Energy Analysis

Analysis of Natural Gas-to-Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This study models a GTL system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. Specifically, the system produces 15,460 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline and 34,543 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The study provides an updated evaluation of cost, technical, and environmental performance. With an estimated total as-spent capital cost of 4.3 billion dollars (3.7 – 5.6 billion dollars) or $86,188 ($73,260 - $112,045) per bbl of daily production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, such a facility would be commercially viable should the market conditions (liquid fuel and natural gas prices) remain as favorable or better throughout the life of the project than during the middle of May 2013. The life cycle GHG emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline when based on current practices in the natural gas industry are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. If the natural gas extraction and processing sector complies with NSPS, the upstream GHG emissions from natural gas are reduced by 23 percent. The key challenges of GTL are the risk associated with varying gas and product prices, the lack of sustained effort in its development, and its high capital costs. A robust research and development program, besides driving capital cost reductions, can serve the role of sustaining the deep knowledge base in GTL.


Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Factsheet

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Report

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 1: IGCC

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in a dry-fed, entrained-flow gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: John G. Wimer

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


Impact of Load Following on Power Plant Cost and Performance

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: James Black

This study performed a review of the public literature and interviewed industry experts to determine the impact on cost and performance of forcing fossil fuel power plants without and with carbon capture to load follow in response to changes in demand or output from renewable power generation sources. There is some information to quantify the impact of load following on NGCC and PC plants without capture, however there is little information either experimental data or theoretical analysis on the impact on IGCC, oxycombustion, or any plants with carbon capture from load following.


Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


LCA XII Presentation: Modeling the Uncertainty of Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Life Cycle Inventories with Monte Carlo Situation

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This presentation discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainty in a life cycle inventory of the gasification of coal and biomass. While the inventory is dominated by carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of the fuel, small changes to the feedstocks that are used to make the fuel can make the difference in complying with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.


Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact

Date: 05/2012

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

The conversion of domestic resources such as coal and biomass into diesel fuel is a near-term technology pathway to address the energy security, economic sustainability, and climate change concerns which currently face our nation. This study evaluates the economic viability and environmental impact of producing diesel fuel via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Two facility design approaches – focused on fuels production and the co-production of fuels and electricity, respectively – were evaluated for the conversion of domestic resources such as coal or a mixture of coal and biomass.


QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.


Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 01/2012

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.


Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers

In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.


Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Kristen J. Gerdes

This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia

Date: 07/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The design and cost bases for this pathway study closely follows the bases applied in the NETL, 2010, Bituminous Baseline report so that direct performance and cost comparisons can be made with the conventional fossil-fuel power plant results estimated in that report. Performance and cost projections for a baseline integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, a baseline natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant, and prior coal-based integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) pathways, are compared with the results for the NGFC pathways. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Plant Configurations

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Walter Shelton

This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology. The IGFC plants in this study apply advanced, planar, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology with separate anode and cathode off-gas steams, and incorporate anode off-gas oxy-combustion for nearly complete carbon capture. The SOFC simulations utilize the expected operating conditions and performance capabilities of this solid oxide fuel cell technology, operating initially at atmospheric-pressure. The power plant cost and performance estimates reflect performance projections based on the current state of SOFC development, as well as projecting a pathway of SOFC technology development advances.


QGESS: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance

Date: 04/2011

            Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers

This paper summarizes the cost estimation methodology employed by NETL in its assessment of power plant performance. A clear understanding of the methodology used is essential for allowing different power plant technologies to be compared on a similar basis. Though these guidelines are tailored for power plants, they can also be applied to a variety of different energy conversion plants (e.g., coal to liquids, syngas generation, hydrogen). This document is part of the Office of Program Planning and Analysis’s Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant

Date: 12/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 11/2010

            Contact: James Black

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle, pulverized coal, and natural gas combined cycle plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Robert James

Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.


Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Domestic Coal: Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Kristen J. Gerdes

This report assesses the improvements in cost and performance of hydrogen production from domestic coal (with carbon capture) when employing emerging technologies funded by DOE. This analysis specifically evaluates replacing conventional gas cleanup and hydrogen separation with warm gas cleanup and a high temperature membrane.


Model: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model, Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). Accompanying report, including model documentation and scenario analysis, is available for download here.


Advanced Coal Power Market Penetration under Carbon Taxation

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

This presentation provides an NETL exercise of the NEMS AEO2009 ARRA version to model benefits of advanced coal R&D.


Model Documentation: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This paper summarizes the structure and methodology used in the AltSim model, presents results for selected scenarios, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis of those results. The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels, including corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas, coal, and coal with biomass. This model is available for download here.


Investment Decisions for Baseload Power Plants

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Anthony Zammerilli

This report, prepared by ICF International, provides an identification and discussion of factors considered for investment decisions for base load power generation in the U.S.(for example levelized cost of electricity, design and construction lag, fuel cost and variability, technology performance risk, initial capital outlay, water use, future cost of carbon emissions) and discusses their relative importance in investment decisions. There is a detailed discussion on current and advanced power plant technologies, including ultra-supercritical coal power, coal power with carbon dioxide capture and storage, and nuclear power. In addition, there is a detailed description and analysis of two case studies from actual power plant projects to substantiate the identified objective functions from the above items.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0) determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). An accompanying report (also available for download on the NETL website) describes model layout and function. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0, available for download here, determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


The Potential of Advanced Technologies to Reduce IGCC Carbon Capture Costs

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. This was presented at the Oct 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference (GTC) and is a companion presentation to the final report, "Current and Future Technologies for Gasfication-Based Power Generation, Volume 2" (Nov 2009).


Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool

Date: 10/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full report and serves as an electronic desk reference for quickly obtaining plant cost and performance data and for comparing and contrasting several technologies. Performance, emissions, and cost data presented include: net and gross output, heat rate, efficiency, water use, SO2, NOx, CO2, PM, and Hg emissions, total plant cost and levelized cost of electricity. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Evaluation of Alternate Water Gas Shift Configurations for IGCC Systems

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

This report investigates the cost and performance effects of a range of carbon capture goals, by varying the amount of CO converted to CO2 in the water gas shift step of an IGCC plant.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2009 Update

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2009 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Assessment of Power Plants That Meet Proposed Greenhouse Gas Emission Performance Standards

Date: 05/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

Technoeconomic assessment of western U.S. coal-fired power plants (greenfield IGCC and supercritical PC, and existing subcritical PC) each with three CO2 capture levels: 0%, 90%, and a level appropriate to meet California's standard of 1,100 lb CO2/MWh.


Balancing Climate Change, Energy Security, and Economic Sustainability: A Life Cycle Comparison of Diesel Fuel from Crude Oil and Domestic Coal and Biomass Resources

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Brief 4-page summary of the near-term benefits of co-gasifying U.S. coal and biomass resources to produce FT diesel; a domestic transportation fuel. The paper summarizes the climate change, energy security, and economic benefits when compared to conventional diesel fuel production from domestic and imported crude oil.


Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Performance and Cost Assessment

Date: 03/2009

            Contact: Chris Nichols

An analysis of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from two integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants that use solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to convert syngas to electricity. Results show that the fuel cell system is more expensive than a combustion turbine but that expense is counterbalanced by the decrease in the unit cost of upstream equipment due to the higher IGFC system efficiency. Furthermore, the fuel cell platform offers nearly 100% CO2 capture.


Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

This study evaluates the use of domestic resources to meet national objectives of energy security, economic sustainability, and the mitigation of global climate change. Specifically, feasibility of these objectives is reviewed relevant to the transportation sector's needs and the unconventional fuels by which this sector can operate. The findings of the report indictate that CTL fuel is compatible with our current fuel distribution infrastructure, can be used directly in existing diesel vehicles, and would be economically competitive with petroleum-derived diesel when the crude oil price (COP) is equal to or above $86 per barrel (bbl).


Current and Future IGCC Technologies: A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R and D Using Bituminous Coal - Volume 1

Date: 10/2008

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations (without carbon capture and sequestration) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's limited set of fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process alone, the study estimates that an 11 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements upwards of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Capital cost reductions result not only from less expensive technology alternatives such as warm gas cleanup and ITM air separation, but also from increased power generation brought about by advanced technology such as syngas turbines, resulting in cumulative total plant cost reductions by as much as $700/kW. Improvements in process efficiency, reductions in capital and operating expense, and increase in capacity factor all contribute to decreased cost of electricity (COE), projecting an overall decrease by more than 3 cents/kW-hr, or a decrease of 35 percent.


Current and Future IGCC Technologies: A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R and D Using Bituminous Coal Volume 1 Presentation

Date: 10/2008

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation summarizes Volume 1 of the Advanced Power Systems Pathway Study. It was presented at the 2008 Pittsburgh Coal Conference.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2008 Update

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2008 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


Impact of Cost Escalation on Power Systems R and D Goals - Report

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report recommends updates to goals for three technology areas in the Clean Coal R&D Program: Advanced Power Systems (APS); Carbon Sequestration (CS); and Fuel Cells (FC) to account for cost escalation, and it contains a definition of the baseline used to set these goals.


Impact of Cost Escalation on Power System R and D Goals - Presentation

Date: 09/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This companion presentation summarizes the report which recommends updates to goals for three technology areas in the Clean Coal R&D Program: Advanced Power Systems (APS); Carbon Sequestration (CS); and Fuel Cells (FC) to account for cost escalation, and it contains a definition of the baseline used to set these goals.


An Engineering-Economic Analysis

Date: 07/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This investigation examines whether an IGCC facility that operates its gasifier continuously but stores the syngas and produces electricity only when daily prices are high may be more profitable than an IGCC facility with no syngas storage. The goal of this study is to generate an initial examination of whether storing syngas can increase the profitability of IGCC plants, rather than to perform a plant design.


Advanced Syngas Conversion Technologies COE Tool Documentation

Date: 06/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This document describes the methodology for development of the IGFC COE spreadsheet tool.


Advanced Syngas Conversion Technologies COE Tool

Date: 06/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This spreadsheet calculates the levelized cost of electricity for fuel cell systems that are integrated with gasification; costs are scaled from recent NETL coal-based power plant cost estimates.


Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume III: Consumer and Producer Surplus Effects

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This volume discusses a methodology that was devised to estimate net benefits from standard National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) output.


Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume II: Adding PC Repowering to NEMS, Integrated Assessments

Date: 01/2008

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study envisions repowering by means of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology configured for capture and sequestration (CCS). Cost and performance factors were added to the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for a brownfield setting, wherein the site's ancillary equipment and infrastructure is used, but not its existing steam turbine.


Chemical-Looping Process in a Coal-to-Liquids Configuration

Date: 12/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report presents an assessment of the potential of chemical looping in the context of a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant. This analysis-of-concept report was intended to confirm that the thermo chemical operations were in heat balance at temperatures compatible with an operable system. The analysis also included simulations of an entire coal to F-T liquids process, including the proposed looping scheme. The specific method tested in this report is a chemical looping concept that uses iron oxide (Fe2O3) to react with the unreacted synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and light hydrocarbons in the effluent tail gas from an F-T reactor.


The Benefits of SOFC for Coal-Based Power Generation

Date: 10/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report addresses what impact SECA fuel cells will have on the cost, efficiency, and environmental performance of advanced coal power plants. To approach this question, a number of systems analyses were conducted to determine the benefits of SOFC systems integrated with coal gasification. The analyses underlying this study include detailed system assessment, analyses of SOFC module costs, as well as recent system tests of SOFC stacks under development in the Department's SECA program.


Gasification World Database 2007: Current Industry Status

Date: 10/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report provides an update on the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) world gasification database. The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed profile of current operating gasification plants and new construction plans projected for completion between 2008 and 2010. The information on each plant includes performance projections and regional capacity characteristics. The report also documents trends and drivers excepted to have an effect on the growth of the gasification industry, such as research and development, regulatory policy, and economic factors.


Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Studies- Healy Coal-to-Liquids Plant

Date: 07/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This study evaluates the feasibility of building a relatively small coal-to-liquids plant in central Alaska to provide a clean diesel product to Alaska's refineries. The study concludes that the establishment of a 14,640 barrel per day F-T plant, using 4 million tons per year of coal, could be economic provided the price per barrel of the F-T product is at least $64 per barrel.


Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study

Date: 05/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The objective of this study is to prepare a source of information from which valid comparisons can be made for the water loss between the various fossil fuel power plants such as IGCC, PC , and NGCC. This report serves as a tool for reviewing design assumptions, technology capabilities, system performance, etc. and identifying areas where new technology approaches or gasifier designs could lead to substantially lower water requirements.


Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants: Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

Date: 05/2007

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This reference contains brief summaries of each of the 12 power plant configurations that were analyzed in Volume 1 of the Cost and Performance Baseline Study, an independent assessment of the cost and performance of fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pulverized coal (PC), and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.


Baseline Technical and Economic Assessment of a Commercial Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facility

Date: 04/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a commercial 50,000 barrel per day (bbl/day) coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility in the Illinois coal basin. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from medium-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.


Industrial Size Gasification for Syngas, Substitute Natural Gas and Power Production

Date: 04/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the technical and economic viability of coal-derived syngas and substitute natural gas (SNG) refueling of U.S. industries. The study develops an energy demand profile and identifies fuel sources to meet these demands. The study then develops a conceptual design and cost estimates for the production of syngas from coal gasification, production of SNG, and combustion turbine combined cycle refueling with syngas and SNG.


Technical and Economic Assessment of Small-Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facilities

Date: 02/2007

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a small-scale coal-to liquids (CTL) facility in southwestern West Virginia. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from a high-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.


Brownfield IGCCs as an Option in the National Energy Modeling System NEMS

Date: 02/2007

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report presents a methodology for calculating capital costs for a brownfield IGCC as a retrofit option for PC plants, relative to the greenfield cost. A 153 $/kW capital cost reduction was estimated for a repower IGCC compared to a greenfield facility, which compared well with other cited cost saving estimates.


Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study

Date: 07/2006

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a potential industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, local industry is investigating alternatives to natural gas as a feed stock for their process plants. This study evaluated a gasification plant that would supply syngas to meet the chemical needs of a local application and would also co-produce power to meet on-site demand, and possibly other byproducts for local use. The results of the study verified that conversion of a plant from natural gas to syngas is technically and economically feasible.


Comparison of Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne IGCC and Commercial IGCC Performance

Date: 06/2006

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This report compares the performance and cost of commercial Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants using General Electric Energy (GEE) and Shell gasifiers with conceptual IGCC plant designs using the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) compact gasifier. The PWR gasifier is also compared with the GEE gasifier in hydrogen production and carbon capture mode. With the exception of the PWR gasifier, the plants are designed with commercially available equipment to be operational in approximately 2010. All results should be considered preliminary and dictated in large part by the selected design basis.


Sorbents for Mercury Capture from Fuel Gas with Application to Gasification Systems

Date: 05/2006

            Contact:

The purpose of this paper is to review the types and performance of sorbents for mercury capture in gasification power generation units. The authors also review the capacity of many of these sorbents for elemental mercury from nitrogen. Based on their assessment, the authors provide future direction for mercury sorbent development for fuel gas applications based on the requirements by the research and development agreement between the DOE NETL and Johnson Matthey.


Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization: Task 3 Final Report

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.


Task 3 Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

Date: 05/2005

            Contact:

This study evaluates the application of Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed UGAS® gasifier at the industrial application. The first of the three subtasks in this study examines the use of the gasifier for an upstate New York industrial setting using a Southeastern Ohio coal. Both air-blown and oxygen-blown gasifier schemes are evaluated for this subtask. The next subtask of the study is to develop an advanced design for an air-blown case based on the first subtask. The third subtask of the study investigates the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota.


Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass Industry: A Scoping Analysis

Date: 12/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The objective of this study is to explore the economic viability of producing coal-derived fuel gases for use in the glass manufacturing industry as an alternative to natural gas. In this study small-size gasification systems that suffer adversely from economics of scale were not considered. Instead, full-scale commercial gasification systems were analyzed that could produce enough fuel gas and electric power for several manufacturing plants. The possibility exists to gather a number of large manufacturers in a geographically centralized location in an Industrial Gasification Island (IGI) complex so that a central coal gasification plant could economically provide fuel and power to all of these industries.


Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems

Date: 09/2004

            Contact: Peter Balash

The research in this study conducts Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). The efficiency of these two methods is reviewed under specific scenarios.


Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies

Date: 09/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This study looks at the market potential for typical coal-based IGCC technology in the U.S. from 2004 to 2025. Future scenarios are assessed using the Energy Information Administration (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The financial impacts of future technology improvements are further refined using a power pricing model. The results of this document identify market entry options and recommend methods for market sustainability.


Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies: Final Report

Date: 09/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This study reviews the market potential for a typical coal-based IGCC technology in the U.S. from 2004 to 2025. It identifies a number of recommendations designed to enhance IGCC market penetration opportunities given the uncertainties of the future. The study is based upon the latest views and data from experts in the industry. The study provides detailed economic and financial modeling/analyses of recent relevant investment decisions. Several future scenarios are assessed using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).


Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies: Appendices

Date: 09/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

A collection of Appendices for "Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies, 2004."


Deploying IGCC in this Decade with 3Party Covenant Financing: Volume I

Date: 07/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Volume I describes IGCC technology, and its importance as an advanced clean coal technology for generating electricity. This report reviews the near-term deployment challenges and present the 3Party Covenant financing and regulatory program as a means of stimulating IGCC economic competitiveness.


Deploying IGCC in this Decade with 3Party Covenant Financing: Volume II

Date: 07/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Volume II provides a detailed legal analysis of the federal and state regulatory mechanisms for implementing the 3Party Covenant. This includes a review of traditional electric utility regulatory systems and the regulatory systems in 5 specific states. Finally, the report concludes with a model regulatory mechanism that can be used to review and approve IGCC projects under the 3Party Covenant.


NETL Carbon Sequestration Program: US Perspective on CO2 Capture and Separation

Date: 04/2004

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation outlines the NETL Carbon Sequestration Program and the pre- and post-combustion technologies under which CO2 capture is proposed. The presentation also discusses the modeling and assessment tools used to evaluate the performance of each technology. The final section reviews ongoing R&D projects and highlights their progress.


An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives-Appendices

Date: 03/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

Appendices in support of: "An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives, 2004."


An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives

Date: 03/2004

            Contact: Chris Nichols

This report discusses the institutional challenges to the rapid commercialization and deployment of coal gasification technologies in the U.S. The document also provides recommendations for overcoming each challenge. Focus is on Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology and recommended policies to aid in the advancement of the technology.