Energy Analysis

Techno-Economic Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Systems Created by Energy Sector Planning and Analysis for SEAP & OPPB

Date: 11/2014

            Contact: Gregory Hackett

This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 04/2014

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units.  The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.


LCA and the U.S. Natural Gas Resource

Date: 12/2013

            Contact: Timothy J. Skone

From a life cycle perspective, baseload power is NETL's preferred basis for comparing energy sources. For fossil energy systems, the emissions from power plants account for the majority of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, focusing on the activities that precede the power plant is still necessary in order to identify near-term opportunities for GHG emission reductions. NETL's upstream natural gas model allows detailed modeling of the extraction, processing, and pipeline transmission of natural gas. This model can identify key contributors to the GHG emissions from the natural gas supply chain, and has parameters that can be used to assess opportunities for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows that current domestic natural gas extraction, processing, and pipeline technologies leak 1.2% of the methane that is extracted at the wellhead. Improved practices, such as those in the latest New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), can reduce this upstream methane leakage rate. From a life cycle perspective (1 MWh of delivered electricity), power production from natural gas has lower GHG emissions than power produced from coal. There are several methods and technology combinations that can be used for determining how high the upstream natural gas methane leakage rate has to be in order for the life cycle GHG emissions from natural gas power to equal those from coal power. Ongoing research is developing data that will improve the accuracy of NETL's upstream natural gas model.


Using Life Cycle Analysis to Inform Energy Policy

Date: 12/2013

            Contact: Timothy J. Skone

NETL uses LCA to understand the environmental burdens of energy systems and to inform policy makers. LCA is well suited for energy analysis, but its answers can change depending on what questions are being asked. NETL approaches all LCAs using a consistent method, which ensures comparability among LCAs. The granularity and flexibility of NETL's models makes it possible to identify key contributors to the environmental burdens of a system, as well as the ability to understand how results can change with changes to a given input parameter. In addition to understanding the attributes of a given energy technology, NETL can also perform consequential modeling that allows an understanding of how a given energy technology can affect the performance of other energy technologies. The effect of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) on conventional crude oil extraction is one example of such consequential analysis. The results of consequential analyses have more uncertainty than those for analyses that focus on the attributes of isolated systems, but the conclusions of consequential analyses provide more context for policy makers.


Performance and Cost of a Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant with Complete Internal Reforming

Date: 11/2013

            Contact: Gregory Hackett

The performance and cost of a natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power system with complete internal reformation (IR) is presented in this report.  The report presents an update to a previous NGFC Pathway Study that includes carbon capture and storage (2011). IR utilizes heat generated in the fuel cell stack directly for the endothermic reformation reaction, improving system efficiency. NGFC systems with complete IR form the ultimate embodiment of the current fuel cell technology development program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, which is consistent with the commercialization strategies being pursued in the stationary power generation sector.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations - Revision 1

Date: 11/2013

            Contact: Gregory Hackett

This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Factsheet

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Presentation

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Final

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Report

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Conventional Generation Asset Management with Renewable Portfolio Standards Using Real Options

Date: 05/2013

            Contact: Peter Balash

The transition to a more renewable generation mix under a competitive electricity market will require individual power producers to use sophisticated tools to value conventional generators. Owners will need to understand what market prices signal new investments, temporarily suspending operation, reactivating mothballed generators or permanently abandoning a plant. Net present valuation from a traditional discounted cash flow analysis is limited in capturing the value of generation technologies, and it does not provide an optimal investment criterion. We present and evaluate a closed-form decision support framework using a Spark Spread Real Options approach to value generation assets and to capture optimal market price signals that minimizes financial risks of individual power producers under a transition towards a more renewable energy fleet.


LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.


LCA XII Presentation: Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Robert James

This presentation discusses a series of studies performed to compare a set of alternative sources (cofiring coal and biomass, unconventional natural gas, next generation nuclear, hydropower, geothermal, solar thermal and offshore wind) with common boundaries and assumptions.


LCA XII Presentation: From Unit Processes to Completed LCAs: NETL Life Cycle Analysis Library

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This poster describes what the DOE National Energy Technology (NETL) unit process library is, how the unit processes are used in NETL life cycle analyses, and how to access it.


LCA XII Presentation: Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.


LCA XII Presentation: Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at NETL. NETL uses LCA as a tool and framework for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.


LCA XII Presentation: Modeling the Uncertainty of Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Life Cycle Inventories with Monte Carlo Situation

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainty in a life cycle inventory of the gasification of coal and biomass. While the inventory is dominated by carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of the fuel, small changes to the feedstocks that are used to make the fuel can make the difference in complying with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.


An Analysis of DSI's Impact on Dispatch Economics in PJM

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates the marginal cost impact of installing dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and dry sorbent injection (DSI) on an existing subcritical pulverized coal unit in PJM, for compliance with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS). The impact of compliance technology choice on dispatch position is highlighted.


LCA XII Presentation: Contribution of Biomass to the LCI of Cofiring Power

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation discusses the impact of cofiring biomass in coal-fired power plants. Combustion of biomass in a boiler is carbon neutral, as the carbon dioxide emitted was taken up by the growth of the biomass during cultivation. However upstream processes such as land preparation, cultivation and harvesting, and transportation can offset the carbon taken up by the biomass.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 07/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Brief)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 05/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Robert Stevens

The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of ≤ 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture.


QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.


Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 01/2012

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.


Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - NAS/TRB Conference Presentation

Date: 01/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

NETL reports natural gas fired power production GHG emissions to be 53% lower average base load coal fired power production at National Academy of Sciences, 91st Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting in Washington, D.C. on January 25. The presentation provides an overview of NETL's greenhouse gas results for various types of natural gas, including Marcellus Shale, and compares the results for natural gas fired power production to coal fired power production. The presentation focused on understanding the variability and uncertainty in recent natural gas GHG estimates.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Model

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Report

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, Version 2.0 (CUBE 2.0): Model and Documentation

Date: 11/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

CUBE 2.0 was designed to facilitate examination of the sources and magnitude of uncertainties in GHG emissions resulting from cultivation, preparation, and delivery of biomass feedstocks and to allow exploration of the sensitivity of net emissions to these various uncertainties. The model determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-hopper”). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing (corn grain, corn stover, switchgrass [SG], mixed prairie biomass [MPB], and hybrid poplar) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). This model is an update to the CUBE 1.0 model released in March 2010 Updates to the model include several additions and corrections to CUBE 1.0. In particular, the functionality and scope have been expanded by adding two additional feedstocks (corn stover and hybrid poplar) and by increasing the number and complexity of processing and transport choices. Major modifications are summarized in corresponding Model Documentation. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements - 2011 Update

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using EIA AEO 2011 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - Presentation

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Presentation details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Report details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion as a Near-Term CO2 Mitigation Strategy

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Eric Grol

Circulating fluidized bed combustion systems have the potential to meet strict air quality guidelines currently being proposed (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate). In addition, their fuel-flexibility can also allow for co-firing carbon neutral opportunity fuels, such as biomass, therefore reducing the CO2 footprint in the near-term. Building these plants with attention to the design considerations that will be needed to accommodate eventual CO2 capture (capture-ready) can also help future integration of full-scale capture.


Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Considerations

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant. The authors find that the main challenge is maintaining a consistent fuel supply; technical and regulatory factors can drive the decision to cofire; cofiring can increase costs, decrease revenue, and reduce GHG emissions; densification does not reduce plant costs but can reduce transportation costs, however current markets cannot support use of densified fuels. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR984.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.


Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.


Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. As an illustrative example, the model estimates the availability and cost of using switchgrass or corn stover to power a cofired power plant in Illinois and estimates the plant-gate cost of producing biomass fuel, the relative proportions of switchgrass and corn stover, the mix of different land types, and the total area contributing the supplied energy. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR876.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia

Date: 07/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The design and cost bases for this pathway study closely follows the bases applied in the NETL, 2010, Bituminous Baseline report so that direct performance and cost comparisons can be made with the conventional fossil-fuel power plant results estimated in that report. Performance and cost projections for a baseline integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, a baseline natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant, and prior coal-based integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) pathways, are compared with the results for the NGFC pathways. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United States

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

On May 12, 2011 NETL provided the following presentation at the Cornell University lecture series on unconventional natural gas development. The presentation summarizes the life cycle analysis (LCA) greenhouse gas (GHG) research on natural gas extraction and delivery in the United States (on a lb CO2e/MMBtu basis) and a comparison of the life cycle GHG profiles of average natural gas and coal-fired power production and delivery to an end-user (lb CO2e/MWh basis). Specifically, the presentation details seven natural gas profiles: onshore conventional gas, associated gas, offshore gas, tight sands (gas), shale gas (based on Barnett Shale), coal bed methane gas, and the year 2009 domestic average mix. Each natural gas source is upgraded in a gas processing plant, compressed, and delivered to a large end-user (e.g., power plant).


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Maria A. Hanley

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers. NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology. The IGFC plants in this study apply advanced, planar, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology with separate anode and cathode off-gas steams, and incorporate anode off-gas oxy-combustion for nearly complete carbon capture. The SOFC simulations utilize the expected operating conditions and performance capabilities of this solid oxide fuel cell technology, operating initially at atmospheric-pressure. The power plant cost and performance estimates reflect performance projections based on the current state of SOFC development, as well as projecting a pathway of SOFC technology development advances.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3c: Natural Gas Combined Cycle at Elevation

Date: 03/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases

Date: 03/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Report

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of EVs, which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Presentation

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of electric vehicles (EVs), which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.


Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid - Presentation

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes Smart Grid’s impact on the environment and identifies additional research to clarify the complex relationship between Smart Grid, applications enabled by Smart Grid and environmental impact. Major impacts on environmental emissions enabled by Smart Grid include load reduction/shift from demand response and demand side management; electric vehicle charging and electrification of transportation sector; shift in generation mix toward intermittent renewables; shift toward distributed generation located closer to load and improved transmission and distribution operations.


Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Justin Adder

Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes Smart Grid’s impact on the environment and identifies additional research to clarify the complex relationship between Smart Grid, applications enabled by Smart Grid and environmental impact. Major impacts on environmental emissions enabled by Smart Grid include load reduction/shift from demand response and demand side management; electric vehicle charging and electrification of transportation sector; shift in generation mix toward intermittent renewables; shift toward distributed generation located closer to load and improved transmission and distribution operations.


A Comparative Assessment of CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Oil Recovery and Saline Aquifer Sequestration

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

A comparative assessment of CO2 sequestration through enhanced oil recovery and saline aquifer sequestration.


Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an NGCC plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 11/2010

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle, pulverized coal, and natural gas combined cycle plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


QGESS: Methane Emissions from Mining Powder River Basin Coals

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

This paper explores methane content and emissions associated with mining Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, a Western, Sub-Bituminous coal. Both coal methane content and specific emissions from mining are explored. Methane emissions resulting from the release of methane trapped in coal beds can have a significant impact on the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with coal production. These emissions vary dramatically by coal rank, specific seam, and seam depth and thickness. This document is part of the Office of Systems, Analyses, and Planning's Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.


QGESS: Methane Emissions from Mining Illinois Basin Coals

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

This paper explores methane content and emissions associated with mining Illinois Basin coals such as Illinois No. 6. Both coal methane content and specific emissions from mining are explored. Methane emissions resulting from the release of methane trapped in coal beds can have a significant impact on the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with coal production. These emissions vary dramatically by coal rank, specific seam, and seam depth and thickness. This document is part of the Office of Systems, Analyses, and Planning's Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal and Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants

Date: 07/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation summarizes results of a full life cycle assessment on greenhouse gas emissions for five baseload power plant technologies, as conducted for the EPRI coal fleet meeting held on July 20, 2010. Driving factors, global warming potential, energy losses, electricity costs, methane content, air pollutants and upstream emissions are discussed, ranked and evaluated.


Improving the Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants for Near Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions

Date: 04/2010

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

This NETL report sets forth a vision of improving the average efficiency of the existing coal fired power plant fleet from 32.5% to 36% based on (1) units achieving efficiency equal to the 90th percentile unit in each class, (2) retirements of low efficiency units, and (3) improvements within the best-in-class. Under a scenario where generation from coal is constant at the 2008 level, increasing the average efficiency from 32.5% to 36% reduces U.S. GHG by 175 MMmt/year or 2.5% of total U.S. GHG emissions in 2008.


Model Documentation: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper summarizes the structure and methodology used in the AltSim model, presents results for selected scenarios, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis of those results. The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels, including corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas, coal, and coal with biomass. This model is available for download here.


Interagency Workgroup on Life Cycle GHG Emissions of Alternative Aviation Fuels

Date: 02/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation covers efforts to examine life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of alternative aviation fuels, as led by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory with the support of a multi-disciplinary group of federal, industrial, academic institutions. The primary objective of the workgroup is to develop a set of standard guidance on how to evaluate the life cycle GHG footprint of various alternative jet fuel production pathways using a wide-range of feedstock sources. Application of the guidelines can be used by fuel suppliers, military, and commercial airlines to assess the environmental preferability of a specific fuel production pathway when compared to conventional jet fuel. Workgroup activity status and plans for testing on specific case studies are also discussed.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0) determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). An accompanying report (also available for download on the NETL website) describes model layout and function. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0, available for download here, determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Documentation

Date: 12/2009

            Contact: Erik Shuster

The World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends interactive tool enables the user to look at both total and power sector CO2 emissions from the use of coal, oil, or natural gas, over the period 1990 to 2030. One can use the tool to compare five of the larger CO2 emitters to each other or to overall world emissions. The data are from the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Scenario.


World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Tool

Date: 12/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends interactive tool enables the user to look at both total and power sector CO2 emissions from the use of coal, oil, or natural gas, over the period 1990 to 2030. One can use the tool to compare five of the larger CO2 emitters to each other or to overall world emissions. The data are from the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Scenario.


Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full report and serves as an electronic desk reference for quickly obtaining plant cost and performance data and for comparing and contrasting several technologies. Performance, emissions, and cost data presented include: net and gross output, heat rate, efficiency, water use, SO2, NOx, CO2, PM, and Hg emissions, total plant cost and levelized cost of electricity. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


A Kinetic Approach to the Catalytic Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas

Date: 09/2009

            Contact:

In this paper, the authors propose a method for analyzing mercury oxidation catalyst results in a kinetic framework using the bulk reaction rate for oxidized mercury formation normalized by either the catalyst mass or surface area. Four mercury oxidation catalysts were tested in a packed bed reactor in the presence of flue gas generated by the NETL 500 lb/h coal combustor: Ir, Ir/HCl, Darco FGD activated carbon, and Thief/HCl. The catalyst-normalized results allow for more quantitative analysis of mercury oxidation catalyst data and a model that will allow for efficient scaling up from laboratory-scale to larger-scale studies.


Water Requirements for Fossil-Based Electricity Plants with and without Carbon Capture

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation was presented at the 2009 Ground Water Protection Council's Annual Forum in Salt Lake City, UT. It provides an overview of water requirements for fossil-based electricity plants with and without carbon capture with a focus on coal fueled plants. Several qualitative Sankey diagrams for water use are provided.


Update of Regulatory Activity Impacting Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation evaluates recent regulatory initiatives that could have an impact on new and existing coal-fired power plants. The relevant regulations are identified, along with possible compliance strategies.  To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2009 Update

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2009 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Framework and Guidance for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Footprints of Aviation Fuels

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report provides framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels. The focus on aviation fuels was driven by the patterns of fuel use by the federal government. Policies such as those outlined in Section 526 of EISA 2007 cause federal agencies to institute enforceable guidelines for procuring low carbon alternative fuels. Federal consumption of fuels is dominated by the Department of Defense and the Air Force consumes more fuel than any of the other military services or federal agencies (Defense Science Board 2008). Thus, aviation applications may become early adopters of low carbon transportation fuels. The U.S. Air Force convened a working group of individuals from government agencies, universities and companies actively engaged in assessing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation fuels, and requested that this group develop guidance on procedures for estimating greenhouse gas emissions in aviation applications, using currently available data and tools.


Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System-Presentation

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation describes a spreadsheet tool that models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS.


Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This tool models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS. Each scenario allows use of the captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. The model determines the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and compares this value to a conventional vehicle powered solely by petroleum-based fuels.


Assessing Future Supply Curves for Coal In Light Of Economic, Technological and Environmental Uncertainties

Date: 11/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study provides an analysis of the costs to continue mining in the U.S., as well as discussion of supply availability and environmental costs. Understanding these costs requires an understanding of unit operations timing, individual mine plans, productivity and costs; more detailed and thorough measurements of coal reserves; and a better understanding of coal mining's interaction with the surrounding ecosystem.


Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels

Date: 11/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study develops a comprehensive baseline for the life cycle of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions generated by conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels in the United States. The results of this study benchmark the performance of transportation fuels with respect to climate impacts in each of the fuels' life cycle stages; emphasizing opportunities to lower life cycle GHG emissions present in each stage.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2008 Update

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2008 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Water Requirements for Existing and Emerging Thermoelectric Plant Technologies

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study provides both water consumption and cooling duty factors for Nuclear, PC (Subcritical and Supercritical), IGCC, and NGCC power plants. Data is provided for both CO2 capture and no CO2 capture configurations of each type of plant.


An Update on DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology

Date: 07/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper focuses on results from the Phase II mercury (Hg) control technology field testing program funded by DOE Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program with the data segregated by technology. In addition, the results of NETL's economic analysis of Hg control via activated carbon injection (ACI) are presented, along with a discussion of potential coal utilization by-product (CUB) impacts. Preliminary results from NETL's Phase III Hg field testing program are also presented.


Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas

Date: 07/2008

            Contact:

In this article, the authors introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. Initial results reveal informative characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this process.


DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: Preliminary Economic Analysis of Wet FGD Co Benefit Enhancement Technologies

Date: 05/2008

            Contact:

This report provides "study-level" cost estimates for two technologies designed to promote Hg0 oxidation and enhance wet FGD Hg capture: fixed-bed Hg0 oxidation catalysts, and coal treatment with a calcium bromide (CaBr2) solution. The economics were developed for "representative" 500 megawatt (MW) units burning three types of low-rank coal: North Dakota (ND) lignite, Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous, and a blend of 50% Texas lignite (TxL) and 50% PRB subbituminous coals, where each unit is assumed to be equipped with a large cold-side electrostatic precipitator (CS-ESP) for particulate control and a wet FGD system for SO2 and Hg2+ co-removal.


Water Vapor From Thermoelectric Power Plants, Does it Impact Climate?

Date: 05/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The quantity of water vapor from power plants is compared to the amount of water from the natural evaporation/precipitation cycle.


CARBEN Wedge-based Spreadsheet Tool for Analyzing U.S. GHG Emissions Scenarios

Date: 05/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

CarBen is a tool for determining the reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sector based on user-supplied changes to the baseline such as electricity supply options, transportation sector fuel demand and fuel use, non-CO2 GHG emission abatement, carbon pricing, and international offsets.


Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain: What do they tell us about the Security of Engineered Storage of CO2 Underground?

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A factsheet that reviews two natural cases of geologic carbon dioxide accumulation in California. Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain are sites at which carbon dioxide is released as geologic activity disturbs the region. These sites are natural models to demonstrate the concerns with stability and environmental impacts of large-scale CO2 release from future engineered carbon geosequestration locations.


Further Investigation of the Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

Date: 11/2007

            Contact:

To gain a more complete understanding of the impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon, continuous mercury concentration measurements were made downstream of a packed sorbent bed. The results indicate that high S6+ content limits both the 6-h capacity of activated carbon and the initial mercury removal efficiency. Findings suggest that there are multiple available sites for mercury interaction with the sorbent surface and that capture and oxidation occur at different surface sites.


NETL Fossil Energy Issues Note FY07 No. 2: Energy-Water Issues

Date: 09/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The objective of this issue note is to explore future impacts and challenges concerning water use for thermoelectric power plants on our nation's freshwater supplies.


Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury

Date: 09/2007

            Contact:

In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.


Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study

Date: 05/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The objective of this study is to prepare a source of information from which valid comparisons can be made for the water loss between the various fossil fuel power plants such as IGCC, PC , and NGCC. This report serves as a tool for reviewing design assumptions, technology capabilities, system performance, etc. and identifying areas where new technology approaches or gasifier designs could lead to substantially lower water requirements.


DOE NETL's Phase II Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: UPDATED Economic Analysis of Activated Carbon Injection

Date: 05/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report provides "study-level" cost estimates for 12 of the Phase II ACI field testing sites that have been completed. This analysis was carried out to provide DOE/NETL a means of measuring its success in achieving the target of reducing baseline mercury control costs by 25 to 50%. Mercury control cost estimates are presented for: conventional (untreated) ACI, chemically-treated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the introduction of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to the coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses were conducted on a plant-specific basis, meaning that the economics are dependent on the actual power plant operating conditions and coal properties observed during full-scale field testing at each of these Phase II sites.


NETL's 2005 Coal Power Plant Database

Date: 04/2007

            Contact: Erik Shuster

The NETL 2005 Coal Power Plant Database consolidates large quantities of information on coal-fired power plants in a single location. The database contains 191 fields and provides information on over 1,700 boilers and associated units. General fields in the database contain location, fuel, emissions, generation, cooling, and firing information for coal power units in the United States. The information is largely based off of the most recent release of the Annual Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design data form, Energy Information Agency (EIA) Form 767 database report, available at the time of the update. The update took place in 2007 and the majority of the data used came from the 2005 release of EIA's Form 767 database report. Since then, Form 767 has been discontinued. Similar data that is more current can be found in the EIA-923 and 860 Database Annual Electric Generator Reports. NOTE: Click here for access to the database.


Mercury Capture and Fate Using Wet FGD at Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 09/2006

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper provides an assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory research and development efforts to optimize mercury capture in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and characterize the fate of mercury in the resultant by-products. The first portion of the paper provides background information on regulatory drivers relative air pollution control technologies. The second section addresses the mercury and coal utilization by-products research areas and provides details on related projects.


Survey of Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas

Date: 08/2006

            Contact:

This paper serves as a survey of catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury methods followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The authors review published results for each type of catalyst and present discussions on the possible reaction mechanisms for each case.


Examining Technology Scenarios for Achieving Stabilization of GHG Concentrations: A U.S. Perspective

Date: 06/2006

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The purpose of this presentation is to build a U.S. emissions scenario consistent with stabilization of greenhouse (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The study utilizes CarBen modeling system to compare situational scenarios under which GHG emissions may be controlled. The discussion also reviews market and policy-based strategies to provide incentives for GHG emission abatement.


Sorbents for Mercury Capture from Fuel Gas with Application to Gasification Systems

Date: 05/2006

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The purpose of this paper is to review the types and performance of sorbents for mercury capture in gasification power generation units. The authors also review the capacity of many of these sorbents for elemental mercury from nitrogen. Based on their assessment, the authors provide future direction for mercury sorbent development for fuel gas applications based on the requirements by the research and development agreement between the DOE NETL and Johnson Matthey.


Addressing the Critical Link Between Fossil Energy and Water

Date: 10/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper discusses the demand for water from the fossil energy sector. In addition to demand, some resource acquisition practices may contribute to adverse water impacts and contamination. This paper summarizes the current water-related RD&D activities currently sponsored by DOE/FE and implemented by NETL in the areas of fossil-fuel-based thermoelectric power generation, coal mining, and oil and natural gas production.


Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Power Plant Water Management R and D Program

Date: 10/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper provides background information on the relationship between water use and thermoelectric power generation. The documents describes the R&D activities currently being sponsored by DOE/NETL's IEP program to address current and future water-energy issues.


Natural Gas Resources and Federal Lands

Date: 07/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A factsheet summarizing the extent to which natural gas sources are located within federal land boundaries. This paper discusses the role of the Bureau of Land Management to manage these natural resources for recreational, conservation, and resource consumption. Finally, the access restrictions relevant to extracting and utilizing natural resources on federal lands is presented.


Produced Water from Oil and Natural Gas Operations

Date: 03/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This factsheet summarizes the management concerns and environmental impacts of produced water sources from oil and natural gas operations.


DOE-NETL's Power Plant Water Management R and D Program Responding to Emerging Issues

Date: 01/2005

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This presentation provides an overview of the water needs of fossil energy power generation technologies and the methods used to project future water consumption levels. A final review is also provided on the NETL Power Plant Water R&D Program research objectives.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet 2025 Electricity Generating Capacity Forecasts

Date: 06/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

An analysis estimating the impact of thermoelectric power plants on freshwater resources through 2025. Using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2004 Annual Energy Outlook's reference case forecast for electricity generating capacity, future freshwater requirements for both total and coal-based thermoelectric generation were estimated. These results are compared to historical water use by the power sector.


South-Central Alaska Natural Gas Study

Date: 06/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate the options that will meet south-central Alaska's natural gas demand and provide for economic growth. The opportunities for ensuring adequate future supply of natural gas include: Development of additional gas reserves in existing Cook Inlet fields, exploration and development of new gas fields in the Cook Inlet Basin, and development of a spur pipeline to bring Alaska North Slope gas to the region. Each of these options is assessed for feasibility.


Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR

Date: 05/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This factsheet discusses the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) as a source of natural resources for domestic needs and the contrasting concerns of preserving the natural state of the environment.


Delivering Alaskan North Slope Gas to Market

Date: 04/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A factsheet reviewing how increased demand has renewed interest in a transportation infrastructure for the Alaskan North Shore (ANS) natural gas resource. The document reviews current progress to develop the ANS infrastructure and reviews the steps necessary to achieve these proposed pipeline expansion goals in the future.


A White Paper Describing Produced Water from Production of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal Bed Methane

Date: 01/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The white paper evaluates produced water from oil production, conventional natural gas production, and coal bed methane production. The document includes information on producing water, including its constituents, how much is generated, and how it is regulated in different cost settings. This report also serves as a baseline for future research programs or policy initiatives considering produced water and provides detailed information relative to produced water and potential impacts on the environment.