Energy Analysis

Near-Term Projections of CO2 Utilization for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Date: 04/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

In 2013 a total of 113 CO2-EOR projects inject 3.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) (60 million metric tons (MMmt) per year) of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the United States.  The associated crude oil production in 2012 was 282,000 barrels per day.  Based on the increased volumes of CO2 supplies, the completion of major CO2 pipelines, and the announced new, large-scale CO2-EOR floods, production of crude oil from CO2-EOR floods is forecast to grow significantly, reaching 615,000 barrels per day from at least 124 active CO2 floods by year 2020.  While the Permian Basin remains the largest CO2-EOR oil producer, much of the growth occurs in the Gulf Coast, the Rockies, and the Mid-Continent.


Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 04/2014

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units.  The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.


Next Generation CO2 EOR

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Presentation slide deck from the CO2 Utilization Congress.  Draws on recent NETL analyses and other sources to present: (1) a primer on CO2 EOR, (2) an overview of the current status of CO2 EOR in North America, (3) a description of next generation CO2 EOR technology, and (4) an estimate of the size of the resource in the United States.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the Contiguous United States. Volume 1: Discovered Reservoirs

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Twenty-one CO2 fields in the contiguous states contain an estimated 311 Tcf of CO2 gas-initially-in-place (GIIP).  Of that, 168 Tcf (54 percent) is estimated to be accessible and technically recoverable.  The estimated economically recoverable resource (ERR) is 96.4 Tcf, based on a CO2 price of 1.06 $/mcf ($20/tonne) at the field gate.  Cumulative production to date is 18.9 Tcf, leaving 77.5 Tcf remaining or net ERR.  The Big Piney-LaBarge field in Wyoming contains an estimated net ERR of 52 Tcf, 67 percent of the total for the United States.  The remaining ERR in reservoirs that feed into the Permian Basin and Gulf Coast is on the order of 10-20 years of supply.


Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the United States. Volume II: Exploration of CO2 Systems

Date: 03/2014

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A study of the genesis and tectonic setting of subsurface CO2 systems in the United States indicates that undiscovered CO2 reservoirs could contribute materially to CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery.  Five geographic areas are estimated to contain 42 Tcf of risked technically recoverable CO2 resource (TRR).   Two lead areas near the Permian Basin, Val Verde and San Juan, contain 34 Tcf CO2 risked TRR, an amount roughly equivalent to the remaining TRR in discovered reservoirs that are currently supplying the region.  The number of lead areas studied was limited and the aggregate TRR estimates are not comprehensive.


CO2 Storage: A lecture presented at Carnegie Mellon University

Date: 02/2014

            Contact: Tim Grant

This power-point presentation provides a basic introduction to storage of captured CO2, modeling parameters driving costs modeled by the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, associated Class VI regulations and supporting illustrations from some Class VI permit applications.


Understanding the Life Cycle Environmental Footprint of the Natural Gas Value Chain

Date: 02/2014

            Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.

This is a presentation given to the North Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), Gas Subcommittee meeting on February 9, 2014. The agenda includes the importance of understanding methane emissions from the natural gas sector, the Department of Energy Office's role in reducing methane emissions from the natural gas value chain, a primer on life cycle analysis, and understanding the life cycle environmental footprint of the natural gas value chain.


NETL Studies on the Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Power Plant Fleet

Date: 01/2014

            Contact: Kristin Gerdes

FE funds technologies applicable to both greenfield and retrofit applications for CO2 capture.  This presentation provides the highlights from various retrofit studies including: (1) Quality Guidelines on retrofit difficulty cost factors, (2) Reference PC and NGCC plants retrofitted with post-combustion capture, and (3) Extrapolation of PC retrofit study results to the entire U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet to examine the costs of capture for each unit and determines how EOR and 2nd Generation capture technologies might incentivize CO2 capture.


LCA and the U.S. Natural Gas Resource

Date: 12/2013

            Contact: Timothy J. Skone

From a life cycle perspective, baseload power is NETL's preferred basis for comparing energy sources. For fossil energy systems, the emissions from power plants account for the majority of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, focusing on the activities that precede the power plant is still necessary in order to identify near-term opportunities for GHG emission reductions. NETL's upstream natural gas model allows detailed modeling of the extraction, processing, and pipeline transmission of natural gas. This model can identify key contributors to the GHG emissions from the natural gas supply chain, and has parameters that can be used to assess opportunities for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows that current domestic natural gas extraction, processing, and pipeline technologies leak 1.2% of the methane that is extracted at the wellhead. Improved practices, such as those in the latest New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), can reduce this upstream methane leakage rate. From a life cycle perspective (1 MWh of delivered electricity), power production from natural gas has lower GHG emissions than power produced from coal. There are several methods and technology combinations that can be used for determining how high the upstream natural gas methane leakage rate has to be in order for the life cycle GHG emissions from natural gas power to equal those from coal power. Ongoing research is developing data that will improve the accuracy of NETL's upstream natural gas model.


Using Life Cycle Analysis to Inform Energy Policy

Date: 12/2013

            Contact: Timothy J. Skone

NETL uses LCA to understand the environmental burdens of energy systems and to inform policy makers. LCA is well suited for energy analysis, but its answers can change depending on what questions are being asked. NETL approaches all LCAs using a consistent method, which ensures comparability among LCAs. The granularity and flexibility of NETL's models makes it possible to identify key contributors to the environmental burdens of a system, as well as the ability to understand how results can change with changes to a given input parameter. In addition to understanding the attributes of a given energy technology, NETL can also perform consequential modeling that allows an understanding of how a given energy technology can affect the performance of other energy technologies. The effect of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) on conventional crude oil extraction is one example of such consequential analysis. The results of consequential analyses have more uncertainty than those for analyses that focus on the attributes of isolated systems, but the conclusions of consequential analyses provide more context for policy makers.


Analysis of Natural Gas-to-Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

This study models a GTL system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. Specifically, the system produces 15,460 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline and 34,543 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The study provides an updated evaluation of cost, technical, and environmental performance. With an estimated total as-spent capital cost of 4.3 billion dollars (3.7 – 5.6 billion dollars) or $86,188 ($73,260 - $112,045) per bbl of daily production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, such a facility would be commercially viable should the market conditions (liquid fuel and natural gas prices) remain as favorable or better throughout the life of the project than during the middle of May 2013. The life cycle GHG emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline when based on current practices in the natural gas industry are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. If the natural gas extraction and processing sector complies with NSPS, the upstream GHG emissions from natural gas are reduced by 23 percent. The key challenges of GTL are the risk associated with varying gas and product prices, the lack of sustained effort in its development, and its high capital costs. A robust research and development program, besides driving capital cost reductions, can serve the role of sustaining the deep knowledge base in GTL.


Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.


An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.


CO2 STORAGE AND UTILIZATION NEAR MINGO COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA

Date: 09/2013

            Contact: DiPietro, Phil

Six oil fields within 100 miles of the planned coal-to-liquids facility in Mingo County were found to be prospective for miscible CO2-EOR. Four of the oil fields fall along a straight line and could, in concept, be developed sequentially along a single CO2 pipeline. The total demand for purchased CO2 from these four fields is estimated to be 47 million metric tons (890 Bcf) over 20 years. Four saline formations within Mingo County could accommodate 50 million metric tons of CO2 (accounts for uncertainty and a &"buffer zone”). The combined storage capacity – EOR within 100 miles of Mingo County and saline within Mingo County – can accommodate 3 million metric tons per year of vented CO2 for over 30 years Conclusion: there is enough potential for CO2 utilization and storage that a next level of study is a reasonable course.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 06/2013

            Contact: Erik Shuster

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.


A Forecast of Crude Oil Production from Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States through 2018

Date: 03/2013

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery operations in the United States is expected to increase 64% between 2012 and 2018, from 3.3 BCFd to 5.4 BCFd. The CO2 utilization rate (URNet the amount of CO2 supplied per incremental barrel of crude oil produced) can be used to estimate crude oil production based on CO2 supply rate. Based on compiled historical data we estimate the following regional CO2 Utilization rates: Permian basin, 8,500 scf/bbl, Rocky mountain, 8,000 scf/bbl, Gulf Coast, 25,000 scf/bbl. Applying these rates to the regional forecast for CO2 supply we forecast production from CO2 EOR in the United States in 2018 will be 500,000 bpd.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 1: IGCC

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in a dry-fed, entrained-flow gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 2: PC Plants

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in greenfield Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.


Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants

Date: 02/2013

            Contact: John G. Wimer

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.


North American CO2 Supply and Developments

Date: 01/2013

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil.  The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region.  Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.


LCA XII Presentation: From Unit Processes to Completed LCAs: NETL Life Cycle Analysis Library

Date: 10/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This poster describes what the DOE National Energy Technology (NETL) unit process library is, how the unit processes are used in NETL life cycle analyses, and how to access it.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 09/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment Brief

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.


Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 08/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.


Environmental Retrofit Tracking

Date: 07/2012

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.


Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment

Date: 06/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.


Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide

Date: 05/2012

            Contact: Justin Adder

Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.


Advancing Oxycombustion Technology for Bituminous Coal Power Plants: An R&D Guide

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is funding research aimed at improving the performance and reducing the cost of oxycombustion. The objective of this study is to guide oxycombustion research in areas that can provide the largest benefits in electricity cost and plant performance. The advanced oxycombustion technologies evaluated in this study are categorized into four major areas: advanced boiler design, advanced oxygen production, advanced flue gas treatment, and innovative CO2 compression concepts.


Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

Date: 04/2012

            Contact: Robert Stevens

The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of ≤ 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture.


QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.


Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.


QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.


QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.


QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)

Date: 03/2012

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.


Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - NAS/TRB Conference Presentation

Date: 01/2012

            Contact: Timothy Skone

NETL reports natural gas fired power production GHG emissions to be 53% lower average base load coal fired power production at National Academy of Sciences, 91st Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting in Washington, D.C. on January 25. The presentation provides an overview of NETL's greenhouse gas results for various types of natural gas, including Marcellus Shale, and compares the results for natural gas fired power production to coal fired power production. The presentation focused on understanding the variability and uncertainty in recent natural gas GHG estimates.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Model

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Report

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.


Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy

Date: 12/2011

            Contact: Ken Kern

A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, Version 2.0 (CUBE 2.0): Model and Documentation

Date: 11/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

CUBE 2.0 was designed to facilitate examination of the sources and magnitude of uncertainties in GHG emissions resulting from cultivation, preparation, and delivery of biomass feedstocks and to allow exploration of the sensitivity of net emissions to these various uncertainties. The model determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-hopper”). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing (corn grain, corn stover, switchgrass [SG], mixed prairie biomass [MPB], and hybrid poplar) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). This model is an update to the CUBE 1.0 model released in March 2010 Updates to the model include several additions and corrections to CUBE 1.0. In particular, the functionality and scope have been expanded by adding two additional feedstocks (corn stover and hybrid poplar) and by increasing the number and complexity of processing and transport choices. Major modifications are summarized in corresponding Model Documentation. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - Presentation

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Presentation details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production

Date: 10/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

Report details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.


Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits

Date: 09/2011

            Contact: Mike Matuszewski

Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.


Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Considerations

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant. The authors find that the main challenge is maintaining a consistent fuel supply; technical and regulatory factors can drive the decision to cofire; cofiring can increase costs, decrease revenue, and reduce GHG emissions; densification does not reduce plant costs but can reduce transportation costs, however current markets cannot support use of densified fuels. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR984.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.


Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants

Date: 08/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. As an illustrative example, the model estimates the availability and cost of using switchgrass or corn stover to power a cofired power plant in Illinois and estimates the plant-gate cost of producing biomass fuel, the relative proportions of switchgrass and corn stover, the mix of different land types, and the total area contributing the supplied energy. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR876.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United States

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Timothy Skone

On May 12, 2011 NETL provided the following presentation at the Cornell University lecture series on unconventional natural gas development. The presentation summarizes the life cycle analysis (LCA) greenhouse gas (GHG) research on natural gas extraction and delivery in the United States (on a lb CO2e/MMBtu basis) and a comparison of the life cycle GHG profiles of average natural gas and coal-fired power production and delivery to an end-user (lb CO2e/MWh basis). Specifically, the presentation details seven natural gas profiles: onshore conventional gas, associated gas, offshore gas, tight sands (gas), shale gas (based on Barnett Shale), coal bed methane gas, and the year 2009 domestic average mix. Each natural gas source is upgraded in a gas processing plant, compressed, and delivered to a large end-user (e.g., power plant).


Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration

Date: 05/2011

            Contact: Maria A. Hanley

Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers. NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology, Revision 3

Date: 01/2011

            Contact: Christopher Nichols

This report describes the development of a database and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis of a defined population of coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to model the cost and assist in the assessment of the feasibility of retrofitting these plants with CO2 capture technology. In addition, an assessment of the impacts on generation, CO2 emission, and fuel consumption should all units be brought up to the average efficiency of the top decile of efficient units by nameplate was made. This report covers data sources, methodology employed, modeling and results. An appendix containing a catalog of aerial imagery used for this analysis is available as a separate document. Click here to see Appendix 3.


CarBen Version 3

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The Carben model enables users to conduct wedge anlayses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The spreadsheet-based tool relies upon expert opinion for scenario formulation, it is not a cost optimization model.


Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes

The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.


Assessment of Macroeconomic Modeling in NEMS

Date: 10/2010

            Contact: Rodney Geisbrecht

Sensitivity studies with the NEMS macroeconomic model are described relative to a perceived lack of sensitivity in climate change and energy security scenarios that depart from business as usual in terms of energy prices. Identified issues include an assumed independence from energy prices for certain exogenous driver variables. A practical scheme for systematic sensitivity studies is described, based upon how the Global Insight macroeconomic model is integrated as an external EVIEWS program in NEMS.


Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Erik Shuster

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.


QGESS: Methane Emissions from Mining Powder River Basin Coals

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

This paper explores methane content and emissions associated with mining Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, a Western, Sub-Bituminous coal. Both coal methane content and specific emissions from mining are explored. Methane emissions resulting from the release of methane trapped in coal beds can have a significant impact on the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with coal production. These emissions vary dramatically by coal rank, specific seam, and seam depth and thickness. This document is part of the Office of Systems, Analyses, and Planning's Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.


QGESS: Methane Emissions from Mining Illinois Basin Coals

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Thomas J. Tarka

This paper explores methane content and emissions associated with mining Illinois Basin coals such as Illinois No. 6. Both coal methane content and specific emissions from mining are explored. Methane emissions resulting from the release of methane trapped in coal beds can have a significant impact on the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with coal production. These emissions vary dramatically by coal rank, specific seam, and seam depth and thickness. This document is part of the Office of Systems, Analyses, and Planning's Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.


Operator's Manual: CarBen Version 3

Date: 09/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The CarBen model enables users to conduct wedge analyses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The operator's manual provide a walk-through of the input screens and descirbes the capabilities for results reporting.


Life Cycle Analysis of Coal and Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants

Date: 07/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation summarizes results of a full life cycle assessment on greenhouse gas emissions for five baseload power plant technologies, as conducted for the EPRI coal fleet meeting held on July 20, 2010. Driving factors, global warming potential, energy losses, electricity costs, methane content, air pollutants and upstream emissions are discussed, ranked and evaluated.


Improving the Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants for Near Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions

Date: 04/2010

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

This NETL report sets forth a vision of improving the average efficiency of the existing coal fired power plant fleet from 32.5% to 36% based on (1) units achieving efficiency equal to the 90th percentile unit in each class, (2) retirements of low efficiency units, and (3) improvements within the best-in-class. Under a scenario where generation from coal is constant at the 2008 level, increasing the average efficiency from 32.5% to 36% reduces U.S. GHG by 175 MMmt/year or 2.5% of total U.S. GHG emissions in 2008.


Model: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model, Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). Accompanying report, including model documentation and scenario analysis, is available for download here.


Advanced Coal Power Market Penetration under Carbon Taxation

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Katrina Krulla

This presentation provides an NETL exercise of the NEMS AEO2009 ARRA version to model benefits of advanced coal R&D.


Technical Workshop Report: Improving the Thermal Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

NETL hosted an industry workshop on February 25-26, 2010, in Baltimore, MD to identify opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. The workshop built on a previous meeting held on July 15-16, 2009, in Chicago, IL, and brought together 53 leading industry experts, utility owners and operators, equipment vendors, energy consultants, power industry associations, and research organizations to: (1) explore technical opportunities to improve the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired power plants; (2) identify the barriers and challenges that inhibit implementation of these opportunities; and (3) identify specific initiatives that can substantially increase efficiency across the fleet.


Model Documentation: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0

Date: 03/2010

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This paper summarizes the structure and methodology used in the AltSim model, presents results for selected scenarios, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis of those results. The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels, including corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas, coal, and coal with biomass. This model is available for download here.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

The Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0) determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). An accompanying report (also available for download on the NETL website) describes model layout and function. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0

Date: 01/2010

            Contact: Timothy Skone

This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0, available for download here, determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.


World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Documentation

Date: 12/2009

            Contact: Erik Shuster

The World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends interactive tool enables the user to look at both total and power sector CO2 emissions from the use of coal, oil, or natural gas, over the period 1990 to 2030. One can use the tool to compare five of the larger CO2 emitters to each other or to overall world emissions. The data are from the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Scenario.


World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Tool

Date: 12/2009

            Contact: John G. Wimer

The World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends interactive tool enables the user to look at both total and power sector CO2 emissions from the use of coal, oil, or natural gas, over the period 1990 to 2030. One can use the tool to compare five of the larger CO2 emitters to each other or to overall world emissions. The data are from the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Scenario.


Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology and the Potential for Improvements in Efficiency, Appendix 3

Date: 12/2009

            Contact: Christopher Nichols

This appendix contains the catalog of all imagery used in the GIS analysis portion of the report.


NETL Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model

Date: 11/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This model calculates the 2005 national average life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for petroleum-based fuels sold or distributed in the United States in the year 2005. Specifically, the model reports, by life cycle stage, the life cycle GHG emissions for conventional gasoline, conventional diesel fuel, and kerosene-based jet fuel. The model served as the primary calculation tool for the results reported in the NETL November 26, 2008, report entitled "Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels". The model was created in Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and requires macros to be enabled to solve iterative calculation functions.


Update of Regulatory Activity Impacting Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 09/2009

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation evaluates recent regulatory initiatives that could have an impact on new and existing coal-fired power plants. The relevant regulations are identified, along with possible compliance strategies.  To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."


Opportunities to Improve the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 07/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The NETL hosted a workshop on July 15-16, 2009, to explore opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. Eighteen industry experts representing utility owners and operators, equipment vendors, energy consultants, and power industry associations participated in the workshop. This document summarizes the key issues discussed during the sessions.


Extending the CCS Retrofit Market by Refurbishing Coal Fired Power Plants

Date: 07/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This report provides documentation and demonstration of a NEMS based modeling methodology to endogenously forecast trends in the refurbishment and retrofitting of coal fired power plants for carbon capture and sequestration, with special reference to the impact of NETL R&D programs.


Framework and Guidance for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Footprints of Aviation Fuels

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This report provides framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels. The focus on aviation fuels was driven by the patterns of fuel use by the federal government. Policies such as those outlined in Section 526 of EISA 2007 cause federal agencies to institute enforceable guidelines for procuring low carbon alternative fuels. Federal consumption of fuels is dominated by the Department of Defense and the Air Force consumes more fuel than any of the other military services or federal agencies (Defense Science Board 2008). Thus, aviation applications may become early adopters of low carbon transportation fuels. The U.S. Air Force convened a working group of individuals from government agencies, universities and companies actively engaged in assessing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation fuels, and requested that this group develop guidance on procedures for estimating greenhouse gas emissions in aviation applications, using currently available data and tools.


Database and Model of Coal-fired Power Plants in the United States for Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

NETL developed a GIS database of the US coal-fired power plant fleet to analyze cost and space availability issues associated with retrofitting for carbon capture. A presentation titled Coal-fired Power Plants in the U.S.: Costs for Retrofit with CO2 Capture Technology is also included.


Balancing Climate Change, Energy Security, and Economic Sustainability: A Life Cycle Comparison of Diesel Fuel from Crude Oil and Domestic Coal and Biomass Resources

Date: 04/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Brief 4-page summary of the near-term benefits of co-gasifying U.S. coal and biomass resources to produce FT diesel; a domestic transportation fuel. The paper summarizes the climate change, energy security, and economic benefits when compared to conventional diesel fuel production from domestic and imported crude oil.


An Evaluation of the Extraction, Transport and Refining of Imported Crude Oils and the Impact on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Date: 03/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) derived from domestic crude oil and crude oil imported from specific countries. The analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides detailed methodology and results for this analysis.


Consideration of Crude Oil Source in Evaluating Transportation Fuel GHG Emissions

Date: 03/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) for the baseline year 2005. Further analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides a brief summary of methodology and results of these two analyses.


NETL's Capability to Compare Transportation Fuels: GHG Emissions and Energy Security Impacts

Date: 02/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

Describes the methodology behind the well-to-tank greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions estimate for U.S. petroleum diesel of 18.4 kg CO2E/MMBtu fuel delivered to the vehicle, lower heating value (LHV) basis. This is the average for the United States in 2005. Presents additional analysis that reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil.


Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System-Presentation

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation describes a spreadsheet tool that models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS.


Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System

Date: 01/2009

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This tool models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS. Each scenario allows use of the captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. The model determines the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and compares this value to a conventional vehicle powered solely by petroleum-based fuels.


Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels

Date: 11/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This study develops a comprehensive baseline for the life cycle of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions generated by conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels in the United States. The results of this study benchmark the performance of transportation fuels with respect to climate impacts in each of the fuels' life cycle stages; emphasizing opportunities to lower life cycle GHG emissions present in each stage.


Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain: What do they tell us about the Security of Engineered Storage of CO2 Underground?

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A factsheet that reviews two natural cases of geologic carbon dioxide accumulation in California. Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain are sites at which carbon dioxide is released as geologic activity disturbs the region. These sites are natural models to demonstrate the concerns with stability and environmental impacts of large-scale CO2 release from future engineered carbon geosequestration locations.


An Integrated Modeling Framework for Carbon Management Technologies

Date: 04/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A factsheet on the need for modeling and assessment tools that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) methods. A tool modeling tool was developed at Carnegie Mellon University: The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). This model compares the economic costs of projects relevant to characteristics of plants implementing them, and determines the optimal CCS application.


Deployment of Advanced Coal Power in the U.S. under a Range of Carbon Tax Scenarios

Date: 01/2008

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) was exercised to forecast market penetration for advanced coal power with CO2 capture under a range of CO2 emission tax scenarios, considering market-based incentives for low carbon emission power and improved technology performance consistent with the DOE/FE research portfolio.


Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

Date: 11/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system.  The study investigates various levels of CO2 capture (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%).  The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency reduction, CO2 emissions reduction, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO2 capture systems to the selected study unit.


Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Power Plants Presentation

Date: 11/2007

            Contact: John G. Wimer

This presentation discusses the technical report of the same title. The underlying study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical US coal-fired electric power plan using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system.


Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Energy Sector

Date: 10/2007

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This report discusses the effect of a changing climate on the energy sector and explores the extent of both direct and indirect impacts on power generation. The paper also includes a discussion of the applicability of NETL's R&D programs in alleviating negative impacts of climate change on energy. As a result, this report serves as a comprehensive identification of the major impact factors that should be considered for future research and analysis.


Technology Scenarios For Achieving Stabilization Of Atmospheric GHG Concentrations: A U.S. Perspective

Date: 06/2006

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This paper examines the expectations for U.S. GHG emissions through 2030 and specifies technology options for reducing emissions to a level that is consistent with worldwide stabilization goals of 550 ppm atmospheric GHG concentrations. The paper also suggests a portfolio of policies, actions, and technology performance improvements that achieve the stated GHG emissions goal.


Examining Technology Scenarios for Achieving Stabilization of GHG Concentrations: A U.S. Perspective

Date: 06/2006

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The purpose of this presentation is to build a U.S. emissions scenario consistent with stabilization of greenhouse (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The study utilizes CarBen modeling system to compare situational scenarios under which GHG emissions may be controlled. The discussion also reviews market and policy-based strategies to provide incentives for GHG emission abatement.


Alternative Approaches to Reducing Petroleum Use and CO2 Emissions By Means of a Hydrogen Economy: Technology and Economic Modeling and Scenario Analysis

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation discusses the executive goals to reduce petroleum consumption and CO2 emissions by 2040. Current trends in fossil fuel consumption are presented in relation to the level of carbon dioxide emitted from each source. The presentation suggests alternative scenarios to achieve these goals, including alternative fuels and fuel efficiency improvements. AMIGA runs are used to demonstrate optimal outcomes under various scenarios.


Geosequestration Field Experiments

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: John G. Wimer

A factsheet concerning existing carbon geosequestration projects and demonstrations in the U.S. These programs include: Mountaineer Project-American Electric Power (AEP), West Pearl Queen-Strata Production, Frio-University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Central Appalachian Basin-Consol Energy, Tiffany-Burlington Resources, and Weyburn-Alta Energy.


The Top Ten Most-Asked Questions and How to Answer Them

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation reviews the top questions relevant to carbon dioxide emissions, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon capture and sequestration. The purpose of this presentation is to open discussion on DOE strategies to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through a portfolio of programs and alternatives.


Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Hydrogen Fuel Production in the USA from LNG and Coal

Date: 05/2005

            Contact: Eric Grol

This presentation reviews a study that estimates life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for producing hydrogen from natural gas and coal. GHG emissions from all process steps are considered and comparisons were made between applications with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The study also discusses methane emissions and provides scenario analysis of coal-mine methane mitigation options.


Risk Assessment for Long-term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations

Date: 03/2005

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

A factsheet presenting the US DOE Office of Fossil Energy's long-term goals for the safe and environmentally-sound operation of geologic CO2 storage facilities. This includes the DOE's risk assessment R&D component called 'Monitoring, Mitigation, and Verification (MM&V)". The document summarizes trapping and mitigation techniques supported in the safe management goals.


Coal-to-Power and Coal-to-Liquid Fuels Technologies Used in a Technoeconomic Study of the Hydrogen Economy

Date: 01/2005

            Contact: Peter Balash

The purpose of this presentation is to review the executive goals of 2005 to make progress on a hydrogen economy that will reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Using NEMS runs and extrapolation of future trends, the presentation discusses on-going trends in carbon emissions and fuel consumption by each economic sector. Additional runs are developed to demonstrate how these projections change should the executive goals be successfully implemented in the future.


Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems

Date: 09/2004

            Contact: Peter Balash

The research in this study conducts Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). The efficiency of these two methods is reviewed under specific scenarios.


Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

Date: 05/2004

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

This presentation provides an overview of the Carbon Sequestration Programs and related research supported by DOE. This review includes discussion on the mechanisms behind CCS methodologies. The presentation also provides background on the structure of US fuel consumption and energy supplies, as these sources contribute to emissions.


Sequestration in the Media: Changes in Public Perception

Date: 05/2004

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The purpose of this presentation is to review carbon sequestration literature and historical record of the topic's discussion in the media. Using the reference concentrations and topic discussions as data points, this analysis quantifies trends, themes, and areas of emphasis within the carbon sequestration research community.


Stabilizing Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2: Role of Carbon Sequestration

Date: 02/2004

            Contact: Phil DiPietro

The paper analyzes a scenario for reducing U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that is consistent, in the near term, with the President's Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) and, in the longer term, atmospheric stabilization at 550 ppm. The purpose for formulating and evaluating such a stabilization scenario is to define the role and expectations for performance of carbon sequestration technologies in a future, speculative carbon-constrained world.