A Review of the CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure in the U.S.
Contact: Donald Remson
This report provides an overview of the state of CO2 pipeline infrastructure, both the existing and the current planned expansion based on industry announcements. In addition, EP-NEMS, a modified version of EIA's 2014 NEMS model, was used to run three cases in order to provide a snapshot of potential CO2 pipeline expansion under various carbon policy scenarios. The three scenarios studied were a reference case, an extended policies case (Cap40), and a carbon price case (CP25). The report also contains an overview of the current permitting, regulations, and policies involved with CO2 pipeline infrastructure.
Profile of Resource Adequacy in the MISO Region
Contact: Maria A Hanley
MISO is facing a number of generation resource challenges, ranging from large amounts of retirements, behind schedule retrofit projects, and internal resources committed to exporting power to PJM's capacity market. This report identifies potential issues with generator retirements and retrofits, as well as potential transmission issues, including the impact of imports and exports in a short-term outlook for resource adequacy in the MISO region, including specific concerns with the generation capacity expected to be available in the MISO North and Central regions from 2014 to 2016, as well as additional concerns regarding proposed environmental regulations.
Issue Paper: Electricity System Adequacy - Challenges Facing the Nuclear Power Industry
One in a series of Issue Papers addressing Electricity System Adequacy, this report focuses on Challenges Facing the Nuclear Power Industry. Early proclamations of a nuclear renaissance yield to predictions of the industry's decline, while proposed carbon regulations offer potential optimism to use nuclear as a clean energy source. Yet, nuclear plants are currently "at-risk" of early retirement (for economic reasons) due to electricity market design issues and competition with low priced natural gas. Concerns are identified as baseload generation shifts from coal and nuclear to increasing natural gas and renewables which may impact on the reliability of the power system.
Natural Gas and Electric Interdependencies Case Study: Near-Term Infrastructure Needs in PJM
Contact: Justin M. Adder
Low natural gas prices, capacity market uncertainty, and large quantities of coal-fired capacity retirements are leading to a significant growth in PJM Interconnection, LLC (PJM) capacity from natural gas. This report summarizes the information developed for a case study of the PJM Regional Transmission Organization’s (RTO) infrastructure to determine the impact on the system from this shift from coal to natural gas. This report also evaluates the current and forecasted planned-certain capacity mix and the current and forecasted natural gas infrastructure to understand the potential risk areas with the shift from coal to gas.
Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry
Contact: Gavin Pickenpaugh
This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more. Juxtapositions between the U.S. and other countries' coal industries are provided. In addition to providing a current snapshot of the U.S. coal industry, this work portrays both historical and projected aspects of the coal industry.
Issues in Focus: The Role of Natural Gas Storage in Maintaining Reliability on the Electric Power System
As natural gas provides an increasing percentage of the nation’s electric power, the electric power system may become more vulnerable to certain types of reliability risks. Unlike other power generation sources – such as coal or nuclear – gas-fired power plants rely on just-in-time delivery of natural gas. Congestion and outages along the pipelines and/or compressor stations that supply gas-fired electric generating units can cause service interruptions. This Issue in Focus details the role of natural gas storage in maintaining reliability of the electric power system. This analysis is one of a series of Issues in Focus for natural gas/electricity interdependencies.
Baseline Analysis of Crude Methanol Production from Coal and Natural Gas
Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers
Gasification of coal, in addition to generating syngas for power production, has the potential to produce a diverse array of high-value products. It is a challenge to understand the optimal use of this domestic coal resource amidst the potential technology options, product slates (including co-production of power), and competing feedstocks (natural gas, petroleum). This analysis seeks to begin addressing that challenge by focusing on one primary product, methanol, which also serves as a readily-transportable intermediate to many other products including olefins, gasoline, and di-methyl ether (DME).
Advanced Sensors and Controls - Techno-Economic Analysis for Existing Coal Generating Units
Contact: Katrina Krulla
NETL collected data from previous coal-fired power plant sensor and control projects and used this data to establish cost and performance ranges to determine the economic opportunity for future advanced senor and control retrofits. Unit-level economic analyses were performed on coal-fired power plants in the U.S. by calculating the net present value (NPV) of cash flows that occur after the installation of new advanced sensor and control technologies in 2020. The results indicate that all 863 coal-fired units in the U.S. would meet a 24-month payback criterion assuming that availability and heat rate would improve consistent with prior senor and control projects.
Potential Impact of Improved Sensors, Controls on Coal-Fired Power Plant Forced Outages
Unplanned Forced Outage Reduction
Analysis of Natural Gas-to-Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch
Contact: Erik Shuster
This study models a GTL system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. Specifically, the system produces 15,460 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline and 34,543 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The study provides an updated evaluation of cost, technical, and environmental performance. With an estimated total as-spent capital cost of 4.3 billion dollars (3.7 – 5.6 billion dollars) or $86,188 ($73,260 - $112,045) per bbl of daily production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, such a facility would be commercially viable should the market conditions (liquid fuel and natural gas prices) remain as favorable or better throughout the life of the project than during the middle of May 2013. The life cycle GHG emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline when based on current practices in the natural gas industry are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. If the natural gas extraction and processing sector complies with NSPS, the upstream GHG emissions from natural gas are reduced by 23 percent. The key challenges of GTL are the risk associated with varying gas and product prices, the lack of sustained effort in its development, and its high capital costs. A robust research and development program, besides driving capital cost reductions, can serve the role of sustaining the deep knowledge base in GTL.
Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Retrofit Difficulty Factors
Contact: Mike Matuszewski
The purpose of this guideline is to provide a methodology for estimating additional costs for retrofitting carbon capture technologies onto existing fossil power plants.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Technology Learning Curve
Contact: Mike Matuszewski
The purpose of this guideline is to provide a methodology for estimating Nth of a kind plant costs from first of a kind plant costs.
Evaluation of Options to Handle CO2 Capture, Transport and Sequestration Disruptions
The purpose of this guideline is to provide an understanding of the potential for disruptions in the carbon dioxide capture and storage process and the consequences for fossil power plants.
Power Market Primers
Contact: Maria A. Hanley
This report is a series of primers on Independent System Operators (ISO) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO). They primarily explore the history, workings, and types of electricity markets comprising the seven regional transmission organizations in the U.S. The primers are accompanied by a Glossary for Power Market Primers in which many of the technical terms used in these primers are defined. The zip file allows interested users the ability to review the entire Power Market report or download individual primers in this series.
Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy
A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.
Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 2: PC Plants
The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in greenfield Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Fuel Prices for Selected Feedstocks in NETL Studies
Contact: James Black
The purpose of this guideline is to estimate the delivered market price of select fuels commonly used as feedstock in the energy system studies sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Specifically this includes four coals and natural gas delivered to three regions.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology
The purpose of this Quality Guidelines Guideline for Energy System Studies is to provide a standard basis for scaling capital costs, with specific emphasis on scaling exponents. The intention of having a standardized document is to provide guidelines for proper procedures to increase consistency between studies.
Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-by-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions: There Can be No Learning if There is No Doing
Historical data has shown that as new technologies penetrate the market, costs are often reduced with each doubling in capacity because employees learn-by-doing. Learning curves are used by many models to forecast future capital costs for energy technologies including carbon capture. Caution should be taken when using learning curves to predict future capital costs because of the wide variation in learning rates and inability to separate the impacts of R&D. It is important to note that while learning-by-doing can bring costs down once a technology deploys, R&D is still necessary for the technology to become cost competitive.
A Decade of Economic Change: Fuel Prices and Households
Contact: Peter Balash
This working presentation focuses on the changes in fuel prices and household income during the period of 2000 to 2010. In real terms, household money incomes have fallen, while fuel prices have increased. Comparisons are made between increased driving cost and changes in income, by quintile. Other areas examined include the timing of energy price increases and recessions and a breakout of prices and consumption to determine the driving factor behind energy expenditure increases. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology
Contact: James Black
Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 1: IGCC
The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in a dry-fed, entrained-flow gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Fuel Prices for Selected feedstocks in NETL Studies
Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants
Contact: John G. Wimer
DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.
LCA XII Presentation: Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation
Contact: Robert James
This presentation discusses a series of studies performed to compare a set of alternative sources (cofiring coal and biomass, unconventional natural gas, next generation nuclear, hydropower, geothermal, solar thermal and offshore wind) with common boundaries and assumptions.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment
Contact: Timothy Skone
This analysis evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
An Analysis of DSI's Impact on Dispatch Economics in PJM
Contact: Eric Grol
This analysis evaluates the marginal cost impact of installing dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and dry sorbent injection (DSI) on an existing subcritical pulverized coal unit in PJM, for compliance with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS). The impact of compliance technology choice on dispatch position is highlighted.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment Brief
This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment Brief
Environmental Retrofit Tracking
This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment
This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.
Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)
Contact: Justin Adder
The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.
Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide
Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.
Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture
Contact: Robert Stevens
The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of ≤ 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture.
QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)
This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.
QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters
This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.
Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology
This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.
QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters
The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.
QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks
This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.
Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants
This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Model
The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Report
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation
Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy
Contact: Ken Kern
A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.
Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, Version 2.0 (CUBE 2.0): Model and Documentation
CUBE 2.0 was designed to facilitate examination of the sources and magnitude of uncertainties in GHG emissions resulting from cultivation, preparation, and delivery of biomass feedstocks and to allow exploration of the sensitivity of net emissions to these various uncertainties. The model determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-hopper”). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing (corn grain, corn stover, switchgrass [SG], mixed prairie biomass [MPB], and hybrid poplar) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). This model is an update to the CUBE 1.0 model released in March 2010 Updates to the model include several additions and corrections to CUBE 1.0. In particular, the functionality and scope have been expanded by adding two additional feedstocks (corn stover and hybrid poplar) and by increasing the number and complexity of processing and transport choices. Major modifications are summarized in corresponding Model Documentation. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production
Report details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.
Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011
In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - Presentation
Presentation details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.
Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants
U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. As an illustrative example, the model estimates the availability and cost of using switchgrass or corn stover to power a cofired power plant in Illinois and estimates the plant-gate cost of producing biomass fuel, the relative proportions of switchgrass and corn stover, the mix of different land types, and the total area contributing the supplied energy. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR876.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.
Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Considerations
In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant. The authors find that the main challenge is maintaining a consistent fuel supply; technical and regulatory factors can drive the decision to cofire; cofiring can increase costs, decrease revenue, and reduce GHG emissions; densification does not reduce plant costs but can reduce transportation costs, however current markets cannot support use of densified fuels. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR984.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.
Technical and Economic Analysis of Various Power Generation Resources Coupled with CAES Systems
Contact: Ryan Egidi
Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is an energy storage application with the potential to supplement intermittent power sources, such as wind and solar generators, and to enable better load following for more constant power sources such as coal combustion generators. To better understand CAES’s potential to provide practical energy storage for intermittent and constant-output power sources in the U.S., three practical considerations important to CAES planning and operations were analyzed: 1. Siting decisions 2. Development of optimal charge-discharge strategies 3. Design and operating factors that affect efficiency. These three analyses form the major sections of this study.
Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections
Uniquely correlating the increased number of larger and longer-lasting frequency excursions in North American Interconnections with electricity market design and frequency control regulations, the report connects direct (technical) and indirect (non-technical) causes, both the physics of the problem and the regulatory environment (i.e., regulations, standards, and policies). The physical laws governing the frequency stability phenomenon and system control efforts are responsible for maintaining the nominal system frequency. However, the regulatory environment impacts policy on market design, affecting frequency stability and policies directly affecting frequency control practices. The report covers both technical and policy aspects to improve frequency stability.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United States
On May 12, 2011 NETL provided the following presentation at the Cornell University lecture series on unconventional natural gas development. The presentation summarizes the life cycle analysis (LCA) greenhouse gas (GHG) research on natural gas extraction and delivery in the United States (on a lb CO2e/MMBtu basis) and a comparison of the life cycle GHG profiles of average natural gas and coal-fired power production and delivery to an end-user (lb CO2e/MWh basis). Specifically, the presentation details seven natural gas profiles: onshore conventional gas, associated gas, offshore gas, tight sands (gas), shale gas (based on Barnett Shale), coal bed methane gas, and the year 2009 domestic average mix. Each natural gas source is upgraded in a gas processing plant, compressed, and delivered to a large end-user (e.g., power plant).
Power Systems Financial Model Version 6.6 and User's Guide
The NETL Power System Financial Model, Version 6.6, is an Excel based Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model that calculates the investment decision criteria used by energy project developers to evaluate the financial performance of power systems, including (but not limited to) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle, and various coal conversion systems, including co-production of liquid fuel and power. The model can also be used for renewable power generation.
QGESS: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance
This paper summarizes the cost estimation methodology employed by NETL in its assessment of power plant performance. A clear understanding of the methodology used is essential for allowing different power plant technologies to be compared on a similar basis. Though these guidelines are tailored for power plants, they can also be applied to a variety of different energy conversion plants (e.g., coal to liquids, syngas generation, hydrogen). This document is part of the Office of Program Planning and Analysis’s Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL Pennsylvania
Contact: Lisa Nichols
State-level results fact sheet for Pennsylvania to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report
This report documents the assessment of the FY09 economic impacts of expenditures, employment, and research and development awards at the NETL sites located in Pittsburgh, PA; Morgantown, WV; and Albany, OR. The national IO model was developed to assess the FY09 economic impacts of NETL site expenditures, awards, and employment at the national level. This work serves as an annual update to the FY08 analysis National and State Economic Impact of NETL (December 2009).
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL United States
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL United States to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
Vehicle to Grid Systems
The potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours were examined. Hourly electricity prices in three U.S. cities were used to arrive at daily profit values, while the economic losses associated with battery degradation were calculated based on data collected from A123 Systems LiFePO4/Graphite cells tested under combined driving and off-vehicle electricity utilization.
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL West Virginia
State-level results fact sheet for West Virginia to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL Oregon
State-level results fact sheet for Oregon to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
National and State Economic Impact of NETL
This report documents the development of state-level input-output models for Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Oregon and the augmentation of the national input-output model that was developed previously for the project Valuing Domestically Produced Natural Gas and Oil . The state IO models were developed to assess the FY08 economic impacts of expenditures, employment, and research and development awards at the NETL sites located in Pittsburgh, PA; Morgantown, WV; and Albany, OR. The national IO model was developed to assess the FY08 economic impacts of NETL site expenditures, awards, and employment at the national level.
Assessment of Macroeconomic Modeling in NEMS
Contact: Rodney Geisbrecht
Sensitivity studies with the NEMS macroeconomic model are described relative to a perceived lack of sensitivity in climate change and energy security scenarios that depart from business as usual in terms of energy prices. Identified issues include an assumed independence from energy prices for certain exogenous driver variables. A practical scheme for systematic sensitivity studies is described, based upon how the Global Insight macroeconomic model is integrated as an external EVIEWS program in NEMS.
Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements
Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.
Overview of U.S. Coal Supply and Infrastructure
Contact: Christopher Nichols
For most of the past century, the coal supply chain has provided American consumers with a reliable, flexible and low-cost option for meeting their fuel needs. As the Nation's energy market evolves over the next century, it is certain that the coal supply infrastructure will continue to play a pivotal role in this development. This report provides an overview of characteristics of U.S. coal, its production, transportation and utilization at power plants.
Technical Workshop Report: Improving the Thermal Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States
Contact: Chris Nichols
NETL hosted an industry workshop on February 25-26, 2010, in Baltimore, MD to identify opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. The workshop built on a previous meeting held on July 15-16, 2009, in Chicago, IL, and brought together 53 leading industry experts, utility owners and operators, equipment vendors, energy consultants, power industry associations, and research organizations to: (1) explore technical opportunities to improve the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired power plants; (2) identify the barriers and challenges that inhibit implementation of these opportunities; and (3) identify specific initiatives that can substantially increase efficiency across the fleet.
Interagency Workgroup on Life Cycle GHG Emissions of Alternative Aviation Fuels
This presentation covers efforts to examine life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of alternative aviation fuels, as led by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory with the support of a multi-disciplinary group of federal, industrial, academic institutions. The primary objective of the workgroup is to develop a set of standard guidance on how to evaluate the life cycle GHG footprint of various alternative jet fuel production pathways using a wide-range of feedstock sources. Application of the guidelines can be used by fuel suppliers, military, and commercial airlines to assess the environmental preferability of a specific fuel production pathway when compared to conventional jet fuel. Workgroup activity status and plans for testing on specific case studies are also discussed.
A Presentation on Improving Coal Power Plant Efficiency as means for Reducing GHG Emissions given at the Great Plains Energy Expo, Nov. 2009
This presentation discusses NETL's evaluation of opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency as a way to provide near term greenhouse gas emission reductions, as presented at the Great Plains Energy Expo on November 9, 2009. It outlines analysis methods and anticipated benefits as well as identifies potential barriers, realistic targets and costs. North Dakota coal-fired power plants are also examined and compared.
A Presentation on CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery given to the China National Petroleum Corporation, October 2009
This presentation discusses NETL's assessment of opportunities to use carbon dioxide to enhance oil recovery in the United States, as presented at the China National Petroleum Corporation workshop on CO2 EOR and Storage in Beijing, China on October 26, 2009. It discusses efforts to quantify the amount of crude oil amenable to CO2 EOR, estimates CO2 sequestration levels, and identifies current modeling efforts as well as outlines economic and environmental benefits. Basin-level data, analysis methods and recovery estimates are also presented.
Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool
The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full report and serves as an electronic desk reference for quickly obtaining plant cost and performance data and for comparing and contrasting several technologies. Performance, emissions, and cost data presented include: net and gross output, heat rate, efficiency, water use, SO2, NOx, CO2, PM, and Hg emissions, total plant cost and levelized cost of electricity. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
Literature Review Of Employment Impact Studies Of Power Generation Technologies
This study identifies and reviews relevant reports and articles in the existing body of literature on employment impacts and job creation statistics relating to power generation technologies. This study provides a rigorous analytical review of five down-selected studies and broad overviews of several other relevant employment impact reports.
U.S. Electricity Market View Interactive Tool
This interactive tool shows U.S. electric capacity and generation by prime mover and primary fuel categories for each of the ten NERC regions.
U.S. Capacity Margin Analysis Model
This interactive tool models U.S. electric capacity margins for eight NERC regions. Users can change the plant construction probability of currently proposed capacity and the availability of each fuel mix. User inputs are compared to NERC's 2008 capacity margin forecasts. This tool can be used to look at various "what if" scenarios.
An Investigation into California's Residential Electricity Consumption
This paper investigates apparent discrepancies in electricity usage between the state of California and the rest of the United States. Since 1970, electricity consumption per person (ECP) in California has grown slowly, while ECP in the United States has increased approximately 50 percent. The goals of this paper are to examine characteristics of U.S. electricity consumption over time, create models to estimate the difference between California and U.S. household electricity consumption after accounting for relevant variables, and develop a model to test whether factors affecting California's electricity consumption is the same as the rest of the United States.
Update of Regulatory Activity Impacting Coal-Fired Power Plants
This presentation evaluates recent regulatory initiatives that could have an impact on new and existing coal-fired power plants. The relevant regulations are identified, along with possible compliance strategies. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."
Extending the CCS Retrofit Market by Refurbishing Coal Fired Power Plants
This report provides documentation and demonstration of a NEMS based modeling methodology to endogenously forecast trends in the refurbishment and retrofitting of coal fired power plants for carbon capture and sequestration, with special reference to the impact of NETL R&D programs.
Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Performance and Cost Assessment
An analysis of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from two integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants that use solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to convert syngas to electricity. Results show that the fuel cell system is more expensive than a combustion turbine but that expense is counterbalanced by the decrease in the unit cost of upstream equipment due to the higher IGFC system efficiency. Furthermore, the fuel cell platform offers nearly 100% CO2 capture.
DOE NETL's Carbon Capture R&D Program for Existing Coal Fired Power Plants
A review and assessment of the DOE research and development (R&D) program directed specifically at post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies that can be retrofit to existing coal-fired power plants, and designed into new plants. The strategic plan for this program includes the development of advanced CO2 capture and compression technologies for both existing and new coal-fired power plants that, when combined, can achieve 90 percent CO2 capture at less than a 35 percent increase in cost of electricity (COE). Such technologies could then be available for commercial use by 2020.
Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass
Contact: Thomas J. Tarka
This study evaluates the use of domestic resources to meet national objectives of energy security, economic sustainability, and the mitigation of global climate change. Specifically, feasibility of these objectives is reviewed relevant to the transportation sector's needs and the unconventional fuels by which this sector can operate. The findings of the report indictate that CTL fuel is compatible with our current fuel distribution infrastructure, can be used directly in existing diesel vehicles, and would be economically competitive with petroleum-derived diesel when the crude oil price (COP) is equal to or above $86 per barrel (bbl).
Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations
This document was developed for regulatory organizations, project developers, and policymakers to increase awareness of existing and developing monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) techniques applied in geological sequestration sites for carbon dioxide. The contents discuss the principle goals of MVA and the effective techniques by which it is practiced. The report also provides case studies of domestic and international research sites.
EPACT Project: Valuing Domestically Produced Natural Gas and Oil
This document describes the methodology for development of the Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Production spreadsheet tool.
Economic Impacts of Increased Domestic Oil and Gas Production
Spreadsheet based tool uses input output modeling methods to estimate the regional and national economic impacts of domestic production of crude oil and natural gas versus imports. Assesses the application of advanced exploration and technology to the Marcellus Shale, the Bakken Shale, the Barnett Shale and other plays of interest.
Assessing Future Supply Curves for Coal In Light Of Economic, Technological and Environmental Uncertainties
This study provides an analysis of the costs to continue mining in the U.S., as well as discussion of supply availability and environmental costs. Understanding these costs requires an understanding of unit operations timing, individual mine plans, productivity and costs; more detailed and thorough measurements of coal reserves; and a better understanding of coal mining's interaction with the surrounding ecosystem.
2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada
This document presents an overview of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies and comments on the government-level efforts in CCS including the development of the National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB). Several maps showing the number, location, and magnitude of identified CO2 stationary sources in the U.S. and portions of Canada demonstrate the extent of CO2 storage available. Finally, a review of field projects and findings are presented, describing commercial opportunities of storing CO2 from stationary sources.
Current and Future IGCC Technologies: A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R and D Using Bituminous Coal - Volume 1
The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations (without carbon capture and sequestration) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's limited set of fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process alone, the study estimates that an 11 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements upwards of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Capital cost reductions result not only from less expensive technology alternatives such as warm gas cleanup and ITM air separation, but also from increased power generation brought about by advanced technology such as syngas turbines, resulting in cumulative total plant cost reductions by as much as $700/kW. Improvements in process efficiency, reductions in capital and operating expense, and increase in capacity factor all contribute to decreased cost of electricity (COE), projecting an overall decrease by more than 3 cents/kW-hr, or a decrease of 35 percent.
Current and Future IGCC Technologies: A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R and D Using Bituminous Coal Volume 1 Presentation
This presentation summarizes Volume 1 of the Advanced Power Systems Pathway Study. It was presented at the 2008 Pittsburgh Coal Conference.
Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units
DOE provided the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) with a list of steam generation units that would be required to retrofit with cooling towers. DOE requested NERC to model the reliability impacts of the cooling tower mandate using certain assumptions. In its white paper, NERC concludes that once the deadline for the cooling tower retrofits has passed, the generation losses resulting from the requirement would exacerbate a potential decline in electric generation reserve margins that are needed to ensure reliable delivery of electricity. Nuclear plants would be particularly impacted by a cooling tower mandate.
Multi-Seam Well Completion Technology Implications for Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Production: 2008 Update
This study shows that MSC Technology can appreciably improve the outlook for CBM development in the Powder River Basin, by improving reserves-per-well and reducing environmental impact. The challenge is to capture the lessons learned from successes, treat new wells / reservoirs as unique and to utilize different completion technologies as needed, such as slotted liners, to maximize success.
Water Requirements for Existing and Emerging Thermoelectric Plant Technologies
This study provides both water consumption and cooling duty factors for Nuclear, PC (Subcritical and Supercritical), IGCC, and NGCC power plants. Data is provided for both CO2 capture and no CO2 capture configurations of each type of plant.
Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects
This analysis develops a set of market validated financial assumptions, including the required internal rate of return for the equity portion of the investment (IRROE), cost of debt, and the financing structure (debt/equity ratio) needed to conduct comparative economic analyses of commercial and advanced coal-based power and fuel systems. These inputs are necessary to perform technical and economic analyses of coal-to-power, coal-to-liquids (CTL), coal-to-synthetic natural gas (CTG), natural gas to liquids (GTL) and natural gas to power technologies.
Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide
This document describes the methodologies used to produce the geologic resource estimates for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in the 2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada (Atlas II). The methodologies described in this document were designed to integrate results of data compiled by the seven RCSPs for three types of geologic formations: saline formations, unmineable coal seams, and oil and gas reservoirs.
An Update on DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology
This paper focuses on results from the Phase II mercury (Hg) control technology field testing program funded by DOE Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program with the data segregated by technology. In addition, the results of NETL's economic analysis of Hg control via activated carbon injection (ACI) are presented, along with a discussion of potential coal utilization by-product (CUB) impacts. Preliminary results from NETL's Phase III Hg field testing program are also presented.
Market Analysis of Emerging Electric Energy Storage Systems
This project investigates the economics of two emerging electric energy storage (EES) technologies: sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries and flywheels in the NYISO electricity markets and the PJM Interconnection (PJM). The analysis indicates that for the base case scenario there is over a 98% probability that a NaS battery will have a negative Net Present Value (NPV) in both NYISO and PJM; whereas flywheel systems show a 100% probability of positive NPV. Current policies allow emerging EES technologies to participate in energy markets for capturing energy arbitrage opportunities, but regulatory changes can reduce financial and regulatory uncertainty for EES.
An Engineering-Economic Analysis
This investigation examines whether an IGCC facility that operates its gasifier continuously but stores the syngas and produces electricity only when daily prices are high may be more profitable than an IGCC facility with no syngas storage. The goal of this study is to generate an initial examination of whether storing syngas can increase the profitability of IGCC plants, rather than to perform a plant design.
CARBEN Wedge-based Spreadsheet Tool for Analyzing U.S. GHG Emissions Scenarios
CarBen is a tool for determining the reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sector based on user-supplied changes to the baseline such as electricity supply options, transportation sector fuel demand and fuel use, non-CO2 GHG emission abatement, carbon pricing, and international offsets.
DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: Preliminary Economic Analysis of Wet FGD Co Benefit Enhancement Technologies
This report provides "study-level" cost estimates for two technologies designed to promote Hg0 oxidation and enhance wet FGD Hg capture: fixed-bed Hg0 oxidation catalysts, and coal treatment with a calcium bromide (CaBr2) solution. The economics were developed for "representative" 500 megawatt (MW) units burning three types of low-rank coal: North Dakota (ND) lignite, Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous, and a blend of 50% Texas lignite (TxL) and 50% PRB subbituminous coals, where each unit is assumed to be equipped with a large cold-side electrostatic precipitator (CS-ESP) for particulate control and a wet FGD system for SO2 and Hg2+ co-removal.
Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume III: Consumer and Producer Surplus Effects
This volume discusses a methodology that was devised to estimate net benefits from standard National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) output.
An Integrated Modeling Framework for Carbon Management Technologies
A factsheet on the need for modeling and assessment tools that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) methods. A tool modeling tool was developed at Carnegie Mellon University: The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). This model compares the economic costs of projects relevant to characteristics of plants implementing them, and determines the optimal CCS application.
Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume 1: Adding PC Retrofits to NEMS - Initial Testing
An integrated analysis was undertaken using a generic model of retrofit costs as a function of basic plant characteristics (such as heat rate) in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Modifications to NEMS were made to determine tradeoffs between retrofit, retirement, and the purchase of emission allowances.
Further Investigation of the Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon
To gain a more complete understanding of the impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon, continuous mercury concentration measurements were made downstream of a packed sorbent bed. The results indicate that high S6+ content limits both the 6-h capacity of activated carbon and the initial mercury removal efficiency. Findings suggest that there are multiple available sites for mercury interaction with the sorbent surface and that capture and oxidation occur at different surface sites.
The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase
This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. Successful achievements of the Characterization Phase are first presented. The seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) will then perform field tests that will validate carbon sequestration technologies that are best suited to their respective regions of the country during the Validation Phase.
Gasification World Database 2007: Current Industry Status
This report provides an update on the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) world gasification database. The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed profile of current operating gasification plants and new construction plans projected for completion between 2008 and 2010. The information on each plant includes performance projections and regional capacity characteristics. The report also documents trends and drivers excepted to have an effect on the growth of the gasification industry, such as research and development, regulatory policy, and economic factors.
The Benefits of SOFC for Coal-Based Power Generation
This report addresses what impact SECA fuel cells will have on the cost, efficiency, and environmental performance of advanced coal power plants. To approach this question, a number of systems analyses were conducted to determine the benefits of SOFC systems integrated with coal gasification. The analyses underlying this study include detailed system assessment, analyses of SOFC module costs, as well as recent system tests of SOFC stacks under development in the Department's SECA program.
Attaining Energy Security in Liquid Fuels Through Diverse U.S. Energy Alternatives
This analysis posits the existence of a third, moderate-import position option that would enable the United States to achieve a much higher level of energy self-sufficiency without total market withdrawal. This middle ground is referred to as "advantageous interdependence." This analysis does not make specific recommendations for policy in support of any domestic energy alternatives or make budget recommendations for the research and development necessary to develop their associated technologies. Rather it presents the available alternative decision pathways and discusses the implications that analysis of each outcome implies.
Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Studies- Healy Coal-to-Liquids Plant
This study evaluates the feasibility of building a relatively small coal-to-liquids plant in central Alaska to provide a clean diesel product to Alaska's refineries. The study concludes that the establishment of a 14,640 barrel per day F-T plant, using 4 million tons per year of coal, could be economic provided the price per barrel of the F-T product is at least $64 per barrel.
Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study
The objective of this study is to prepare a source of information from which valid comparisons can be made for the water loss between the various fossil fuel power plants such as IGCC, PC , and NGCC. This report serves as a tool for reviewing design assumptions, technology capabilities, system performance, etc. and identifying areas where new technology approaches or gasifier designs could lead to substantially lower water requirements.
NETL's 2005 Coal Power Plant Database
The NETL 2005 Coal Power Plant Database consolidates large quantities of information on coal-fired power plants in a single location. The database contains 191 fields and provides information on over 1,700 boilers and associated units. General fields in the database contain location, fuel, emissions, generation, cooling, and firing information for coal power units in the United States. The information is largely based off of the most recent release of the Annual Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design data form, Energy Information Agency (EIA) Form 767 database report, available at the time of the update. The update took place in 2007 and the majority of the data used came from the 2005 release of EIA's Form 767 database report. Since then, Form 767 has been discontinued. Similar data that is more current can be found in the EIA-923 and 860 Database Annual Electric Generator Reports. NOTE: Click here for access to the database.
FY06 Benefits Assumptions
This report describes the methodology and assumptions used to determine inputs for the determination of FE R&D benefits using the NEMS model.
Mercury Capture and Fate Using Wet FGD at Coal-Fired Power Plants
This paper provides an assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory research and development efforts to optimize mercury capture in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and characterize the fate of mercury in the resultant by-products. The first portion of the paper provides background information on regulatory drivers relative air pollution control technologies. The second section addresses the mercury and coal utilization by-products research areas and provides details on related projects.
Examining Technology Scenarios for Achieving Stabilization of GHG Concentrations: A U.S. Perspective
The purpose of this presentation is to build a U.S. emissions scenario consistent with stabilization of greenhouse (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The study utilizes CarBen modeling system to compare situational scenarios under which GHG emissions may be controlled. The discussion also reviews market and policy-based strategies to provide incentives for GHG emission abatement.
Highlights of FY2005 FE R and D Benefit Analysis
This report describes the methodology and summarizes the results for quantifying the benefits of FE R&D programs using the NEMS model for a variety of hypothetical future domestic energy scenarios.
Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective
This study addresses concerns on the peaking of conventional oil production. These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. The model assesses the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Results indicate a high probability of peaking or constrained conventional oil production before 2025.
Marginal Wells: Contribution to Future Supply
A factsheet reviewing the contributions of marginal or stripper wells in response to U.S. crude oil and natural gas demand. Marginal natural gas wells produce 60 thousand cubic feet per day (Mcf/d) or less. Yet, marginal wells accounted for about 11% of natural gas production in the contiguous states, and the analysis of this review indicates that the volume will continue to increase.
Mature Region, Youthful Potential: Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Appalachian and Illinois Basins
This document discusses the optimal use of domestic fossil fuel resources, focusing specifically on two regions with coal supply: Appalachian and Illinois Basins. This report reviews the technical and infrastructure challenges to rejuvenating these coal supply sources. The report further provides regulatory suggestions to optimizing the utilization of these regions while minimizing environmental impacts.
Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts
This document reports on the current status of domestic natural gas production and imports as they related to rising demands. The document discusses how the existing infrastructure can handle projected capacity needs and presents discussions on improving a global LNG market system to meet the expected demands.
Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview of the Issues for State Public Utility Commissions
This white paper presents an overview of the major issues related to the import and use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a reliable energy source. The report focuses on the modes of maintaining a strong LNG supply, including: The Role of Public Utility Commissions, Regional Issues, Economics and Contracting, and Environmental Impacts. The report concludes by suggesting guidelines for state PUCs considering LNG expansion.
Highlights of FY2004 FE R and D Benefit Analysis
This brochure describes the methodology and summarizes the results for quantifying the benefits of FE R&D programs using the NEMS model for a variety of hypothetical future domestic energy scenarios.
Coalbed Natural Gas Coalbed Methane
A factsheet discussing the increasing role of coalbed methane or "CBM" as part of the national energy portfolio. CBM production has increased during the last 15 years and now accounts for about 1/12th of the U.S. natural gas production. The document also summarizes potential development issues in utilizing the resource.
Oil Shale Development in the United States, Prospects and Policy Issues
This report presents an updated assessment of the viability of oil shale resources in the United States. The report describes the oil shale resources in the western United States and examines the suitability, cost, and performance of available technologies for developing these resources. Other topics include energy, environmental, land-use, and socio-economic policy issues that must be addressed by government decision makers in the future.
A Primer on Perceptions of Risk, Risk Communication and Building Trust
This paper provides outreach and education information for carbon sequestration activities. The paper addresses communication methods for discussing potential risks and benefits of geologic carbon sequestration to the public. The document also presents effective diagnostic tools to help practitioners identify problems, communicate effectively, and engage the public.
Coal-to-Power and Coal-to-Liquid Fuels Technologies Used in a Technoeconomic Study of the Hydrogen Economy
The purpose of this presentation is to review the executive goals of 2005 to make progress on a hydrogen economy that will reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Using NEMS runs and extrapolation of future trends, the presentation discusses on-going trends in carbon emissions and fuel consumption by each economic sector. Additional runs are developed to demonstrate how these projections change should the executive goals be successfully implemented in the future.
Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass Industry: A Scoping Analysis
The objective of this study is to explore the economic viability of producing coal-derived fuel gases for use in the glass manufacturing industry as an alternative to natural gas. In this study small-size gasification systems that suffer adversely from economics of scale were not considered. Instead, full-scale commercial gasification systems were analyzed that could produce enough fuel gas and electric power for several manufacturing plants. The possibility exists to gather a number of large manufacturers in a geographically centralized location in an Industrial Gasification Island (IGI) complex so that a central coal gasification plant could economically provide fuel and power to all of these industries.
Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies: Final Report
This study reviews the market potential for a typical coal-based IGCC technology in the U.S. from 2004 to 2025. It identifies a number of recommendations designed to enhance IGCC market penetration opportunities given the uncertainties of the future. The study is based upon the latest views and data from experts in the industry. The study provides detailed economic and financial modeling/analyses of recent relevant investment decisions. Several future scenarios are assessed using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).
Deploying IGCC in this Decade with 3Party Covenant Financing: Volume I
Volume I describes IGCC technology, and its importance as an advanced clean coal technology for generating electricity. This report reviews the near-term deployment challenges and present the 3Party Covenant financing and regulatory program as a means of stimulating IGCC economic competitiveness.
Deploying IGCC in this Decade with 3Party Covenant Financing: Volume II
Volume II provides a detailed legal analysis of the federal and state regulatory mechanisms for implementing the 3Party Covenant. This includes a review of traditional electric utility regulatory systems and the regulatory systems in 5 specific states. Finally, the report concludes with a model regulatory mechanism that can be used to review and approve IGCC projects under the 3Party Covenant.
Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet 2025 Electricity Generating Capacity Forecasts
An analysis estimating the impact of thermoelectric power plants on freshwater resources through 2025. Using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2004 Annual Energy Outlook's reference case forecast for electricity generating capacity, future freshwater requirements for both total and coal-based thermoelectric generation were estimated. These results are compared to historical water use by the power sector.
Sequestration in the Media: Changes in Public Perception
The purpose of this presentation is to review carbon sequestration literature and historical record of the topic's discussion in the media. Using the reference concentrations and topic discussions as data points, this analysis quantifies trends, themes, and areas of emphasis within the carbon sequestration research community.
An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives-Appendices
Appendices in support of: "An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives, 2004."
An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives
This report discusses the institutional challenges to the rapid commercialization and deployment of coal gasification technologies in the U.S. The document also provides recommendations for overcoming each challenge. Focus is on Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology and recommended policies to aid in the advancement of the technology.
The Convergence of Environmental Issues from Ecosystem Impacts to Technology Solutions
This paper discusses the need for foresight and long-term planning goals in complex systems; specifically electricity generation systems. The paper provides an overview of complex systems and the need for adaptivity. This report also presents specific examples of how, in electricity generation systems, planners can take advantage of complexities and manage multiple problems with one solution.