. For fossil energy systems, the emissions from power plants account for the majority of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, focusing on the activities that precede the power plant is still necessary in order to identify near-term opportunities for GHG emission reductions. NETL's upstream natural gas model allows detailed modeling of the extraction, processing, and pipeline transmission of natural gas. This model can identify key contributors to the GHG emissions from the natural gas supply chain, and has parameters that can be used to assess opportunities for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows that current domestic natural gas extraction, processing, and pipeline technologies leak 1.2% of the methane that is extracted at the wellhead. Improved practices, such as those in the latest New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), can reduce this upstream methane leakage rate.


Using Life Cycle Analysis to Inform Energy Policy

Date: 12/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

NETL uses LCA to understand the environmental burdens of energy systems and to inform policy makers. LCA is well suited for energy analysis, but its answers can change depending on what questions are being asked. NETL approaches all LCAs using a consistent method, which ensures comparability among LCAs. The granularity and flexibility of NETL's models makes it possible to identify key contributors to the environmental burdens of a system, as well as the ability to understand how results can change with changes to a given input parameter. In addition to understanding the attributes of a given energy technology, NETL can also perform consequential modeling that allows an understanding of how a given energy technology can affect the performance of other energy technologies. The effect of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) on conventional crude oil extraction is one example of such consequential analysis.


Power Plant Flexible Model

Date: 11/8/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Power Plant Flexible Model (PPFM) is an Excel-based tool that simulates coal combustion-based power plant electrical output, emissions, materials usage, and costs for a fully-configurable mix of boiler and steam plant types, feedstocks, and emissions control equipment. The technical documentation and user's guide for the model are included in the download package. PPFM is not engineered to be a consumer-level product and requires knowledge of coal combustion power plants and processes to yield reasonable results.


Improved Natural Gas Extraction as a Strategy for Reducing Climate Impacts of Transportation

Date: 10/2/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses a gas-to-liquids (GTL) system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. The system produces 15,500 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline, and 34,500 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline, when based on current practices in the natural gas industry, are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. If the natural gas extraction and processing sector complies with New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), the upstream GHG emissions from natural gas are reduced by 23 percent.


Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 10/2/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). NETL uses LCA as a tool for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


A Parameterized Life Cycle Analysis of Crude from CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 10/2/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil extraction technology used after primary and secondary techniques have been used at an oil field. CO2-EOR operators use alternating injection schemes of CO2 and water to reduce the viscosity of crude oil, allowing recovery of a resource that would be otherwise unrecoverable. The primary objective of CO2-EOR is to produce additional crude oil from a mature oil field, but CO2-EOR also sequesters CO2. A process-based approach uses parameters that allow comparisons of different operating conditions and characterization of uncertainty. The model leverages existing NETL life cycle data to account for environmental burdens upstream and downstream from the CO2-EOR site, including natural dome and several anthropogenic sources of CO2, petroleum refining, and combustion of finished petroleum products such as gasoline or diesel.


Co-firing Biomass to Reduce the Environmental Footprint of Coal-fired Heat and Power: A Good Strategy?

Date: 10/2/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The use of biomass as a feedstock for co-fired electricity generation and heat production is attractive because it offers renewable energy derived from a domestically available feedstock and the potential for reductions in greenhouse gases and other environmental impacts. Drivers for the adoption of biomass-based power and heat include the anticipation of forthcoming GHG regulation, compatibility with existing industrial processes and electricity infrastructure, and other potential State or Federal policies. The overarching objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the potential human health and environmental outcomes associated with the use of biomass in electricity generation and combined heat and power operations. Co-firing biomass with coal reduces GHG emissions but can increase some human health and ecosystem impacts. The type of biomass and the location where it is produced are important, making it difficult to generalize the results in all impact categories.


The Carbon Footprint of Carbon Dioxide

Date: 10/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation examines the carbon footprint of obtaining carbon dioxide. While post-combustion capture at power plants may represent the best near-term opportunity for CO2 capture, there are other sources of CO2 in nature and industry. This analysis accounts for the environmental burdens of CO2 from three alternative sources: natural CO2 domes, natural gas processing plants, and ammonia production plants. This analysis uses a life cycle analysis (LCA) approach for developing data and modeling CO2 systems. The energy and material flows for key processes in the CO2 supply chain were calculated. These processes were then compiled in a model that scaled the flows between processes to arrive at an inventory of environmental burdens on a common basis.


Gate-to-Grave Life Cycle Analysis Model of Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide (Presentation)

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

A gate-to-grave life cycle analysis (LCA) model was created to quantify the environmental impacts of the various processes associated with saline aquifer sequestration. The following unit processes are accounted for in this analysis: site preparation, well construction, carbon dioxide sequestration operations, site monitoring, brine management, well closure, and land use. This analysis used an LCA approach for developing data and modeling saline aquifer sequestration. The energy and material flows for key processes within the gate-to-grave boundaries of the saline aquifer were calculated. These processes were then compiled in a model that scaled the flows between processes to arrive at an inventory of environmental burdens on a common basis (e.g., 1 tonne of carbon dioxide sequestered).


Gate-to-Grave Life Cycle Analysis Model of Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide (Report)

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

A gate-to-grave life cycle analysis (LCA) model was created to quantify the environmental impacts of the various processes associated with saline aquifer sequestration. The following unit processes are accounted for in this analysis: site preparation, well construction, carbon dioxide sequestration operations, site monitoring, brine management, well closure, and land use. This analysis used an LCA approach for developing data and modeling saline aquifer sequestration. The energy and material flows for key processes within the gate-to-grave boundaries of the saline aquifer were calculated. These processes were then compiled in a model that scaled the flows between processes to arrive at an inventory of environmental burdens on a common basis (e.g., 1 tonne of carbon dioxide sequestered).


Gate-to-Gate Life Cycle Inventory and Model of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (Presentation)

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

A gate-to-gate life cycle analysis (LCA) model was created to quantify the environmental impacts of the various processes associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The following unit processes are accounted for in this analysis: injection and recovery, bulk separation and storage, gas separation, supporting processes, and land use. This analysis used an LCA approach for developing data and EOR and gas processing. The energy and material flows for key processes within the gate-to-gate boundaries of the EOR site were calculated. These processes were then compiled in a model that scaled the flows between processes to arrive at an inventory of environmental burdens on a common basis (e.g., 1 barrel of crude produced via EOR).


Gate-to-Gate Life Cycle Inventory and Model of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (Report)

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

A gate-to-gate life cycle analysis (LCA) model was created to quantify the environmental impacts of the various processes associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The following unit processes are accounted for in this analysis: injection and recovery, bulk separation and storage, gas separation, supporting processes, and land use. This analysis used an LCA approach for developing data and EOR and gas processing. The energy and material flows for key processes within the gate-to-gate boundaries of the EOR site were calculated. These processes were then compiled in a model that scaled the flows between processes to arrive at an inventory of environmental burdens on a common basis (e.g., 1 barrel of crude produced via EOR).


Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Analysis Model for Alternative Sources of Carbon Dioxide (Presentation)

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

While post-combustion capture at power plants may represent the best near-term opportunity for CO2 capture, there are other sources of CO2 in nature and industry. This analysis accounts for the environmental burdens of CO2 from three alternative sources: natural CO2 domes, natural gas processing plants, and ammonia production plants. This analysis uses a life cycle analysis (LCA) approach for developing data and modeling CO2 systems. The energy and material flows for key processes in the CO2 supply chain were calculated. These processes were then compiled in a model that scaled the flows between processes to arrive at an inventory of environmental burdens on a common basis (e.g., 1 kilogram of CO2 ready for compression and pipeline transport).


Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Analysis Model for Alternative Sources of Carbon Dioxide (Report)

Date: 9/30/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

While post-combustion capture at power plants may represent the best near-term opportunity for CO2 capture, there are other sources of CO2 in nature and industry. This analysis accounts for the environmental burdens of CO2 from three alternative sources: natural CO2 domes, natural gas processing plants, and ammonia production plants. This analysis uses a life cycle analysis (LCA) approach for developing data and modeling CO2 systems. The energy and material flows for key processes in the CO2 supply chain were calculated. These processes were then compiled in a model that scaled the flows between processes to arrive at an inventory of environmental burdens on a common basis (e.g., 1 kilogram of CO2 ready for compression and pipeline transport).


Analysis of Natural Gas-to-Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch

Date: 9/1/2013
Contact: Erik Shuster

This study models a gas-to-liquids (GTL) system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. Specifically, the system produces 15,500 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline, and 34,500 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The study provides an updated evaluation of cost, technical, and environmental performance. With an estimated total as-spent capital cost of 4.3 billion dollars (3.7 &spamp;ndash; 5.6 billion dollars) or $86,188 ($73,260 - $112,045) per bbl of daily production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, such a facility would be commercially viable should the market conditions (liquid fuel and natural gas prices) remain as favorable or better throughout the life of the project than during the middle of May 2013. The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline when based on current practices in the natural gas industry are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Presentation)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Presentation

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of a natural gas combined cycle plant (NGCC) develops an inventory of emissions results and calculates life cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Fact Sheet)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Report

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of a natural gas combined cycle plant (NGCC) develops an inventory of emissions results and calculates life cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


LCA: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

LCA of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Model)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life cycle analysis of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant develops an inventory of emissions results and calculates life cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective (Report)

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool Report

Date: 6/1/2013
Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Unconventional Natural Gas: An LCA with a Conventional Answer

Date: 10/3/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

LCA of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


The Challenge of Co-product Management for Large-scale Energy Systems—Power, Fuel and CO2

Date: 10/2/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Applying traditional co-product management methods such as physical allocation and system expansion in conventional ways can lead to large study uncertainty in LCA of large scale energy systems. The use of advanced power plants with carbon capture as a source of CO2 results in the co-production of electricity and transportation fuels (gasoline or diesel). Co-product allocation can be avoided by expanding the system to include displacement of other routes to electricity generation, but conjecture about the expanded system leads to wide uncertainty. If energy is used as a basis for co-product allocation between electricity and liquid fuel (diesel or gasoline), the differences between the useful energy in the energy products hinders comparability. Partitioning a portion of the system, in this case the power plant, to perform more accurate energy allocation is a third approach, and is possible when detailed plant schematics allow disaggregation of integrated processes.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) - LCA XII Presentation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


LCA XII Presentation: Modeling the Uncertainty of Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Life Cycle Inventories with Monte Carlo Simulation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainty in a life cycle inventory of the Gasification Systems of coal and biomass. While the inventory is dominated by carbon dioxide emissions from the Adv. Combustion Systems of the fuel, small changes to the feedstocks that are used to make the fuel can make the difference in complying with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.


LCA XII Presentation: From Unit Processes to Completed LCAs: NETL Life Cycle Analysis Library

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This poster describes what the DOE National Energy Technology (NETL) unit process library is, how the unit processes are used in NETL life cycle analyses, and how to access it.


LCA XII Presentation - Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation

Date: 10/1/2012
Contact: Robert James

NETL has applied a single set of methods for calculating the environmental, cost, and other aspects of seven options for baseload power generation. LCA is used to calculate environmental results, and life cycle boundaries are also applied to cost results. A set of other technical and non-technical criteria are used to gain a broad understanding of the roles of alternative energy sources in the U.S. energy portfolio.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 9/28/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Solar thermal power is viewed as a clean, renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuels for electricity generation. However, the resource base of solar thermal power is limited by several factors that inform the availability of direct sunlight at any given location. The high cost of solar collectors to support utility level output, water scarcity in areas of high solar potential, and lack of proximity of resources to population centers make it likely that high-quality solar thermal resources are expected to remain untapped for the foreseeable future.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation focuses on the greenhouse gases from the extraction, processing, and delivery of natural gas and the key variables that affect the results. It includes eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The production rate of natural gas wells, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions. New Source Performance Standards have recently focused on the oil and gas sector and could be effective at reducing the upstream emissions from natural gas systems.


LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.


LCA XII Presentation: Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 9/27/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at NETL. NETL uses LCA as a tool and framework for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


LCA XII Presentation: Contribution of Biomass to the LCI of Cofiring Power

Date: 9/26/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

Biomass includes agricultural residues, forest thinnings, and dedicated energy crops. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions can be accomplished with coal and biomass co-firing only if biomass is produced with high yield rates and there are miniminal changes to land use. Increasing power plant efficiency or using post-combustion carbon dioxide capture and sequestration can lead to larger GHG reductions than co-firing biomass with coal.


Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems LCA Tool

Date: 9/26/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Power LCA Tool shows environmental and cost results for NETL's LCAs of power systems, including fossil and wind power. In addition to reporting results for costs and emissions, it allows trade-off analysis between costs and emissions. It also allows the user to evaluate the sensitivity of results to changes in key parameters..


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of geothermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Geothermal power is a proven technology with a large resource base, and the use of flash steam technology has relatively low capital costs that translate to a competitive cost of electricity. However, the characteristics of geologic formations are highly variable and are a barrier to broad implementation of geothermal power. Further, the naturally-occurring CO2 in geofluid leads to relatively high greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal power plants that use flash steam technology.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Hydropower is a proven technology that represents approximately 7 percent of U.S. electricity generation, but the resource base for large hydropower facilities has been fully developed and the growth potential for hydrokinetic hydropower is limited by the small capacities of hydrokinetic installations. The greenhouse gas emissions of hydropower are low, but there are ecological impacts of hydropower that are outside the boundaries of this analysis. Further, the benefits that dams provide with respect to flood control, irrigation, and navigability are difficult to compare on the same basis as hydroelectric power generation, complicating the calculation of the costs of hydropower.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 9/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Solar thermal power is viewed as a clean, renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuels for electricity generation. However, the resource base of solar thermal power is limited by several factors that inform the availability of direct sunlight at any given location. The high cost of solar collectors to support utility level output, water scarcity in areas of high solar potential, and lack of proximity of resources to population centers make it likely that high-quality solar thermal resources are expected to remain untapped for the foreseeable future.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment Brief (Presentation)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Wind can be an important energy resource for the U.S., but as its contribution to total U.S. electricity generation increases, it will require a significant amount of fossil resources for backup power to maintain grid reliability. Wind power has exhibited significant growth over the last decade, but most of this growth was made possible through financial incentives such as temporary renewable energy tax credits. Technology advances that result in lower project costs and energy storage devices that enable better power reliability remain crucial research and development areas for the long-term integration of wind power.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Wind can be an important energy resource for the U.S., but as its contribution to total U.S. electricity generation increases, it will require a significant amount of fossil resources for backup power to maintain grid reliability. Wind power has exhibited significant growth over the last decade, but most of this growth was made possible through financial incentives such as temporary renewable energy tax credits. Technology advances that result in lower project costs and energy storage devices that enable better power reliability remain crucial research and development areas for the long-term integration of wind power.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Co-firing is seen as a way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of existing coal-fired power plants, but the incorporation of biomass into an existing coal-fired system increases the complexity of feedstock acquisition. Further, the acquisition of biomass has unique GHG burdens that offset, in part, the GHG reductions from the displacement of coal with biomass. Due to the higher feedstock prices of biomass, the co-firing of biomass at a 10 percent share of feedstock energy can increase the cost of electricity by as much as 31 percent. Other risks include regulatory uncertainty; without policies that encourage the use of renewable feedstocks, there is no incentive for producers to invest in co-fired systems.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Nuclear power provides a stable source of baseload power in the U.S. with a greenhouse gas footprint similar to that of most renewable power sources. Maintaining the existing share of the U.S. electricity demand with nuclear power depends on the number of existing facilities that receive operating license extensions and the number of planned and approved new reactors that are actually constructed. The storage of spent nuclear fuel also continues to be a major concern since progress on the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository was halted in 2010. While the chances of adverse nuclear events are small and newer nuclear technologies are inherently safer than older technologies, the scale of a nuclear event can have far-reaching environmental and societal risks.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 8/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Solar thermal power is viewed as a clean, renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuels for electricity generation. However, the resource base of solar thermal power is limited by several factors that inform the availability of direct sunlight at any given location. The high cost of solar collectors to support utility level output, water scarcity in areas of high solar potential, and lack of proximity of resources to population centers make it likely that high-quality solar thermal resources are expected to remain untapped for the foreseeable future.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Nuclear power provides a stable source of baseload power in the U.S. with a greenhouse gas footprint similar to that of most renewable power sources. Maintaining the existing share of the U.S. electricity demand with nuclear power depends on the number of existing facilities that receive operating license extensions and the number of planned and approved new reactors that are actually constructed. The storage of spent nuclear fuel also continues to be a major concern since progress on the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository was halted in 2010. While the chances of adverse nuclear events are small and newer nuclear technologies are inherently safer than older technologies, the scale of a nuclear event can have far-reaching environmental and societal risks.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Nuclear power provides a stable source of baseload power in the U.S. with a greenhouse gas footprint similar to that of most renewable power sources. Maintaining the existing share of the U.S. electricity demand with nuclear power depends on the number of existing facilities that receive operating license extensions and the number of planned and approved new reactors that are actually constructed. The storage of spent nuclear fuel also continues to be a major concern since progress on the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository was halted in 2010. While the chances of adverse nuclear events are small and newer nuclear technologies are inherently safer than older technologies, the scale of a nuclear event can have far-reaching environmental and societal risks.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment Brief (Presentation)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Hydropower is a proven technology that represents approximately 7 percent of U.S. electricity generation, but the resource base for large hydropower facilities has been fully developed and the growth potential for hydrokinetic hydropower is limited by the small capacities of hydrokinetic installations. The greenhouse gas emissions of hydropower are low, but there are ecological impacts of hydropower that are outside the boundaries of this analysis. Further, the benefits that dams provide with respect to flood control, irrigation, and navigability are difficult to compare on the same basis as hydroelectric power generation, complicating the calculation of the costs of hydropower.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment Brief (Presentation)

Date: 8/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation evaluates the role of geothermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Geothermal power is a proven technology with a large resource base, and the use of flash steam technology has relatively low capital costs that translate to a competitive cost of electricity. However, the characteristics of geologic formations are highly variable and are a barrier to broad implementation of geothermal power. Further, the naturally-occurring CO2 in geofluid leads to relatively high greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal power plants that use flash steam technology.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Report)

Date: 6/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Presentation)

Date: 6/30/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Fact Sheet)

Date: 5/11/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This peer-reviewed analysis is one of a series of Technology Assessments of power production and evaluates the role of natural gas power in the future energy portfolio of the U.S. Natural gas power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth potential, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. Natural gas is seen as a cleaner burning and flexible alternative to other fossil fuels, and is used in residential, industrial, and transportation applications in addition to an expanding role in power production. New technologies have allowed increased domestic production of natural gas. The projected supply contributions afforded by new natural gas plays may keep the price of natural gas relatively low for the foreseeable future. Since natural gas is comprised mostly of methane, the control of fugitive emissions is imperative to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 5/1/2012
Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - NAS/TRB Conference Presentation

Date: 1/1/2012
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation was given at the National Academy of Sciences, 91st Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting in Washington, D.C. on January 25. NETL reports natural gas fired power production GHG emissions to be 53% lower than average base load coal fired power production. The presentation provides an overview of NETL's greenhouse gas results for various types of natural gas, including Marcellus Shale, and compares the results for natural gas fired power production to coal fired power production. The presentation focused on understanding the variability and uncertainty in recent natural gas GHG estimates.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: F-T Based SPK-1 Case Study (Report)

Date: 12/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), NETL conducted an LCA (LCA) of 10 fuel production pathways using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These pathways use varying combinations of coal and swithgrass feedstocks and two options for carbon management (sequestration or enhanced oil recovery). Only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are inventoried. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrate that higher percentages of biomass result in lower life cycle GHG emissions when using switchgrass. The choice of carbon management strategy has an effect on the results.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, Version 2.0 (CUBE 2.0): Model and Documentation

Date: 11/15/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

CUBE 2.0 was designed to facilitate examination of the sources and magnitude of uncertainties in GHG emissions resulting from cultivation, preparation, and delivery of biomass feedstocks and to allow exploration of the sensitivity of net emissions to these various uncertainties. Included are emissions associated with corn grain, corn stover, switchgrass, mixed prairie biomass, and hybrid poplar and two biomass residues: forest residue and mill residue. This model is an update to the CUBE 1.0 model released in March 2010.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production (Report)

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This report details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production (Presentation)

Date: 10/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This presentation details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: F-T Based SPK-1 Case Study (Presentation)

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study (Model)

Date: 9/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), NETL conducted an LCA of 10 fuel production pathways using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These pathways use varying combinations of coal and swithgrass feedstocks and two options for carbon management (sequestration or enhanced oil recovery). Only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are inventoried. Comparative analysis of the results demonstrate that higher percentages of biomass result in lower life cycle GHG emissions when using switchgrass. The choice of carbon management strategy has an effect on the results.


Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel.


Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Consider

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs. This is a life cycle environmental and cost analysis of ethanol using starch and cellulosic feedstocks. It provides a life cycle comparison of three tiers of technology, three types of biomass feedstocks, and two fuel-blending compositions for a total of 18 distinct pathways. When ethanol is blended with gasoline at an 85/15 ratio between ethanol and gasoline, the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are highly variable due to different feedstock types and ethanol production technologies. The biochemical conversion of cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol has the lowest GHG emissions in this analysis, because of the energy recovered at the ethanol plant.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 8/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Technical and Economic Analysis of Various Power Generation Resources Coupled with CAES Systems

Date: 5/17/2011
Contact: Ryan Egidi

Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is an energy storage application with the potential to supplement intermittent power sources, such as wind and solar generators, and to enable better load following for more constant power sources such as coal combustion generators. To better understand CAES’s potential to provide practical energy storage for intermittent and constant-output power sources in the U.S., three practical considerations important to CAES planning and operations were analyzed: 1. Siting decisions 2. Development of optimal charge-discharge strategies 3. Design and operating factors that affect efficiency. These three analyses form the major sections of this study.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United States

Date: 5/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

On May 12, 2011 NETL provided this presentation at the Cornell University lecture series on unconventional natural gas development. The presentation summarizes the life cycle analysis (LCA) greenhouse gas (GHG) research on natural gas extraction and delivery in the United States (on a lb CO2e/MMBtu basis) and a comparison of the life cycle GHG profiles of average natural gas and coal-fired power production and delivery to an end-user (lb CO2e/MWh basis). Specifically, the presentation details seven natural gas profiles: onshore conventional gas, associated gas, offshore gas, tight sands (gas), shale gas (based on Barnett Shale), coal bed methane gas, and the year 2009 domestic average mix. Each natural gas source is upgraded in a gas processing plant, compressed, and delivered to a large end-user (e.g., power plant).


CBTL Jet Fuel Model

Date: 2/16/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

The Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology (CCAT) has received funding from the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Energy to demonstrate how liquid fuel can be produced from coal and meet the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 greenhouse gas (GHG) requirement for DOD fuel purchases of synthetic fuel. Section 526 of EISA requires that any fuel purchases have a life-cycle CO2 emission less than conventional petroleum fuel. This model evaluates different scenarios for the conversion of coal and biomass to jet fuel using oxygen blown, transport reactor integrated gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch catalyst configurations.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report (Revised 2011)

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


A Comparative Assessment of CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Oil Recovery and Saline Aquifer Seque

Date: 1/1/2011
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

A comparative assessment of CO2 sequestration through enhanced oil recovery and saline aquifer sequestration.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/1/2010
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (zip file)

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


An Assessment of Gate-to-Gate Environmental Life Cycle Performance of Water-Alternating-Gas CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery in the Permian Basin

Date: 9/30/2010
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) stimulates oil production while storing a portion of the injected CO2. Life cycle assessment was performed for three CO2-EOR scenarios to estimate the "gate-to-gate" greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with water-alternating-gas injection in a typical Permian Basin reservoir. Current CO2-EOR "best practices" generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 71 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2E) per barrel of oil extracted - approximately three times greater than GHG emissions for the average barrel of domestic oil extracted in 2005.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 9/1/2010
Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant

Date: 1/12/2010
Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.