Profile of Resource Adequacy in the MISO Region
Contact: Maria A Hanley
MISO is facing a number of generation resource challenges, ranging from large amounts of retirements, behind schedule retrofit projects, and internal resources committed to exporting power to PJM's capacity market. This report identifies potential issues with generator retirements and retrofits, as well as potential transmission issues, including the impact of imports and exports in a short-term outlook for resource adequacy in the MISO region, including specific concerns with the generation capacity expected to be available in the MISO North and Central regions from 2014 to 2016, as well as additional concerns regarding proposed environmental regulations.
Coal Fleet Transition: Retirement Impacts in the Eastern Interconnection
Contact: Christopher Nichols
This report examines the impact of announced retirements on the mix of available generating capacity, prices, resource availability, and air emissions in the Eastern Interconnection. The report uses a security constrained economic dispatch (SCED) model – Ventyx’s PROMOD IV 11.1 – of the bulk electric system (BES) to model the interconnection.
The Importance of Baseload Power Renewal
Contact: Peter C. Balash, Ph.D.
Issue Paper: Electricity System Adequacy - Challenges Facing the Nuclear Power Industry
One in a series of Issue Papers addressing Electricity System Adequacy, this report focuses on Challenges Facing the Nuclear Power Industry. Early proclamations of a nuclear renaissance yield to predictions of the industry's decline, while proposed carbon regulations offer potential optimism to use nuclear as a clean energy source. Yet, nuclear plants are currently "at-risk" of early retirement (for economic reasons) due to electricity market design issues and competition with low priced natural gas. Concerns are identified as baseload generation shifts from coal and nuclear to increasing natural gas and renewables which may impact on the reliability of the power system.
Making Room for Coal Generation Under the NSPS Rule
Contact: Joel Theis
Making Room for Coal Generation under the NSPS Rule:
CO2 Storage Lecture - Carnegie Mellon University
Contact: Tim Grant
An update of last year's presentation, this power-point presentation provides a basic introduction to storage of captured CO2, modeling parameters driving costs modeled by the FE/NETL CO2 Saline Storage Cost Model, associated Class VI regulations and supporting illustrations from some Class VI permit applications and an update of Class VI permit activity.
Natural Gas and Electric Interdependencies Case Study: Near-Term Infrastructure Needs in PJM
Contact: Justin M. Adder
Low natural gas prices, capacity market uncertainty, and large quantities of coal-fired capacity retirements are leading to a significant growth in PJM Interconnection, LLC (PJM) capacity from natural gas. This report summarizes the information developed for a case study of the PJM Regional Transmission Organization’s (RTO) infrastructure to determine the impact on the system from this shift from coal to natural gas. This report also evaluates the current and forecasted planned-certain capacity mix and the current and forecasted natural gas infrastructure to understand the potential risk areas with the shift from coal to gas.
Perspective on the U.S. Coal Industry
Contact: Gavin Pickenpaugh
This presentation provides an overview of the coal industry, focusing on the United States, but within a global context. Areas covered include coal prices, consumption, production, imports, exports, reserves, productivity measures, and more. Juxtapositions between the U.S. and other countries' coal industries are provided. In addition to providing a current snapshot of the U.S. coal industry, this work portrays both historical and projected aspects of the coal industry.
Which Reservoir for Low Cost Capture, Transportation, and Storage?
Quality and location of a carbon dioxide (CO2) storage reservoir are critical for low cost carbon capture and storage (CCS). This analysis models the combination of capture, transportation, and storage costs to estimate a total cost of CCS. Cost of capture at the source is available for annual rates between 4.1 and 0.7 million tonnes of CO2. Cost of transportation is modeled for the distance between the source and the storage reservoir. Cost of CO2 storage is modeled for four representative reservoirs, two Rose Run and two Mt Simon reservoirs, each reservoir in a dome or regional dip structural setting.
Link to paper
Issues in Focus: The Role of Natural Gas Storage in Maintaining Reliability on the Electric Power System
As natural gas provides an increasing percentage of the nation’s electric power, the electric power system may become more vulnerable to certain types of reliability risks. Unlike other power generation sources – such as coal or nuclear – gas-fired power plants rely on just-in-time delivery of natural gas. Congestion and outages along the pipelines and/or compressor stations that supply gas-fired electric generating units can cause service interruptions. This Issue in Focus details the role of natural gas storage in maintaining reliability of the electric power system. This analysis is one of a series of Issues in Focus for natural gas/electricity interdependencies.
Guidance for NETL’s Oxycombustion R&D Program: Chemical Looping Combustion Reference Plant Designs and Sensitivity Studies
Contact: Robert Stevens
An emerging, coal-fired power plant technology, chemical looping combustion (CLC), is assessed in this report. CLC technology is, in essence, an oxycombustion technology being developed with focus on its potential for improved performance and reduced cost. Its benefits are measured against performance and cost of the conventional pulverized coal (PC) power plant using amine-based CO2 absorption for post-combustion carbon capture. This study develops National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) reference CLC plant configurations and assumptions that are used to evaluate CLC system performance and cost.
Techno-Economic Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Systems Created by Energy Sector Planning and Analysis for SEAP & OPPB
Contact: Gregory Hackett
This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.
Baseline Analysis of Crude Methanol Production from Coal and Natural Gas
Contact: Wm. Morgan Summers
Gasification of coal, in addition to generating syngas for power production, has the potential to produce a diverse array of high-value products. It is a challenge to understand the optimal use of this domestic coal resource amidst the potential technology options, product slates (including co-production of power), and competing feedstocks (natural gas, petroleum). This analysis seeks to begin addressing that challenge by focusing on one primary product, methanol, which also serves as a readily-transportable intermediate to many other products including olefins, gasoline, and di-methyl ether (DME).
Contact: Peter C. Balash, PhD
Coal plants have traditionally provided reliable and affordable baseload power generation, and extensive coal retirements are prompting debate on potential grid impacts. This analysis examines how current forecasts may be understating risks: both under-projecting electricity demand growth and expecting an aging fleet to operate at historically high utilization rates. Potential generation and capacity shortfalls due to a timing mismatch between unit retirements and unit additions are discussed. Also reported are operational conditions of retiring units January 2014; actual gas prices compared to projections; and price volatility risks of shifting to gas. View as "slideshow" for best effect
CO2-EOR Offshore Resource Assessment
Contact: Evelyn Dale
The Gulf of Mexico accounts for about 20 percent of total domestic crude oil production. Since reaching a peak of 1.54 million barrels a day in 2003, Gulf of Mexico’s OCS oil production has declined to 1.23 MMB/D, as of mid-2013. While there is optimism that new discoveries in the deep and ultra-deep waters of the GOM OCS will reverse this decline, another option seems to offer even more promise -- the application of CO2 enhanced oil recovery.
Advanced Sensors and Controls - Techno-Economic Analysis for Existing Coal Generating Units
Contact: Katrina Krulla
NETL collected data from previous coal-fired power plant sensor and control projects and used this data to establish cost and performance ranges to determine the economic opportunity for future advanced senor and control retrofits. Unit-level economic analyses were performed on coal-fired power plants in the U.S. by calculating the net present value (NPV) of cash flows that occur after the installation of new advanced sensor and control technologies in 2020. The results indicate that all 863 coal-fired units in the U.S. would meet a 24-month payback criterion assuming that availability and heat rate would improve consistent with prior senor and control projects.
Potential Impact of Improved Sensors, Controls on Coal-Fired Power Plant Forced Outages
Unplanned Forced Outage Reduction
Near-Term Projections of CO2 Utilization for Enhanced Oil Recovery
Contact: Chris Nichols
In 2013 a total of 113 CO2-EOR projects inject 3.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) (60 million metric tons (MMmt) per year) of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the United States. The associated crude oil production in 2012 was 282,000 barrels per day. Based on the increased volumes of CO2 supplies, the completion of major CO2 pipelines, and the announced new, large-scale CO2-EOR floods, production of crude oil from CO2-EOR floods is forecast to grow significantly, reaching 615,000 barrels per day from at least 124 active CO2 floods by year 2020. While the Permian Basin remains the largest CO2-EOR oil producer, much of the growth occurs in the Gulf Coast, the Rockies, and the Mid-Continent.
Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants
Contact: Eric Grol
This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units. The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.
Next Generation CO2 EOR
Presentation slide deck from the CO2 Utilization Congress. Draws on recent NETL analyses and other sources to present: (1) a primer on CO2 EOR, (2) an overview of the current status of CO2 EOR in North America, (3) a description of next generation CO2 EOR technology, and (4) an estimate of the size of the resource in the United States.
Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the Contiguous United States. Volume 1: Discovered Reservoirs
Twenty-one CO2 fields in the contiguous states contain an estimated 311 Tcf of CO2 gas-initially-in-place (GIIP). Of that, 168 Tcf (54 percent) is estimated to be accessible and technically recoverable. The estimated economically recoverable resource (ERR) is 96.4 Tcf, based on a CO2 price of 1.06 $/mcf ($20/tonne) at the field gate. Cumulative production to date is 18.9 Tcf, leaving 77.5 Tcf remaining or net ERR. The Big Piney-LaBarge field in Wyoming contains an estimated net ERR of 52 Tcf, 67 percent of the total for the United States. The remaining ERR in reservoirs that feed into the Permian Basin and Gulf Coast is on the order of 10-20 years of supply.
Subsurface Sources of CO2 in the United States. Volume II: Exploration of CO2 Systems
A study of the genesis and tectonic setting of subsurface CO2 systems in the United States indicates that undiscovered CO2 reservoirs could contribute materially to CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery. Five geographic areas are estimated to contain 42 Tcf of risked technically recoverable CO2 resource (TRR). Two lead areas near the Permian Basin, Val Verde and San Juan, contain 34 Tcf CO2 risked TRR, an amount roughly equivalent to the remaining TRR in discovered reservoirs that are currently supplying the region. The number of lead areas studied was limited and the aggregate TRR estimates are not comprehensive.
Cost and Performance Metrics Used to Assess Carbon Utilization and Storage Technologies
Contact: James Black
The report presents a diverse set of twelve metrics grouped under the subheadings of performance, cost, emissions, market, and safety that have been developed for use in comparing and/or screening CO2 utilization projects and technologies. Utilization technologies could involve the chemical conversion of CO2 into valued products such as polycarbonate plastics, or the integration of CO2 into products such as cement or concrete.
Understanding the Life Cycle Environmental Footprint of the Natural Gas Value Chain
Contact: Timothy J. Skone, P.E.
This is a presentation given to the North Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), Gas Subcommittee meeting on February 9, 2014. The agenda includes the importance of understanding methane emissions from the natural gas sector, the Department of Energy Office's role in reducing methane emissions from the natural gas value chain, a primer on life cycle analysis, and understanding the life cycle environmental footprint of the natural gas value chain.
NETL Studies on the Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the U.S. Power Plant Fleet
Contact: Kristin Gerdes
FE funds technologies applicable to both greenfield and retrofit applications for CO2 capture. This presentation provides the highlights from various retrofit studies including: (1) Quality Guidelines on retrofit difficulty cost factors, (2) Reference PC and NGCC plants retrofitted with post-combustion capture, and (3) Extrapolation of PC retrofit study results to the entire U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet to examine the costs of capture for each unit and determines how EOR and 2nd Generation capture technologies might incentivize CO2 capture.
LCA and the U.S. Natural Gas Resource
Contact: Timothy J. Skone
From a life cycle perspective, baseload power is NETL's preferred basis for comparing energy sources. For fossil energy systems, the emissions from power plants account for the majority of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, focusing on the activities that precede the power plant is still necessary in order to identify near-term opportunities for GHG emission reductions. NETL's upstream natural gas model allows detailed modeling of the extraction, processing, and pipeline transmission of natural gas. This model can identify key contributors to the GHG emissions from the natural gas supply chain, and has parameters that can be used to assess opportunities for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows that current domestic natural gas extraction, processing, and pipeline technologies leak 1.2% of the methane that is extracted at the wellhead. Improved practices, such as those in the latest New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), can reduce this upstream methane leakage rate. From a life cycle perspective (1 MWh of delivered electricity), power production from natural gas has lower GHG emissions than power produced from coal. There are several methods and technology combinations that can be used for determining how high the upstream natural gas methane leakage rate has to be in order for the life cycle GHG emissions from natural gas power to equal those from coal power. Ongoing research is developing data that will improve the accuracy of NETL's upstream natural gas model.
Energy Related Flow Diagrams
Contact: Erik Shuster
This document contains several energy related flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams). For a Sankey diagram, the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow quantity. The following energy related diagrams included in the document are: U.S. energy use, international oil flows, international and domestic coal import/exports, and international natural gas flows.
Using Life Cycle Analysis to Inform Energy Policy
NETL uses LCA to understand the environmental burdens of energy systems and to inform policy makers. LCA is well suited for energy analysis, but its answers can change depending on what questions are being asked. NETL approaches all LCAs using a consistent method, which ensures comparability among LCAs. The granularity and flexibility of NETL's models makes it possible to identify key contributors to the environmental burdens of a system, as well as the ability to understand how results can change with changes to a given input parameter. In addition to understanding the attributes of a given energy technology, NETL can also perform consequential modeling that allows an understanding of how a given energy technology can affect the performance of other energy technologies. The effect of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) on conventional crude oil extraction is one example of such consequential analysis. The results of consequential analyses have more uncertainty than those for analyses that focus on the attributes of isolated systems, but the conclusions of consequential analyses provide more context for policy makers.
Novel CO2 Utilization Concepts: Working Paper
Contact: Robert E. James III, PhD
Final Report on CO2 Utilization Concepts, detailing screening and detailed studies of concepts using CO2 for product generation, giving results of CO2 use and cost of production.
Performance and Cost of a Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant with Complete Internal Reforming
The performance and cost of a natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power system with complete internal reformation (IR) is presented in this report. The report presents an update to a previous NGFC Pathway Study that includes carbon capture and storage (2011). IR utilizes heat generated in the fuel cell stack directly for the endothermic reformation reaction, improving system efficiency. NGFC systems with complete IR form the ultimate embodiment of the current fuel cell technology development program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, which is consistent with the commercialization strategies being pursued in the stationary power generation sector.
Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations - Revision 1
This report presents the results of an updated Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.
CO2 STORAGE AND UTILIZATION NEAR MINGO COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA
Contact: DiPietro, Phil
Six oil fields within 100 miles of the planned coal-to-liquids facility in Mingo County were found to be prospective for miscible CO2-EOR. Four of the oil fields fall along a straight line and could, in concept, be developed sequentially along a single CO2 pipeline. The total demand for purchased CO2 from these four fields is estimated to be 47 million metric tons (890 Bcf) over 20 years. Four saline formations within Mingo County could accommodate 50 million metric tons of CO2 (accounts for uncertainty and a “buffer zone”). The combined storage capacity – EOR within 100 miles of Mingo County and saline within Mingo County – can accommodate 3 million metric tons per year of vented CO2 for over 30 years Conclusion: there is enough potential for CO2 utilization and storage that a next level of study is a reasonable course.
Analysis of Natural Gas-to-Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch
This study models a GTL system that nominally produces 50,000 bbl/day of fuels fungible in the refined product infrastructure without further refining steps. Specifically, the system produces 15,460 bbl/day of finished motor gasoline and 34,543 bbl/day of low-density diesel fuel. The study provides an updated evaluation of cost, technical, and environmental performance. With an estimated total as-spent capital cost of 4.3 billion dollars (3.7 – 5.6 billion dollars) or $86,188 ($73,260 - $112,045) per bbl of daily production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, such a facility would be commercially viable should the market conditions (liquid fuel and natural gas prices) remain as favorable or better throughout the life of the project than during the middle of May 2013. The life cycle GHG emissions for GTL diesel and gasoline when based on current practices in the natural gas industry are 90.6 g CO2e/MJ and 89.4 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. If the natural gas extraction and processing sector complies with NSPS, the upstream GHG emissions from natural gas are reduced by 23 percent. The key challenges of GTL are the risk associated with varying gas and product prices, the lack of sustained effort in its development, and its high capital costs. A robust research and development program, besides driving capital cost reductions, can serve the role of sustaining the deep knowledge base in GTL.
Assessment of the Distributed Generation Market Potential for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
NETL analyzed the strengths of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system in conjunction with distributed generation (DG) market segments in the U.S. and determined that natural gas compressor stations, grid strengthening, and data centers were potential early market-entry opportunities. These three DG market segments are projected to demand two gigawatts of additional power between now and 2018 and 25 GWs through 2040. This analysis showed that the DG SOFC system becomes cost competitive with other fossil-fuel based DG technologies after 25 MWe of installed capacity, around 2025. The SOFC DG application validates and enables utility scale fuel cell systems with carbon capture, and forms an essential first phase of the NETL technology development roadmap.
An In-Depth Look at "Next Generation" CO2 EOR Technology
This analysis takes a more in-depth look at the "Next Generation" CO2-EOR concept and defines distinct areas of technology development that comprise it. The CO2-PROPHET model is used to simulate the application of the four main "Next Generation" technologies to a database of 1,824 Lower-48 onshore oil reservoirs, first applied singularly and then in combination. The simulations indicate significant synergy when the technology areas are applied jointly. The results show that "Next Generation" CO2 EOR can provide positive impacts – 2 MMbpd of domestic oil production for 50 years - but it is not free. "Next Generation" CO2-EOR designs require capital outlays two times higher than current best practices.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Retrofit Difficulty Factors
Contact: Mike Matuszewski
The purpose of this guideline is to provide a methodology for estimating additional costs for retrofitting carbon capture technologies onto existing fossil power plants.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Technology Learning Curve
Contact: Mike Matuszewski
The purpose of this guideline is to provide a methodology for estimating Nth of a kind plant costs from first of a kind plant costs.
Evaluation of Options to Handle CO2 Capture, Transport and Sequestration Disruptions
The purpose of this guideline is to provide an understanding of the potential for disruptions in the carbon dioxide capture and storage process and the consequences for fossil power plants.
Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective
Contact: Timothy Skone
This analysis provides insight into key criteria for the feasibility of seven types of energy technologies. The seven types of technologies include electricity from natural gas, co-firing of coal and biomass, nuclear fuel, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar thermal resources. The key criteria for evaluating these technologies are defined.
Power Market Primers
Contact: Maria A. Hanley
This report is a series of primers on Independent System Operators (ISO) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO). They primarily explore the history, workings, and types of electricity markets comprising the seven regional transmission organizations in the U.S. The primers are accompanied by a Glossary for Power Market Primers in which many of the technical terms used in these primers are defined. The zip file allows interested users the ability to review the entire Power Market report or download individual primers in this series.
Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Report
Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective Factsheet
Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Presentation
Life Cycle Analysis of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.
Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2012: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy
A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review, May 2013.
Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Rev. 2
Life Cycle Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.
Current and Future Technologies for Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plants
Contact: Walter Shelton
The purpose of this study is to present the cost and performance of natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants using state-of-the-art (SOA) and advanced gas turbines, both non-capture configurations and with post combustion carbon capture based on an advanced solvent process. The NGCC cases included in this study consist of four gas turbine designs: F-frame (GE 7FA.05), H-frame (based on Siemens H), advanced J-frame (based on MHI J), and a conceptual advanced future design (designated as X-frame). Each turbine is modeled in three process configurations: without CO2 capture, with CO2 capture, and with CO2 capture and exhaust gas recycle (EGR).
Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant Final
Conventional Generation Asset Management with Renewable Portfolio Standards Using Real Options
Contact: Peter Balash
The transition to a more renewable generation mix under a competitive electricity market will require individual power producers to use sophisticated tools to value conventional generators. Owners will need to understand what market prices signal new investments, temporarily suspending operation, reactivating mothballed generators or permanently abandoning a plant. Net present valuation from a traditional discounted cash flow analysis is limited in capturing the value of generation technologies, and it does not provide an optimal investment criterion. We present and evaluate a closed-form decision support framework using a Spark Spread Real Options approach to value generation assets and to capture optimal market price signals that minimizes financial risks of individual power producers under a transition towards a more renewable energy fleet.
A Forecast of Crude Oil Production from Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States through 2018
CO2 supply for enhanced oil recovery operations in the United States is expected to increase 64% between 2012 and 2018, from 3.3 BCFd to 5.4 BCFd. The CO2 utilization rate (URNet the amount of CO2 supplied per incremental barrel of crude oil produced) can be used to estimate crude oil production based on CO2 supply rate. Based on compiled historical data we estimate the following regional CO2 Utilization rates: Permian basin, 8,500 scf/bbl, Rocky mountain, 8,000 scf/bbl, Gulf Coast, 25,000 scf/bbl. Applying these rates to the regional forecast for CO2 supply we forecast production from CO2 EOR in the United States in 2018 will be 500,000 bpd.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies
The purpose of this guideline is to estimate the cost of CO2 transport and storage (T&S) in a deep saline aquifer for the plant locations used in the energy system studies sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).
Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 2: PC Plants
The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in greenfield Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Fuel Prices for Selected Feedstocks in NETL Studies
The purpose of this guideline is to estimate the delivered market price of select fuels commonly used as feedstock in the energy system studies sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Specifically this includes four coals and natural gas delivered to three regions.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology
The purpose of this Quality Guidelines Guideline for Energy System Studies is to provide a standard basis for scaling capital costs, with specific emphasis on scaling exponents. The intention of having a standardized document is to provide guidelines for proper procedures to increase consistency between studies.
Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-by-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions: There Can be No Learning if There is No Doing
Historical data has shown that as new technologies penetrate the market, costs are often reduced with each doubling in capacity because employees learn-by-doing. Learning curves are used by many models to forecast future capital costs for energy technologies including carbon capture. Caution should be taken when using learning curves to predict future capital costs because of the wide variation in learning rates and inability to separate the impacts of R&D. It is important to note that while learning-by-doing can bring costs down once a technology deploys, R&D is still necessary for the technology to become cost competitive.
A Decade of Economic Change: Fuel Prices and Households
This working presentation focuses on the changes in fuel prices and household income during the period of 2000 to 2010. In real terms, household money incomes have fallen, while fuel prices have increased. Comparisons are made between increased driving cost and changes in income, by quintile. Other areas examined include the timing of energy price increases and recessions and a breakout of prices and consumption to determine the driving factor behind energy expenditure increases. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology
Contact: James Black
Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Power Industry Using Domestic Coal and Biomass - Volume 1: IGCC
The objective of this study was to simulate biomass co-firing in a dry-fed, entrained-flow gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant and examine the resulting performance, environmental response, and economic response. To develop a more complete understanding of the impact of co-feeding biomass, each case was examined using a limited life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, which examines GHG emissions beyond the plant stack. Included in the limited life cycle GHG analysis were anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from the production, processing, transportation, and fertilization of biomass and from mining, transporting and handling coal.
Quality Guideline for Energy System Studies: Fuel Prices for Selected feedstocks in NETL Studies
Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants
Contact: John G. Wimer
DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy, NETL implements research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs that are moving aggressively to address the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a climate change mitigation strategy. In partnership with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, RD&D efforts are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies. Improving the efficiency of power generation systems reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as other criteria pollutants while using less water and extending the life of our domestic energy resource base.
North American CO2 Supply and Developments
In 2013 carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) operations in North America purchased 3.4 billion standard cubic feet of CO2 and produced 318,000 barrels per day of crude oil. The average CO2 utilization rate was 9,200 scf/bbl in the Permian Basin, 8,800 scf/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region and 26,000 scf/bbl in the Gulf Coast region. Based on expected regional growth in CO2 supply and expected trends in average CO2 utilization rates, crude oil production from CO2 EOR in North America is forecast to be 590,000 bpd in 2018.
LCA XII Presentation: Exploring Economics and Environmental Performance: Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)
This presentation poster discusses the Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT). The Power LCAT is a flexible model and associated tool which calculates electricity production costs and tracks life cycle environmental performance for a range of power generation technologies.
FE/NETL CTS-Saline Cost Model
This PDF presentation illustrates the basic framework of the FE/NETL CTS-Saline Cost Model. A test matrix was developed to test the model under different storage project scenarios. The results of this test matrix are presented. Also, an illustrative example is provided of how the cost model can be used to estimate the cost-reducing potential of NETL's R&D work in carbon storage.
Impact of Load Following on Power Plant Cost and Performance
This study performed a review of the public literature and interviewed industry experts to determine the impact on cost and performance of forcing fossil fuel power plants without and with carbon capture to load follow in response to changes in demand or output from renewable power generation sources. There is some information to quantify the impact of load following on NGCC and PC plants without capture, however there is little information either experimental data or theoretical analysis on the impact on IGCC, oxycombustion, or any plants with carbon capture from load following.
LCA XII Presentation: Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Technology Assessment Compilation
Contact: Robert James
This presentation discusses a series of studies performed to compare a set of alternative sources (cofiring coal and biomass, unconventional natural gas, next generation nuclear, hydropower, geothermal, solar thermal and offshore wind) with common boundaries and assumptions.
LCA XII Presentation: From Unit Processes to Completed LCAs: NETL Life Cycle Analysis Library
This poster describes what the DOE National Energy Technology (NETL) unit process library is, how the unit processes are used in NETL life cycle analyses, and how to access it.
Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases
The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The cost basis for that report was June 2007. This present report updates the cost of selected cases from that report to June 2011 dollars. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
LCA XII Presentation: Life Cycle GHG Inventory Sensitivity to Changes in Natural Gas System Parameters
This presentation discusses life cycle inventories of cradle-to-gate delivered natural gas fuel and cradle-to-grave natural gas fired electricity generation with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions. The study looks at eight distinct sources of natural gas and performs a number of sensitivity studies. The results show that production rate, episodic emission factors and the flaring rate have the most impact on the cradle-to-gate emissions profile, while power plant heat rate or efficiency most affects the cradle-to-grave emissions.
LCA XII Presentation: Overview of Energy Life Cycle Analysis at NETL
This presentation describes the life cycle analysis (LCA) process at NETL. NETL uses LCA as a tool and framework for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of energy technology and policy options on a common basis. LCA includes the impacts of converting fuel to useful energy, infrastructure construction, extraction and transportation of fuel, and transport of the final energy product to the end user.
LCA XII Presentation: Modeling the Uncertainty of Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Life Cycle Inventories with Monte Carlo Situation
This presentation discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainty in a life cycle inventory of the gasification of coal and biomass. While the inventory is dominated by carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of the fuel, small changes to the feedstocks that are used to make the fuel can make the difference in complying with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of solar thermal power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Solar thermal power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
An Analysis of DSI's Impact on Dispatch Economics in PJM
This analysis evaluates the marginal cost impact of installing dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and dry sorbent injection (DSI) on an existing subcritical pulverized coal unit in PJM, for compliance with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS). The impact of compliance technology choice on dispatch position is highlighted.
LCA XII Presentation: Contribution of Biomass to the LCI of Cofiring Power
This presentation discusses the impact of cofiring biomass in coal-fired power plants. Combustion of biomass in a boiler is carbon neutral, as the carbon dioxide emitted was taken up by the growth of the biomass during cultivation. However upstream processes such as land preparation, cultivation and harvesting, and transportation can offset the carbon taken up by the biomass.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment Brief
This analysis evaluates the role of coal and biomass co-firing power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Coal and biomass co-firing power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
NETL CO2 Injection and Storage Cost Model
The basic framework for this model provides costs for compliance with various sections of EPA’s Class VI regulation and Subpart RR of the GHG Reporting Program. Cost analysis at two levels is provided by this model: site specific where the modeler can enter their own reservoir and cost data and regional in the form of cost supply curves. This model includes costs from initial regional geologic evaluation through site characterization, permitting, injection/MVA operations, post-injection site care to final site closure and transfer to long-term stewardship. A geologic and cost database was developed to support this model.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of hydropower in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of wind power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Wind power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment
This analysis evaluates the role of nuclear power in the future energy portfolio of the United States. Nuclear power is evaluated with respect to resource base, growth, environmental profile, costs, barriers, risks, and expert opinions. The core of this analysis is the life cycle environmental and cost analysis. The report has been externally peer reviewed. The report is one of a series of Technology Assessment Reports for power production in the United States. A briefing is also included with the report.
NETL Upstream Dashboard Tool
The goal of the Upstream Tool is to allow the user to customize key parameters specific to their Life Cycle case study or desired scenario, and generate customized Upstream Emissions results quickly and simply.
Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants
This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs. The benefits of R&D advances such as 2nd generation CO2 capture, and additional revenue from CO2 sales for enhanced oil recovery, are also presented, and are compared to other baseload generation options, such as natural gas combined cycle and nuclear.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment Brief
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment Brief
Environmental Retrofit Tracking
This presentation tracks environmental retrofits to the existing coal-fired power fleet, through various stages of project development. Many of the environmental compliance strategies that are expected to be implemented are analyzed with respect to recent regulatory initiatives, that may impact the existing coal-fired asset base. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."
A Benefits Analysis of the Existing Plants Emissions and Capture (EPEC) Program
Contact: Charles Zelek
This paper presents an analysis of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, and Capture (EPEC) program. The overall goal of NETL’s EPEC program is to develop carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies that limit the increase in the cost of electricity generation to 35 percent of that generated by an equivalent greenfield plant without CCUS. The analysis was made using NETL’s Carbon Transport and Storage (CTS) model integrated into the Energy Information Administration (EIA) National Energy Modeling Software (NEMS).
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (Brief)
This study discusses the role of natural gas power in meeting the energy needs of the United States (U.S.). This includes the identification of key issues related to natural gas and, where applicable, analyses of environmental and cost aspects of natural gas power.
Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment
Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT)
Contact: Justin Adder
The Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind (with and without backup power). All of the fossil fuel technologies also include the option of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. Power LCAT is targeted at helping policy makers, students, and interested stakeholders understand the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various electricity production options.
NEMS-CCUS: A Model and Framework for Comprehensive Assessment of CCUS and Infrastructure
This paper presents a recent application of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded NEMS-CCUS (National Energy Modeling System - CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage) Model which enables the simulation of CO2 pipelines and pipeline networks across the forty-eight contiguous states. The model was used to assess the role of CO2 capture, utilization and storage in both carbon tax and clean energy standard (CES) cases. The paper was presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference held in Orlando, Florida, USA, February 7–9, 2012.
Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power LCAT) Technical Guide
Power LCAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies. This report summarizes key assumptions and results for version 2.0 of Power LCAT. This report has three goals: to explain the basic methodology used to calculate production costs and to estimate environmental performance; to provide a general overview of the model operation and initial results; and to demonstrate the wide range of options for conducting sensitivity analysis.
Production of Zero Sulfur Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal: Configurational Options to Reduce Environmental Impact
Contact: Thomas J. Tarka
The conversion of domestic resources such as coal and biomass into diesel fuel is a near-term technology pathway to address the energy security, economic sustainability, and climate change concerns which currently face our nation. This study evaluates the economic viability and environmental impact of producing diesel fuel via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Two facility design approaches – focused on fuels production and the co-production of fuels and electricity, respectively – were evaluated for the conversion of domestic resources such as coal or a mixture of coal and biomass.
Advancing Oxycombustion Technology for Bituminous Coal Power Plants: An R&D Guide
The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is funding research aimed at improving the performance and reducing the cost of oxycombustion. The objective of this study is to guide oxycombustion research in areas that can provide the largest benefits in electricity cost and plant performance. The advanced oxycombustion technologies evaluated in this study are categorized into four major areas: advanced boiler design, advanced oxygen production, advanced flue gas treatment, and innovative CO2 compression concepts.
A Note on Sources of CO2 Supply for Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations
This paper presents compiled information on sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in the United States. CO2 supply in 2010 was 58 MtCO2. Production from natural sources accounted for 85% of the 2010 CO2 supply. Natural gas processing accounted for 13% of 2010 supply. The forecast rate of CO2 supply in 2015 is 93 MtCO2/yr, a 60% increase over the 2010 level. Hydrocarbon conversion facilities with CO2 capture account for 36% of the projected growth between 2010 and 2015. NOTE: By clicking the link below, you will be directed to a non-government website.
Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture
The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture. The pathway begins with representation of today's technology and extends to include emerging carbon capture, advanced steam conditions, and advanced CO2 compression with corresponding performance/cost estimates to illustrate routes to achieving the DOE goal of ≤ 35% increase in cost of electricity relative to a PC plant without CO2 capture.
QGESS: Technology Learning Curve (FOAK to NOAK)
This report summarizes costing methodologies employed by NETL for estimating future costs of mature commercial Nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) power plants from initial first-of-a-kind (FOAK) estimates for use in costing models and reports. It defines the specific steps and factors which can be used in such estimation calculations. The methodology within is based on knowledge of major plant component costs for various technologies.
QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters
This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component. Impurity levels are provided for limitations of carbon steel pipelines, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), saline reservoir sequestration, and cosequestration of CO2 and H2S in saline reservoirs.
Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology
This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.
QGESS: Process Modeling Design Parameters
The purpose of this section of the Quality Guidelines is to document the assumptions most commonly used in systems analysis studies and the basis for those assumptions. The large number of assumptions required for a thorough systems analysis make it impractical to document the entire set in each report. This document will serve as a comprehensive reference for these assumptions as well as their justification.
QGESS: Specifications for Selected Feedstocks
This document provides recommended specifications for various feedstocks that are commonly found in NETL-sponsored energy system studies. Adhering to these specifications should enhance the consistency of such studies. NETL recommends these guidelines be followed in the absence of any compelling market, project, or site-specific requirements in order to facilitate comparison of studies evaluating coal-based technologies.
Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants
This presentation provides an overview of proposed new coal-fired power plants that are under consideration. It focuses on those power plant development activities achieving significant progress toward completion, in order to more accurately assess the ability of this segment of the power generation industry to support adequate electricity capacity in various regions of the U.S.
Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - NAS/TRB Conference Presentation
NETL reports natural gas fired power production GHG emissions to be 53% lower average base load coal fired power production at National Academy of Sciences, 91st Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting in Washington, D.C. on January 25. The presentation provides an overview of NETL's greenhouse gas results for various types of natural gas, including Marcellus Shale, and compares the results for natural gas fired power production to coal fired power production. The presentation focused on understanding the variability and uncertainty in recent natural gas GHG estimates.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Model
The purpose of this report is to provide a framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels derived from coal and biomass. This report is a detailed case study of ten coal and biomass to SPK-1 aviation fuel scenarios. The case study follows the framework and guidance document developed by the Interagency Work Group for Alternative Fuels (IAWG-AF) published in 2010. The report is a product of the workgroup members, was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force and the project was led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The results of this case study are a detailed report and model documenting the methodology, data, and conclusions. A summary presentation is also included with the report and model.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Report
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation
Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2010: Contributions from Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy
Contact: Ken Kern
A diagram of major energy sources for each sector of the U.S. economy depicted as flows in a Sankey diagram. Proportions of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy provided for electricity generation and ultimately used by the residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation sectors of the economy are shown. This diagram rearranges and segregates information originally published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, based on data from the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review, 2010.
The Role of Coal in a Smart Grid Environment
This report discusses how the traditional role of coal might change in a "Smart Grid” environment. We examine new roles that might leverage the advantages and mitigate the challenges for coal generation. Topics include: i) How baseload demand might change as Smart Grid technologies are adopted, ii) ways that coal might service this changing baseload including centralized generation, distributed generation (DG), and combined heat and power (CHP), and, iii) the potential for coal to provide ancillary services and reserves. A "Smart Grid City of the Future” model is developed to demonstrate operational and economic characteristics of coal generation technologies. The revision involves changing the payback period from four years to six years for the Smart Grid City analysis.
Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, Version 2.0 (CUBE 2.0): Model and Documentation
CUBE 2.0 was designed to facilitate examination of the sources and magnitude of uncertainties in GHG emissions resulting from cultivation, preparation, and delivery of biomass feedstocks and to allow exploration of the sensitivity of net emissions to these various uncertainties. The model determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-hopper”). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing (corn grain, corn stover, switchgrass [SG], mixed prairie biomass [MPB], and hybrid poplar) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). This model is an update to the CUBE 1.0 model released in March 2010 Updates to the model include several additions and corrections to CUBE 1.0. In particular, the functionality and scope have been expanded by adding two additional feedstocks (corn stover and hybrid poplar) and by increasing the number and complexity of processing and transport choices. Major modifications are summarized in corresponding Model Documentation. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production
Report details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.
Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements - 2011 Update
Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using EIA AEO 2011 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements.
Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects - 2011
In this update to the 2008 report, the financial parameters to be used in economic analysis studies are updated and the issue of technology risk premium is revisited. Profiles for distributing Total Overnight Costs over various Capital Expenditure Periods (e.g. 3 and 5 years) and project financing costs that are representative of actual energy projects are also re-evaluated.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Natural Gas Extraction, Delivery and Electricity Production - Presentation
Presentation details the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from six domestic sources of natural gas and a national average mix for extraction and delivery to a large end user. The report also compares the use of natural gas for power production to coal-fired power production based on the delivery of 1 MWh of electricity to the end user. Results demonstrate that natural gas-fired baseload power production has life cycle GHG emissions 42 to 53 percent lower than those for coal-fired baseload electricity, after accounting for a wide range of variability and compared across different assumptions of climate impact timing.
Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion as a Near-Term CO2 Mitigation Strategy
Circulating fluidized bed combustion systems have the potential to meet strict air quality guidelines currently being proposed (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate). In addition, their fuel-flexibility can also allow for co-firing carbon neutral opportunity fuels, such as biomass, therefore reducing the CO2 footprint in the near-term. Building these plants with attention to the design considerations that will be needed to accommodate eventual CO2 capture (capture-ready) can also help future integration of full-scale capture.
Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits
Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.
Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Presentation
Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.
Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass - Appendix
Appendix of Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.
Supplying Biomass to Power Plants: A Model of the Costs of Utilizing Agricultural Biomass in Cofired Power Plants
U.S. power plants seek to diversify their fuel sources. Biomass energy is a renewable resource, generally with lower emissions than fossil fuels, and has a large, diverse base. To make decisions about investing in a facility that utilizes biomass, prospective users need information about infrastructure, logistics, costs, and constraints for the full biomass life cycle. The model developed in this work is designed to estimate the cost and availability of biomass energy resources from U.S. agricultural lands from the perspective of an individual power plant. As an illustrative example, the model estimates the availability and cost of using switchgrass or corn stover to power a cofired power plant in Illinois and estimates the plant-gate cost of producing biomass fuel, the relative proportions of switchgrass and corn stover, the mix of different land types, and the total area contributing the supplied energy. It shows that small variations in crop yields can lead to substantial changes in the amount, type, and spatial distribution of land that would produce the lowest-cost biomass for an energy facility. Land and crop choices would be very sensitive to policies governing greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon pricing, and the model demonstrates important implications for total land area requirements for supplying biomass fuel. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR876.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.
Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture
Contact: Kristen J. Gerdes
This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.
Near-Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U.S. Electricity Supply: Technical Considerations
In light of potential regulatory limits on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, requirements for greater use of renewable fuels, and higher prices for some conventional fossil resources, over the course of the next few decades, biomass is expected to become an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. Doing so allows such plants to reduce GHG emissions and, in appropriate regulatory environments, to generate renewable-energy credits to recover costs. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant. The authors find that the main challenge is maintaining a consistent fuel supply; technical and regulatory factors can drive the decision to cofire; cofiring can increase costs, decrease revenue, and reduce GHG emissions; densification does not reduce plant costs but can reduce transportation costs, however current markets cannot support use of densified fuels. This study was sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The report is available on the RAND web-site at www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR984.html. ATTENTION: By clicking the link, you are leaving a U.S. Government website.
Life Cycle Analysis: Ethanol from Biomass
Life Cycle Analysis of an Ethanol Plant utilizing Biomass. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs.
Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia
The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia establishes performance and cost data for coal fueled plants producing synthetic natural gas and ammonia. The plants are based on a dry-feed entrained-flow gasifier and include cases using bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals. All configurations were studied with and without carbon sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2012. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
Improving Domestic Energy Security and Lowering CO2 Emissions with “Next Generation” CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR)
NETL has revised its national resource assessment for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). Under a current technology scenario, 1,200 reservoirs in the lower 48 states are amenable to CO2 EOR. At an assumed crude oil market price of $85 per barrel, these reservoirs represent 24 billion barrels of economic reserves. Under a next generation scenario the economic supply from CO2 EOR increases to 60 billion barrels. The resource assessment unveils a strong dependence on CO2 capture technology, as the equivalent of 60 - 90 GW of coal-fired plants with 90% capture will be needed to supply EOR floods.
Technical and Economic Analysis of Various Power Generation Resources Coupled with CAES Systems
Contact: Ryan Egidi
Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is an energy storage application with the potential to supplement intermittent power sources, such as wind and solar generators, and to enable better load following for more constant power sources such as coal combustion generators. To better understand CAES’s potential to provide practical energy storage for intermittent and constant-output power sources in the U.S., three practical considerations important to CAES planning and operations were analyzed: 1. Siting decisions 2. Development of optimal charge-discharge strategies 3. Design and operating factors that affect efficiency. These three analyses form the major sections of this study.
Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections
Uniquely correlating the increased number of larger and longer-lasting frequency excursions in North American Interconnections with electricity market design and frequency control regulations, the report connects direct (technical) and indirect (non-technical) causes, both the physics of the problem and the regulatory environment (i.e., regulations, standards, and policies). The physical laws governing the frequency stability phenomenon and system control efforts are responsible for maintaining the nominal system frequency. However, the regulatory environment impacts policy on market design, affecting frequency stability and policies directly affecting frequency control practices. The report covers both technical and policy aspects to improve frequency stability.
Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases
The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3a: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: IGCC Cases establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Plant Configurations
Contact: Walter Shelton
This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for coal-based, integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advanced technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The results represent the potential future benefits of IGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for IGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology. The IGFC plants in this study apply advanced, planar, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology with separate anode and cathode off-gas steams, and incorporate anode off-gas oxy-combustion for nearly complete carbon capture. The SOFC simulations utilize the expected operating conditions and performance capabilities of this solid oxide fuel cell technology, operating initially at atmospheric-pressure. The power plant cost and performance estimates reflect performance projections based on the current state of SOFC development, as well as projecting a pathway of SOFC technology development advances.
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United States
On May 12, 2011 NETL provided the following presentation at the Cornell University lecture series on unconventional natural gas development. The presentation summarizes the life cycle analysis (LCA) greenhouse gas (GHG) research on natural gas extraction and delivery in the United States (on a lb CO2e/MMBtu basis) and a comparison of the life cycle GHG profiles of average natural gas and coal-fired power production and delivery to an end-user (lb CO2e/MWh basis). Specifically, the presentation details seven natural gas profiles: onshore conventional gas, associated gas, offshore gas, tight sands (gas), shale gas (based on Barnett Shale), coal bed methane gas, and the year 2009 domestic average mix. Each natural gas source is upgraded in a gas processing plant, compressed, and delivered to a large end-user (e.g., power plant).
Power Systems Financial Model Version 6.6 and User's Guide
The NETL Power System Financial Model, Version 6.6, is an Excel based Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model that calculates the investment decision criteria used by energy project developers to evaluate the financial performance of power systems, including (but not limited to) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle, and various coal conversion systems, including co-production of liquid fuel and power. The model can also be used for renewable power generation.
Analysis of Natural Gas Fuel Cell Plant Configurations
This report presents the results of a Pathway Study for natural gas fueled, fuel cell (NGFC) power systems with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The results quantify the performance and cost benefits for a series of projected gains made through the development of advances in the component technologies or improvements in plant operation and maintenance. The design and cost bases for this pathway study closely follows the bases applied in the NETL, 2010, Bituminous Baseline report so that direct performance and cost comparisons can be made with the conventional fossil-fuel power plant results estimated in that report. Performance and cost projections for a baseline integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, a baseline natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant, and prior coal-based integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) pathways, are compared with the results for the NGFC pathways. The results represent the potential future benefits of NGFC technology development. They also provide DOE with a basis to select the most appropriate development path for NGFC, and to measure and prioritize the contribution of its R&D program to future power systems technology.
Thermal Plant Emissions Due to Intermittent Renewable Power Integration
Answering the question of whether operating one or more natural-gas turbines to firm variable wind or solar power would result in increased Nitrous oxide (NOx) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to full-power steady-state operation of natural-gas turbines, the analysis demonstrates that CO2 emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers. NOx reduction depends strongly on the type of NOx control and how it is dispatched. For the best system examined, using 20% renewable penetration, the NOx reductions are 30-50% of those expected; in the worst, emissions increased by 2-4 times the expected reductions.
QGESS: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance
This paper summarizes the cost estimation methodology employed by NETL in its assessment of power plant performance. A clear understanding of the methodology used is essential for allowing different power plant technologies to be compared on a similar basis. Though these guidelines are tailored for power plants, they can also be applied to a variety of different energy conversion plants (e.g., coal to liquids, syngas generation, hydrogen). This document is part of the Office of Program Planning and Analysis’s Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.
Electric Power System Asset Optimization 2011
This report examines the current state of utility asset optimization within the framework of a vertically integrated utility and presents evidence on why assets are not fully optimized today. It then discusses how Smart Grid processes, technologies, and applications could be leveraged to improve today’s asset management programs enabling a significant improvement in the utilization of both system assets and human resources.
Electric Power System Asset Optimization
This presentation summarizes the finding for the report, Electric Power System Asset Optimization, which investigates asset optimization within the framework of a vertically integrated utility and presents evidence on why assets are not fully optimized today. It then discusses how Smart Grid processes, technologies, and applications could be leveraged to improve today’s asset management programs enabling a significant improvement in the utilization of both system assets and human resources.
Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3c: Natural Gas Combined Cycle at Elevation
The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases
The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL Pennsylvania
Contact: Lisa Nichols
State-level results fact sheet for Pennsylvania to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report
This report documents the assessment of the FY09 economic impacts of expenditures, employment, and research and development awards at the NETL sites located in Pittsburgh, PA; Morgantown, WV; and Albany, OR. The national IO model was developed to assess the FY09 economic impacts of NETL site expenditures, awards, and employment at the national level. This work serves as an annual update to the FY08 analysis National and State Economic Impact of NETL (December 2009).
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL United States
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL United States to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
Vehicle to Grid Systems
The potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours were examined. Hourly electricity prices in three U.S. cities were used to arrive at daily profit values, while the economic losses associated with battery degradation were calculated based on data collected from A123 Systems LiFePO4/Graphite cells tested under combined driving and off-vehicle electricity utilization.
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL West Virginia
State-level results fact sheet for West Virginia to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
National and State Economic Impacts of NETL Oregon
State-level results fact sheet for Oregon to accompany "NETL 2009 Economic Impacts Methodology Report”.
Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Presentation
Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of electric vehicles (EVs), which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.
Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid
Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes Smart Grid’s impact on the environment and identifies additional research to clarify the complex relationship between Smart Grid, applications enabled by Smart Grid and environmental impact. Major impacts on environmental emissions enabled by Smart Grid include load reduction/shift from demand response and demand side management; electric vehicle charging and electrification of transportation sector; shift in generation mix toward intermittent renewables; shift toward distributed generation located closer to load and improved transmission and distribution operations.
Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid - Report
Using critical review of existing literature and independent analyses, NETL summarizes the future of vehicle transportation and its impact on the electric grid. It begins with a discussion of the technology performance characteristics and market potential of key competitors in the vehicle sector, in order to set the stage for the discussion of EVs, which have the highest potential for short-term market penetration. EVs are also the key transportation technology that will have a significant impact on the electric power grid, making their usage and prevalence important to both electric utilities and load-serving entities and consumers.
A Comparative Assessment of CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Oil Recovery and Saline Aquifer Sequestration
A comparative assessment of CO2 sequestration through enhanced oil recovery and saline aquifer sequestration.
Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology, Revision 3
This report describes the development of a database and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis of a defined population of coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to model the cost and assist in the assessment of the feasibility of retrofitting these plants with CO2 capture technology. In addition, an assessment of the impacts on generation, CO2 emission, and fuel consumption should all units be brought up to the average efficiency of the top decile of efficient units by nameplate was made. This report covers data sources, methodology employed, modeling and results. An appendix containing a catalog of aerial imagery used for this analysis is available as a separate document. Click here to see Appendix 3.
Carbon Capture Approaches for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Systems
This study develops ASPEN PLUS simulation models and cost estimates for Natural Gas Combined Cycle plants with CO2 capture. Three approaches for carbon capture are examined: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxy-combustion. In pre-combustion carbon capture, the carbon in the fuel is converted to CO2 and removed before the combustion process, whereas in post-combustion, the more dilute CO2 is separated from the flue gas at a lower pressure. Oxy-combustion technologies use nearly pure oxygen as the oxidant so that the flue gas consists primarily of CO2 and water vapor. Case results are compared with a reference plant based on an 7F frame combustion turbine.
Environmental Impacts of Smart Grid - Presentation
Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report
Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.
Life Cycle Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant
Life Cycle Analysis of an NGCC plant. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.
Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal (EXPC) Power Plant
Life Cycle Analysis of an Existing PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.
Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant
National and State Economic Impact of NETL
This report documents the development of state-level input-output models for Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Oregon and the augmentation of the national input-output model that was developed previously for the project Valuing Domestically Produced Natural Gas and Oil . The state IO models were developed to assess the FY08 economic impacts of expenditures, employment, and research and development awards at the NETL sites located in Pittsburgh, PA; Morgantown, WV; and Albany, OR. The national IO model was developed to assess the FY08 economic impacts of NETL site expenditures, awards, and employment at the national level.
Life Cycle Analysis: Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) Power Plant
Life Cycle Analysis of a Supercritical PC plant with CCS Retrofit. Develops an Inventory of emissions results, and calculates Life Cycle costs for the plant with and without CCS.
Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity
The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle, pulverized coal, and natural gas combined cycle plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration. The analyses were performed on a consistent technical and economic basis that accurately reflects current market conditions. The study serves as a benchmark to track the progress of DOE Advanced Power Systems R&D and as a baseline for analyzing fossil energy plant options. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
Assessment of Macroeconomic Modeling in NEMS
Contact: Rodney Geisbrecht
Sensitivity studies with the NEMS macroeconomic model are described relative to a perceived lack of sensitivity in climate change and energy security scenarios that depart from business as usual in terms of energy prices. Identified issues include an assumed independence from energy prices for certain exogenous driver variables. A practical scheme for systematic sensitivity studies is described, based upon how the Global Insight macroeconomic model is integrated as an external EVIEWS program in NEMS.
Fuel Composition Effects and Other Operational Parameters on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance
This analysis evaluates the effects of syngas composition (including methane and diluents such as water and carbon dioxide), fuel utilization, and anode recycle rate on theoretical solid oxide fuel cell performance.
CarBen Version 3
The Carben model enables users to conduct wedge anlayses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The spreadsheet-based tool relies upon expert opinion for scenario formulation, it is not a cost optimization model.
Current and Future Technologies for Gasification-Based Power Generation, Volume 2: Carbon Capture, Revision 1
Contact: Kristin J. Gerdes
The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process, the study estimates that a 7 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Furthermore, successful R&D for the advanced technologies evaluated results in capital costs and cost of electricity that is more than 30% below that of conventional IGCC technology with CCS.
Life cycle analysis compilation of the power LCA reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.
Assessment of Hydrogen Production with CO2 Capture, Volume 1: Baseline State of the Art Plants
Contact: Larry Rath
This study establishes performance and cost data for state-of-the-art fossil energy hydrogen production plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage. Both natural gas and bituminous coal feedstocks are assessed. Future volumes will examine the cost and performance benefit when DOE-funded advanced technologies are incorporated into a coal-based hydrogen production plant with CO2 capture.
QGESS: Methane Emissions from Mining Powder River Basin Coals
This paper explores methane content and emissions associated with mining Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, a Western, Sub-Bituminous coal. Both coal methane content and specific emissions from mining are explored. Methane emissions resulting from the release of methane trapped in coal beds can have a significant impact on the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with coal production. These emissions vary dramatically by coal rank, specific seam, and seam depth and thickness. This document is part of the Office of Systems, Analyses, and Planning's Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.
Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements
Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.
Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Domestic Coal: Assessing the Techno-Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies
This report assesses the improvements in cost and performance of hydrogen production from domestic coal (with carbon capture) when employing emerging technologies funded by DOE. This analysis specifically evaluates replacing conventional gas cleanup and hydrogen separation with warm gas cleanup and a high temperature membrane.
Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report Presentation
Presentation for life cycle analysis compilation of the Power LCA Reports. Develops an inventory of emissions results, and calculates life cycle costs for each plant with and without CCS.
The Relationship Between the Economy and Electricity Consumption
The observed relationship between growth in energy demand and the economy has been studied in the U.S. as well as other parts of the world. The literature to date provides mixed results as to whether energy consumption has a significant long term and short term relationship with the economy. This paper provides statistical evidence that in the U.S., electricity consumption and the economy (U.S. GDP or personal income) have significant long-run and short-run relationships.
Cost and Performance for Low-Rank Pulverized Coal Oxycombustion Energy Plants
This report provides analyses on oxycombustion of lignite and subbituminous coals in PC and CFBC power plants. Steam conditions examined are super- and ultrasupercritical. In addition, various CO2 purification techniques were compared.
QGESS: Methane Emissions from Mining Illinois Basin Coals
This paper explores methane content and emissions associated with mining Illinois Basin coals such as Illinois No. 6. Both coal methane content and specific emissions from mining are explored. Methane emissions resulting from the release of methane trapped in coal beds can have a significant impact on the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with coal production. These emissions vary dramatically by coal rank, specific seam, and seam depth and thickness. This document is part of the Office of Systems, Analyses, and Planning's Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies (QGESS) series.
Operator's Manual: CarBen Version 3
The CarBen model enables users to conduct wedge analyses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The operator's manual provide a walk-through of the input screens and descirbes the capabilities for results reporting.
An Assessment of Gate-to-Gate Environmental Life Cycle Performance of Water-Alternating-Gas CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery in the Permian Basin
Contact: Robert Dilmore
CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) stimulates oil production while storing a portion of the injected CO2. Life cycle assessment was performed for three CO2-EOR scenarios to estimate the "gate-to-gate" greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with water-alternating-gas injection in a typical Permian Basin reservoir. Current CO2-EOR "best practices" generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 71 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2E) per barrel of oil extracted - approximately three times greater than GHG emissions for the average barrel of domestic oil extracted in 2005.
Life Cycle Analysis of Coal and Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants
This presentation summarizes results of a full life cycle assessment on greenhouse gas emissions for five baseload power plant technologies, as conducted for the EPRI coal fleet meeting held on July 20, 2010. Driving factors, global warming potential, energy losses, electricity costs, methane content, air pollutants and upstream emissions are discussed, ranked and evaluated.
Overview of U.S. Coal Supply and Infrastructure
For most of the past century, the coal supply chain has provided American consumers with a reliable, flexible and low-cost option for meeting their fuel needs. As the Nation's energy market evolves over the next century, it is certain that the coal supply infrastructure will continue to play a pivotal role in this development. This report provides an overview of characteristics of U.S. coal, its production, transportation and utilization at power plants.
Improving the Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants for Near Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions
This NETL report sets forth a vision of improving the average efficiency of the existing coal fired power plant fleet from 32.5% to 36% based on (1) units achieving efficiency equal to the 90th percentile unit in each class, (2) retirements of low efficiency units, and (3) improvements within the best-in-class. Under a scenario where generation from coal is constant at the 2008 level, increasing the average efficiency from 32.5% to 36% reduces U.S. GHG by 175 MMmt/year or 2.5% of total U.S. GHG emissions in 2008.
Storing CO2 and Producing Domestic Crude Oil with Next Generation CO2-EOR Technology: An Update
Contact: Donald Remson
This study provides an update of the January, 2009 report, which examined and quantified the benefits of integrating CO2 storage with next generation enhanced oil recovery practices. The same analysis is repeated using updated data for the state of Alaska and the Offshore Gulf of Mexico. In this report, four next generation CO2 EOR technology options are identified and described, and the potential additional amounts of oil recovered and CO2 stored by using these technologies are quantified.
Advanced Coal Power Market Penetration under Carbon Taxation
This presentation provides an NETL exercise of the NEMS AEO2009 ARRA version to model benefits of advanced coal R&D.
Model: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model, Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0
The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). Accompanying report, including model documentation and scenario analysis, is available for download here.
Model Documentation: Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model Version 2.0 AltSim 2.0
This paper summarizes the structure and methodology used in the AltSim model, presents results for selected scenarios, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis of those results. The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation program which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels, including corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas, coal, and coal with biomass. This model is available for download here.
Technical Workshop Report: Improving the Thermal Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States
NETL hosted an industry workshop on February 25-26, 2010, in Baltimore, MD to identify opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. The workshop built on a previous meeting held on July 15-16, 2009, in Chicago, IL, and brought together 53 leading industry experts, utility owners and operators, equipment vendors, energy consultants, power industry associations, and research organizations to: (1) explore technical opportunities to improve the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired power plants; (2) identify the barriers and challenges that inhibit implementation of these opportunities; and (3) identify specific initiatives that can substantially increase efficiency across the fleet.
Interagency Workgroup on Life Cycle GHG Emissions of Alternative Aviation Fuels
This presentation covers efforts to examine life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of alternative aviation fuels, as led by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory with the support of a multi-disciplinary group of federal, industrial, academic institutions. The primary objective of the workgroup is to develop a set of standard guidance on how to evaluate the life cycle GHG footprint of various alternative jet fuel production pathways using a wide-range of feedstock sources. Application of the guidelines can be used by fuel suppliers, military, and commercial airlines to assess the environmental preferability of a specific fuel production pathway when compared to conventional jet fuel. Workgroup activity status and plans for testing on specific case studies are also discussed.
Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model, CUBE Version 1.0
The Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0) determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). An accompanying report (also available for download on the NETL website) describes model layout and function. A free Analytica player for viewing and using this model can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.
Investment Decisions for Baseload Power Plants
Contact: Anthony Zammerilli
This report, prepared by ICF International, provides an identification and discussion of factors considered for investment decisions for base load power generation in the U.S.(for example levelized cost of electricity, design and construction lag, fuel cost and variability, technology performance risk, initial capital outlay, water use, future cost of carbon emissions) and discusses their relative importance in investment decisions. There is a detailed discussion on current and advanced power plant technologies, including ultra-supercritical coal power, coal power with carbon dioxide capture and storage, and nuclear power. In addition, there is a detailed description and analysis of two case studies from actual power plant projects to substantiate the identified objective functions from the above items.
Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions Model Documentation, CUBE Version 1.0
This report accompanies the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions model, version 1.0 (CUBE 1.0), and provides explanation of model content and use. It is intended to complement extensive documentation contained in the model itself. CUBE 1.0, available for download here, determines the life cycle GHG emissions of biomass feedstocks from planting the biomass to delivery to the bioenergy plant gate ("farm-to-gate"). Included are emissions associated with feedstock production, transportation, and processing. The feedstocks in CUBE 1.0 include three dedicated energy crops (corn grain, switchgrass, and mixed prairie biomass) and two biomass residues (forest residue and mill residue). A free Analytica player for viewing and using CUBE 1.0 can be downloaded from Lumina Decision Systems at: http://www.lumina.com/ana/player.htm.
World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Tool
The World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends interactive tool enables the user to look at both total and power sector CO2 emissions from the use of coal, oil, or natural gas, over the period 1990 to 2030. One can use the tool to compare five of the larger CO2 emitters to each other or to overall world emissions. The data are from the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Scenario.
World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Documentation
Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology and the Potential for Improvements in Efficiency, Appendix 3
This appendix contains the catalog of all imagery used in the GIS analysis portion of the report.
A Presentation on Improving Coal Power Plant Efficiency as means for Reducing GHG Emissions given at the Great Plains Energy Expo, Nov. 2009
This presentation discusses NETL's evaluation of opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency as a way to provide near term greenhouse gas emission reductions, as presented at the Great Plains Energy Expo on November 9, 2009. It outlines analysis methods and anticipated benefits as well as identifies potential barriers, realistic targets and costs. North Dakota coal-fired power plants are also examined and compared.
Integration of H2 Separation Membranes with CO2 Capture and Compression
A core mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program is to foster the development of commercially-ready technologies for CO2 capture and sequestration. R&D supported by the U.S. DOE is investigating alternatives to absorption for capturing CO2 that may achieve program goals. Membrane gas separation has a number of advantages, in that they are usually compact, have no moving parts, have low maintenance, and are highly reliable. In this assessment, alternative flowsheets incorporating membranes that may out-perform current technologies for CO2 capture were investigated. An initial screening study identified several novel integrations of membranes for IGCC applications.
NETL Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model
This model calculates the 2005 national average life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for petroleum-based fuels sold or distributed in the United States in the year 2005. Specifically, the model reports, by life cycle stage, the life cycle GHG emissions for conventional gasoline, conventional diesel fuel, and kerosene-based jet fuel. The model served as the primary calculation tool for the results reported in the NETL November 26, 2008, report entitled "Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels". The model was created in Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and requires macros to be enabled to solve iterative calculation functions.
A Presentation on CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery given to the China National Petroleum Corporation, October 2009
This presentation discusses NETL's assessment of opportunities to use carbon dioxide to enhance oil recovery in the United States, as presented at the China National Petroleum Corporation workshop on CO2 EOR and Storage in Beijing, China on October 26, 2009. It discusses efforts to quantify the amount of crude oil amenable to CO2 EOR, estimates CO2 sequestration levels, and identifies current modeling efforts as well as outlines economic and environmental benefits. Basin-level data, analysis methods and recovery estimates are also presented.
The Potential of Advanced Technologies to Reduce IGCC Carbon Capture Costs
The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's fossil energy technologies. This was presented at the Oct 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference (GTC) and is a companion presentation to the final report, "Current and Future Technologies for Gasfication-Based Power Generation, Volume 2" (Nov 2009).
Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool
The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full report and serves as an electronic desk reference for quickly obtaining plant cost and performance data and for comparing and contrasting several technologies. Performance, emissions, and cost data presented include: net and gross output, heat rate, efficiency, water use, SO2, NOx, CO2, PM, and Hg emissions, total plant cost and levelized cost of electricity. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2009 Update
Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2009 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.
Evaluation of Alternate Water Gas Shift Configurations for IGCC Systems
This report investigates the cost and performance effects of a range of carbon capture goals, by varying the amount of CO converted to CO2 in the water gas shift step of an IGCC plant.
Literature Review Of Employment Impact Studies Of Power Generation Technologies
This study identifies and reviews relevant reports and articles in the existing body of literature on employment impacts and job creation statistics relating to power generation technologies. This study provides a rigorous analytical review of five down-selected studies and broad overviews of several other relevant employment impact reports.
Systems Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Combined Cycle
This report presents three integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) combined cycle cases that include carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). An IGFC combined cycle naturally lends itself to CCS, and also has the benefit of high efficiency and minimal water footprint.
U.S. Electricity Market View Interactive Tool
This interactive tool shows U.S. electric capacity and generation by prime mover and primary fuel categories for each of the ten NERC regions.
West Virginia Smart Grid Implementation Plan
Contact: Steve Bossart
Producing the first statewide Smart Grid Implementation Plan in the US, the West Virginia Smart Grid team examined current WV electricity grid conditions and the likely future state required to support the development of a 21st century economy. Progressing through established DOE Smart Grid characteristics and key technology areas, the analysis identified several gaps to address to establish a resilient and reliable energy infrastructure supportive of West Virginia's future economic development. A detailed business case, complete with cost benefit analysis and scenarios, offers solutions in an implementation plan with timeframes to direct specific benefits to consumers, society, and utilities.
U.S. Capacity Margin Analysis Model
This interactive tool models U.S. electric capacity margins for eight NERC regions. Users can change the plant construction probability of currently proposed capacity and the availability of each fuel mix. User inputs are compared to NERC's 2008 capacity margin forecasts. This tool can be used to look at various "what if" scenarios.
A Kinetic Approach to the Catalytic Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas
In this paper, the authors propose a method for analyzing mercury oxidation catalyst results in a kinetic framework using the bulk reaction rate for oxidized mercury formation normalized by either the catalyst mass or surface area. Four mercury oxidation catalysts were tested in a packed bed reactor in the presence of flue gas generated by the NETL 500 lb/h coal combustor: Ir, Ir/HCl, Darco FGD activated carbon, and Thief/HCl. The catalyst-normalized results allow for more quantitative analysis of mercury oxidation catalyst data and a model that will allow for efficient scaling up from laboratory-scale to larger-scale studies.
An Investigation into California's Residential Electricity Consumption
This paper investigates apparent discrepancies in electricity usage between the state of California and the rest of the United States. Since 1970, electricity consumption per person (ECP) in California has grown slowly, while ECP in the United States has increased approximately 50 percent. The goals of this paper are to examine characteristics of U.S. electricity consumption over time, create models to estimate the difference between California and U.S. household electricity consumption after accounting for relevant variables, and develop a model to test whether factors affecting California's electricity consumption is the same as the rest of the United States.
Water Requirements for Fossil-Based Electricity Plants with and without Carbon Capture
This presentation was presented at the 2009 Ground Water Protection Council's Annual Forum in Salt Lake City, UT. It provides an overview of water requirements for fossil-based electricity plants with and without carbon capture with a focus on coal fueled plants. Several qualitative Sankey diagrams for water use are provided.
Update of Regulatory Activity Impacting Coal-Fired Power Plants
This presentation evaluates recent regulatory initiatives that could have an impact on new and existing coal-fired power plants. The relevant regulations are identified, along with possible compliance strategies. To view this document, when you open the file, click "Read Only."
Opportunities to Improve the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants
The NETL hosted a workshop on July 15-16, 2009, to explore opportunities to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. Eighteen industry experts representing utility owners and operators, equipment vendors, energy consultants, and power industry associations participated in the workshop. This document summarizes the key issues discussed during the sessions.
Extending the CCS Retrofit Market by Refurbishing Coal Fired Power Plants
This report provides documentation and demonstration of a NEMS based modeling methodology to endogenously forecast trends in the refurbishment and retrofitting of coal fired power plants for carbon capture and sequestration, with special reference to the impact of NETL R&D programs.
Assessment of Power Plants That Meet Proposed Greenhouse Gas Emission Performance Standards
Technoeconomic assessment of western U.S. coal-fired power plants (greenfield IGCC and supercritical PC, and existing subcritical PC) each with three CO2 capture levels: 0%, 90%, and a level appropriate to meet California's standard of 1,100 lb CO2/MWh.
Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands
The analysis presented in this report was done to assess the storage potential beneath Federal lands and further the effort undertaken in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada by defining a resource potential beneath a specific category of land. Also considered in this analysis was the location of potential CO2 point sources that might utilize Federal lands for storage, pipeline Right-Of-Way (ROW), and wells located on or near Federal land. Relevant laws, regulations, and legislation at the Federal and State level are also summarized.
Framework and Guidance for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Footprints of Aviation Fuels
This report provides framework and guidance for estimating the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for transportation fuels, specifically aviation fuels. The focus on aviation fuels was driven by the patterns of fuel use by the federal government. Policies such as those outlined in Section 526 of EISA 2007 cause federal agencies to institute enforceable guidelines for procuring low carbon alternative fuels. Federal consumption of fuels is dominated by the Department of Defense and the Air Force consumes more fuel than any of the other military services or federal agencies (Defense Science Board 2008). Thus, aviation applications may become early adopters of low carbon transportation fuels. The U.S. Air Force convened a working group of individuals from government agencies, universities and companies actively engaged in assessing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation fuels, and requested that this group develop guidance on procedures for estimating greenhouse gas emissions in aviation applications, using currently available data and tools.
Database and Model of Coal-fired Power Plants in the United States for Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology
NETL developed a GIS database of the US coal-fired power plant fleet to analyze cost and space availability issues associated with retrofitting for carbon capture. A presentation titled Coal-fired Power Plants in the U.S.: Costs for Retrofit with CO2 Capture Technology is also included.
NEMS CO2 Market Model Development Documentation Report
This report details the development and results of a modified version of EIA's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model that directly represents potential CO2 transfer between alternative supply sources and regional EOR-CO2 production capability as represented by the NETL supply and demand curves. A new module was developed and added to the NEMS system to equilibrate CO2 supply and demand and establish regional CO2 transfer prices between CO2 sources and EOR/sequestration entities. The project methodology, NEMS' modifications, and specified model results are comprehensively detailed in this report. Appendices containing NEMS coding and result tables are provided in a separate document, click here to see the appendices.
NEMS CO2 Market Model Development Documentation Report Appendices
This document contains the Appendices for the report titled "NEMS CO2 Market Model Development Documentation Report" that details the development of a modified version of EIA's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model and directly represents potential CO2 transfer between alternative supply sources and regional EOR-CO2 production capability. These Appendices contain NEMS coding and result tables.
Balancing Climate Change, Energy Security, and Economic Sustainability: A Life Cycle Comparison of Diesel Fuel from Crude Oil and Domestic Coal and Biomass Resources
Brief 4-page summary of the near-term benefits of co-gasifying U.S. coal and biomass resources to produce FT diesel; a domestic transportation fuel. The paper summarizes the climate change, energy security, and economic benefits when compared to conventional diesel fuel production from domestic and imported crude oil.
Consideration of Crude Oil Source in Evaluating Transportation Fuel GHG Emissions
NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) for the baseline year 2005. Further analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides a brief summary of methodology and results of these two analyses.
Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Performance and Cost Assessment
An analysis of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from two integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants that use solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to convert syngas to electricity. Results show that the fuel cell system is more expensive than a combustion turbine but that expense is counterbalanced by the decrease in the unit cost of upstream equipment due to the higher IGFC system efficiency. Furthermore, the fuel cell platform offers nearly 100% CO2 capture.
An Evaluation of the Extraction, Transport and Refining of Imported Crude Oils and the Impact on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions
NETL has analyzed the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) derived from domestic crude oil and crude oil imported from specific countries. The analysis reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil. Imported crude oils are on average heavier and contain higher levels of sulfur and the controls on venting and flaring during crude oil production are not as good as in domestic operations. This report provides detailed methodology and results for this analysis.
NETL's Capability to Compare Transportation Fuels: GHG Emissions and Energy Security Impacts
Describes the methodology behind the well-to-tank greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions estimate for U.S. petroleum diesel of 18.4 kg CO2E/MMBtu fuel delivered to the vehicle, lower heating value (LHV) basis. This is the average for the United States in 2005. Presents additional analysis that reveals that producing diesel from imported crude oil results in well-to-tank GHG emissions that are, on average, 59% higher than from domestic crude oil.
DOE NETL's Carbon Capture R&D Program for Existing Coal Fired Power Plants
A review and assessment of the DOE research and development (R&D) program directed specifically at post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies that can be retrofit to existing coal-fired power plants, and designed into new plants. The strategic plan for this program includes the development of advanced CO2 capture and compression technologies for both existing and new coal-fired power plants that, when combined, can achieve 90 percent CO2 capture at less than a 35 percent increase in cost of electricity (COE). Such technologies could then be available for commercial use by 2020.
Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass
This study evaluates the use of domestic resources to meet national objectives of energy security, economic sustainability, and the mitigation of global climate change. Specifically, feasibility of these objectives is reviewed relevant to the transportation sector's needs and the unconventional fuels by which this sector can operate. The findings of the report indictate that CTL fuel is compatible with our current fuel distribution infrastructure, can be used directly in existing diesel vehicles, and would be economically competitive with petroleum-derived diesel when the crude oil price (COP) is equal to or above $86 per barrel (bbl).
Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System-Presentation
This presentation describes a spreadsheet tool that models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS.
Electricity Use of Enhanced Oil Recovery with Carbon Dioxide
This report examines the electricity requirements of carbon-dioxide enhanced oil recovery technology and provides a range of estimates, expressed in kWh of electricity consumed per Bbl of incremental oil produced.
Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating the Material Flows in a PHEV-CO2EOR-CCS-CBTL System
This tool models two systems where plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are fueled by electricity from a coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and either (1) gasoline refined from petroleum or (2) diesel fuel produced from a coal and/or biomass to liquids plant with CCS. Each scenario allows use of the captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. The model determines the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and compares this value to a conventional vehicle powered solely by petroleum-based fuels.
Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations
This document was developed for regulatory organizations, project developers, and policymakers to increase awareness of existing and developing monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) techniques applied in geological sequestration sites for carbon dioxide. The contents discuss the principle goals of MVA and the effective techniques by which it is practiced. The report also provides case studies of domestic and international research sites.
EPACT Project: Valuing Domestically Produced Natural Gas and Oil
This document describes the methodology for development of the Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Production spreadsheet tool.
Economic Impacts of Increased Domestic Oil and Gas Production
Spreadsheet based tool uses input output modeling methods to estimate the regional and national economic impacts of domestic production of crude oil and natural gas versus imports. Assesses the application of advanced exploration and technology to the Marcellus Shale, the Bakken Shale, the Barnett Shale and other plays of interest.
Assessing Future Supply Curves for Coal In Light Of Economic, Technological and Environmental Uncertainties
This study provides an analysis of the costs to continue mining in the U.S., as well as discussion of supply availability and environmental costs. Understanding these costs requires an understanding of unit operations timing, individual mine plans, productivity and costs; more detailed and thorough measurements of coal reserves; and a better understanding of coal mining's interaction with the surrounding ecosystem.
2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada
This document presents an overview of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies and comments on the government-level efforts in CCS including the development of the National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB). Several maps showing the number, location, and magnitude of identified CO2 stationary sources in the U.S. and portions of Canada demonstrate the extent of CO2 storage available. Finally, a review of field projects and findings are presented, describing commercial opportunities of storing CO2 from stationary sources.
Development of Baseline Data and Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Petroleum-Based Fuels
This study develops a comprehensive baseline for the life cycle of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions generated by conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels in the United States. The results of this study benchmark the performance of transportation fuels with respect to climate impacts in each of the fuels' life cycle stages; emphasizing opportunities to lower life cycle GHG emissions present in each stage.
Current and Future IGCC Technologies: A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R and D Using Bituminous Coal - Volume 1
The impact of a portfolio of advanced technologies in DOE's Clean Coal R&D Program were evaluated in gasification-based power plant configurations (without carbon capture and sequestration) resulting in power plants that are significantly more efficient and affordable than today's limited set of fossil energy technologies. In the IGCC process alone, the study estimates that an 11 percentage point efficiency improvement over conventional gasification technology is possible. With fuel cell technology, process efficiency improvements upwards of 24 percentage points are potentially achievable. Capital cost reductions result not only from less expensive technology alternatives such as warm gas cleanup and ITM air separation, but also from increased power generation brought about by advanced technology such as syngas turbines, resulting in cumulative total plant cost reductions by as much as $700/kW. Improvements in process efficiency, reductions in capital and operating expense, and increase in capacity factor all contribute to decreased cost of electricity (COE), projecting an overall decrease by more than 3 cents/kW-hr, or a decrease of 35 percent.
Current and Future IGCC Technologies: A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R and D Using Bituminous Coal Volume 1 Presentation
This presentation summarizes Volume 1 of the Advanced Power Systems Pathway Study. It was presented at the 2008 Pittsburgh Coal Conference.
Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units
DOE provided the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) with a list of steam generation units that would be required to retrofit with cooling towers. DOE requested NERC to model the reliability impacts of the cooling tower mandate using certain assumptions. In its white paper, NERC concludes that once the deadline for the cooling tower retrofits has passed, the generation losses resulting from the requirement would exacerbate a potential decline in electric generation reserve margins that are needed to ensure reliable delivery of electricity. Nuclear plants would be particularly impacted by a cooling tower mandate.
Multi-Seam Well Completion Technology Implications for Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Production: 2008 Update
This study shows that MSC Technology can appreciably improve the outlook for CBM development in the Powder River Basin, by improving reserves-per-well and reducing environmental impact. The challenge is to capture the lessons learned from successes, treat new wells / reservoirs as unique and to utilize different completion technologies as needed, such as slotted liners, to maximize success.
Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements: 2008 Update
Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2008 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.
Water Requirements for Existing and Emerging Thermoelectric Plant Technologies
This study provides both water consumption and cooling duty factors for Nuclear, PC (Subcritical and Supercritical), IGCC, and NGCC power plants. Data is provided for both CO2 capture and no CO2 capture configurations of each type of plant.
Pulverized Coal Oxycombustion Power Plants: Presentation
This presentation reviews the cost and performance baseline study for the oxycombustion process discussed in the report of the same title. The results of this study are intended to serve as a comparison for related studies.
Recommended Project Finance Structures for the Economic Analysis of Fossil-Based Energy Projects
This analysis develops a set of market validated financial assumptions, including the required internal rate of return for the equity portion of the investment (IRROE), cost of debt, and the financing structure (debt/equity ratio) needed to conduct comparative economic analyses of commercial and advanced coal-based power and fuel systems. These inputs are necessary to perform technical and economic analyses of coal-to-power, coal-to-liquids (CTL), coal-to-synthetic natural gas (CTG), natural gas to liquids (GTL) and natural gas to power technologies.
Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide
This document describes the methodologies used to produce the geologic resource estimates for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in the 2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada (Atlas II). The methodologies described in this document were designed to integrate results of data compiled by the seven RCSPs for three types of geologic formations: saline formations, unmineable coal seams, and oil and gas reservoirs.
Impact of Cost Escalation on Power Systems R and D Goals - Report
This report recommends updates to goals for three technology areas in the Clean Coal R&D Program: Advanced Power Systems (APS); Carbon Sequestration (CS); and Fuel Cells (FC) to account for cost escalation, and it contains a definition of the baseline used to set these goals.
Impact of Cost Escalation on Power System R and D Goals - Presentation
This companion presentation summarizes the report which recommends updates to goals for three technology areas in the Clean Coal R&D Program: Advanced Power Systems (APS); Carbon Sequestration (CS); and Fuel Cells (FC) to account for cost escalation, and it contains a definition of the baseline used to set these goals.
An Update on DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology
This paper focuses on results from the Phase II mercury (Hg) control technology field testing program funded by DOE Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program with the data segregated by technology. In addition, the results of NETL's economic analysis of Hg control via activated carbon injection (ACI) are presented, along with a discussion of potential coal utilization by-product (CUB) impacts. Preliminary results from NETL's Phase III Hg field testing program are also presented.
Market Analysis of Emerging Electric Energy Storage Systems
This project investigates the economics of two emerging electric energy storage (EES) technologies: sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries and flywheels in the NYISO electricity markets and the PJM Interconnection (PJM). The analysis indicates that for the base case scenario there is over a 98% probability that a NaS battery will have a negative Net Present Value (NPV) in both NYISO and PJM; whereas flywheel systems show a 100% probability of positive NPV. Current policies allow emerging EES technologies to participate in energy markets for capturing energy arbitrage opportunities, but regulatory changes can reduce financial and regulatory uncertainty for EES.
Reducing CO2 Emissions by Improving the Efficiency of the Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Fleet
This presentation contains graphics from the report by the same name.
An Engineering-Economic Analysis
This investigation examines whether an IGCC facility that operates its gasifier continuously but stores the syngas and produces electricity only when daily prices are high may be more profitable than an IGCC facility with no syngas storage. The goal of this study is to generate an initial examination of whether storing syngas can increase the profitability of IGCC plants, rather than to perform a plant design.
Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas
In this article, the authors introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. Initial results reveal informative characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this process.
Advanced Syngas Conversion Technologies COE Tool Documentation
This document describes the methodology for development of the IGFC COE spreadsheet tool.
Advanced Syngas Conversion Technologies COE Tool
This spreadsheet calculates the levelized cost of electricity for fuel cell systems that are integrated with gasification; costs are scaled from recent NETL coal-based power plant cost estimates.
Water Vapor From Thermoelectric Power Plants, Does it Impact Climate?
The quantity of water vapor from power plants is compared to the amount of water from the natural evaporation/precipitation cycle.
CARBEN Wedge-based Spreadsheet Tool for Analyzing U.S. GHG Emissions Scenarios
CarBen is a tool for determining the reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sector based on user-supplied changes to the baseline such as electricity supply options, transportation sector fuel demand and fuel use, non-CO2 GHG emission abatement, carbon pricing, and international offsets.
DOE NETL's Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: Preliminary Economic Analysis of Wet FGD Co Benefit Enhancement Technologies
This report provides "study-level" cost estimates for two technologies designed to promote Hg0 oxidation and enhance wet FGD Hg capture: fixed-bed Hg0 oxidation catalysts, and coal treatment with a calcium bromide (CaBr2) solution. The economics were developed for "representative" 500 megawatt (MW) units burning three types of low-rank coal: North Dakota (ND) lignite, Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous, and a blend of 50% Texas lignite (TxL) and 50% PRB subbituminous coals, where each unit is assumed to be equipped with a large cold-side electrostatic precipitator (CS-ESP) for particulate control and a wet FGD system for SO2 and Hg2+ co-removal.
Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume III: Consumer and Producer Surplus Effects
This volume discusses a methodology that was devised to estimate net benefits from standard National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) output.
An Integrated Modeling Framework for Carbon Management Technologies
A factsheet on the need for modeling and assessment tools that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) methods. A tool modeling tool was developed at Carnegie Mellon University: The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). This model compares the economic costs of projects relevant to characteristics of plants implementing them, and determines the optimal CCS application.
Advances in CO2 Capture Technology - The U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Program
This paper discusses the current status of the development of CO2 capture technology. Among the technologies discussed are contemporary processes including gas phase separation, absorption into a liquid, and adsorption on a solid as well as hybrid processes. The paper also reviews several innovative concepts, such as metal organic frameworks, ionic liquids, and enzyme-based systems.
CO2 Capture-Ready Coal Power Plants
This report examines the question of whether it is more cost effective to design a new plant in anticipation of future restrictions on carbon emissions so that the plant is CO2 capture-ready or to proceed with no anticipation of a future retrofit. Specifically, the timing of the optimal investment decision in assessed by applying a simplified discounted cash flow tool (DCF) to determine the sensitivity of the relationship between the costs of electricity of each option to the time value of money. See Carbon Storage Program Overview.
Natural Gas and Electricity Costs and Impacts on Industry
This study reviews the trends in historical natural gas and electricity prices. The document identifies key factors that are contributing to the increase in historical natural gas prices, while also discussing the subsequent effects on energy industry production and development. The impact of climate change legislation is also reviewed relevant to the future of base load power reliability and consumer electricity prices.
Storing CO2 with Enhanced Oil Recovery
This study examines and quantifies the benefits of integrating CO2 storage with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). It also estimates the size of the U.S. CO2 market available from enhanced oil recovery and how this market could support early market entry of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS technology).
Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume II: Adding PC Repowering to NEMS, Integrated Assessments
This study envisions repowering by means of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology configured for capture and sequestration (CCS). Cost and performance factors were added to the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for a brownfield setting, wherein the site's ancillary equipment and infrastructure is used, but not its existing steam turbine.
Deployment of Advanced Coal Power in the U.S. under a Range of Carbon Tax Scenarios
The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) was exercised to forecast market penetration for advanced coal power with CO2 capture under a range of CO2 emission tax scenarios, considering market-based incentives for low carbon emission power and improved technology performance consistent with the DOE/FE research portfolio.
Exploring NEMS for Integrated Assessments of Retrofitting or Repowering the Fleet of Coal Fired Plants. Volume 1: Adding PC Retrofits to NEMS - Initial Testing
An integrated analysis was undertaken using a generic model of retrofit costs as a function of basic plant characteristics (such as heat rate) in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Modifications to NEMS were made to determine tradeoffs between retrofit, retirement, and the purchase of emission allowances.
Chemical-Looping Process in a Coal-to-Liquids Configuration
This report presents an assessment of the potential of chemical looping in the context of a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant. This analysis-of-concept report was intended to confirm that the thermo chemical operations were in heat balance at temperatures compatible with an operable system. The analysis also included simulations of an entire coal to F-T liquids process, including the proposed looping scheme. The specific method tested in this report is a chemical looping concept that uses iron oxide (Fe2O3) to react with the unreacted synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and light hydrocarbons in the effluent tail gas from an F-T reactor.
Chemical-Looping Process in a Coal-to-Liquids Configuration: Independent Assessment of the Potential of Chemical-Looping in the Context of a Fischer-Tropsch Plant
This study provides an independent technical assessment of the potential of chemical looping in the context of a Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant. Within this framework, the analysis compares the technical performance results of a CTL plant with chemical looping with a conventional coal-to-liquids (CTL) system. Specifically, a concept under development by The Ohio State University (OSU) was assessed to confirm that the thermochemical operations were in heat balance at temperatures compatible with an operable system.
Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Power Plants Presentation
This presentation discusses the technical report of the same title. The underlying study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical US coal-fired electric power plan using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system.
Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants
This study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture system. The study investigates various levels of CO2 capture (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency reduction, CO2 emissions reduction, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO2 capture systems to the selected study unit.
Further Investigation of the Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon
To gain a more complete understanding of the impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon, continuous mercury concentration measurements were made downstream of a packed sorbent bed. The results indicate that high S6+ content limits both the 6-h capacity of activated carbon and the initial mercury removal efficiency. Findings suggest that there are multiple available sites for mercury interaction with the sorbent surface and that capture and oxidation occur at different surface sites.
The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase
This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. Successful achievements of the Characterization Phase are first presented. The seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) will then perform field tests that will validate carbon sequestration technologies that are best suited to their respective regions of the country during the Validation Phase.
Gasification World Database 2007: Current Industry Status
This report provides an update on the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) world gasification database. The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed profile of current operating gasification plants and new construction plans projected for completion between 2008 and 2010. The information on each plant includes performance projections and regional capacity characteristics. The report also documents trends and drivers excepted to have an effect on the growth of the gasification industry, such as research and development, regulatory policy, and economic factors.
Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Energy Sector
This report discusses the effect of a changing climate on the energy sector and explores the extent of both direct and indirect impacts on power generation. The paper also includes a discussion of the applicability of NETL's R&D programs in alleviating negative impacts of climate change on energy. As a result, this report serves as a comprehensive identification of the major impact factors that should be considered for future research and analysis.
The Benefits of SOFC for Coal-Based Power Generation
This report addresses what impact SECA fuel cells will have on the cost, efficiency, and environmental performance of advanced coal power plants. To approach this question, a number of systems analyses were conducted to determine the benefits of SOFC systems integrated with coal gasification. The analyses underlying this study include detailed system assessment, analyses of SOFC module costs, as well as recent system tests of SOFC stacks under development in the Department's SECA program.
NETL Fossil Energy Issues Note FY07 No. 2: Energy-Water Issues
The objective of this issue note is to explore future impacts and challenges concerning water use for thermoelectric power plants on our nation's freshwater supplies.
Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury
In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.
Attaining Energy Security in Liquid Fuels Through Diverse U.S. Energy Alternatives
This analysis posits the existence of a third, moderate-import position option that would enable the United States to achieve a much higher level of energy self-sufficiency without total market withdrawal. This middle ground is referred to as "advantageous interdependence." This analysis does not make specific recommendations for policy in support of any domestic energy alternatives or make budget recommendations for the research and development necessary to develop their associated technologies. Rather it presents the available alternative decision pathways and discusses the implications that analysis of each outcome implies.
Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Studies- Healy Coal-to-Liquids Plant
This study evaluates the feasibility of building a relatively small coal-to-liquids plant in central Alaska to provide a clean diesel product to Alaska's refineries. The study concludes that the establishment of a 14,640 barrel per day F-T plant, using 4 million tons per year of coal, could be economic provided the price per barrel of the F-T product is at least $64 per barrel.
Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants: Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity
This reference contains brief summaries of each of the 12 power plant configurations that were analyzed in Volume 1 of the Cost and Performance Baseline Study, an independent assessment of the cost and performance of fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pulverized coal (PC), and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants. NOTE: Click here for additional Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants information.
Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study
The objective of this study is to prepare a source of information from which valid comparisons can be made for the water loss between the various fossil fuel power plants such as IGCC, PC , and NGCC. This report serves as a tool for reviewing design assumptions, technology capabilities, system performance, etc. and identifying areas where new technology approaches or gasifier designs could lead to substantially lower water requirements.
DOE NETL's Phase II Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: UPDATED Economic Analysis of Activated Carbon Injection
This report provides "study-level" cost estimates for 12 of the Phase II ACI field testing sites that have been completed. This analysis was carried out to provide DOE/NETL a means of measuring its success in achieving the target of reducing baseline mercury control costs by 25 to 50%. Mercury control cost estimates are presented for: conventional (untreated) ACI, chemically-treated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the introduction of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to the coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses were conducted on a plant-specific basis, meaning that the economics are dependent on the actual power plant operating conditions and coal properties observed during full-scale field testing at each of these Phase II sites.
The Impact of Scale-up and Production Volume on SOFC Manufacturing Cost
The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of cell scale-up on the manufactured cost of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Specifically, the report considers the impact of both cell size and production volume on production cost and the trade-offs between these two factors. These assessments are made for four primary stack technologies: planar cells, rectangular cells, circular, and tubular cathode/anode-supported cells.
Industrial Size Gasification for Syngas, Substitute Natural Gas and Power Production
A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the technical and economic viability of coal-derived syngas and substitute natural gas (SNG) refueling of U.S. industries. The study develops an energy demand profile and identifies fuel sources to meet these demands. The study then develops a conceptual design and cost estimates for the production of syngas from coal gasification, production of SNG, and combustion turbine combined cycle refueling with syngas and SNG.
Baseline Technical and Economic Assessment of a Commercial Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facility
This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a commercial 50,000 barrel per day (bbl/day) coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility in the Illinois coal basin. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from medium-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.
NETL's 2005 Coal Power Plant Database
The NETL 2005 Coal Power Plant Database consolidates large quantities of information on coal-fired power plants in a single location. The database contains 191 fields and provides information on over 1,700 boilers and associated units. General fields in the database contain location, fuel, emissions, generation, cooling, and firing information for coal power units in the United States. The information is largely based off of the most recent release of the Annual Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design data form, Energy Information Agency (EIA) Form 767 database report, available at the time of the update. The update took place in 2007 and the majority of the data used came from the 2005 release of EIA's Form 767 database report. Since then, Form 767 has been discontinued. Similar data that is more current can be found in the EIA-923 and 860 Database Annual Electric Generator Reports. NOTE: Click here for access to the database.
Improving Water Management
In this report, a Frequency Domain Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) survey in the Powder River Basin was completed as part of a hydrologic study of coal bed natural gas production. The intent of this survey was to evaluate AEM for large-scale mapping of vadose-zone electrical conductivity and water quality variation within shallow aquifers to evaluate the effects of produced water disposal. See report.
Peaking of World Oil Production: Recent Forecasts
The purpose of this report is to summarize forecasts for the peaking of world oil production, with emphasis on forecasts that have been publicly noted since 2005. The report includes background on peak oil and the factors that have historically made forecasting difficult. Also, the report reviews recent studies that have enhanced forecasting methodology and improved the robustness of forecast results.
Brownfield IGCCs as an Option in the National Energy Modeling System NEMS
This report presents a methodology for calculating capital costs for a brownfield IGCC as a retrofit option for PC plants, relative to the greenfield cost. A 153 $/kW capital cost reduction was estimated for a repower IGCC compared to a greenfield facility, which compared well with other cited cost saving estimates.
Technical and Economic Assessment of Small-Scale Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Facilities
This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of a small-scale coal-to liquids (CTL) facility in southwestern West Virginia. The facility employs gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology to produce commercial-grade diesel and naphtha liquids from a high-sulfur bituminous coal. The scope of the study includes conceptual design development, process analysis, component descriptions, capital and operating cost estimates, and a comparative financial analysis.
FY06 Benefits Assumptions
This report describes the methodology and assumptions used to determine inputs for the determination of FE R&D benefits using the NEMS model.
Mercury Capture and Fate Using Wet FGD at Coal-Fired Power Plants
This paper provides an assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory research and development efforts to optimize mercury capture in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and characterize the fate of mercury in the resultant by-products. The first portion of the paper provides background information on regulatory drivers relative air pollution control technologies. The second section addresses the mercury and coal utilization by-products research areas and provides details on related projects.
Survey of Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas
This paper serves as a survey of catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury methods followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The authors review published results for each type of catalyst and present discussions on the possible reaction mechanisms for each case.
Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study
This report summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a potential industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, local industry is investigating alternatives to natural gas as a feed stock for their process plants. This study evaluated a gasification plant that would supply syngas to meet the chemical needs of a local application and would also co-produce power to meet on-site demand, and possibly other byproducts for local use. The results of the study verified that conversion of a plant from natural gas to syngas is technically and economically feasible.
Economic Impacts of U.S. Liquid Fuel Mitigation Options
This study assesses the economic implications of simultaneous crashes in the supply and demand sides of the economy; emulating a rapid reduction of U.S. dependence on imported oil. The report identifies the infrastructure needed to conduct this undertaking, and considers four options to mitigate dependence on imported oil: Vehicle fuel efficiency (VFE), Coal liquefaction (coal-to-liquids or CTL), Oil shale, and Enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The results of this study summarize what can be accomplished under optimal circumstances.
International Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal Barriers
This document examines regulatory developments of major CCS projects to determine progress in regulation. Five case studies of CCS projects are examined, including enhanced resource recovery and direct storage options at various development stages. The focus of this report is the legal and regulatory context for international projects, although field projects in the U.S. are also addressed.
Comparison of Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne IGCC and Commercial IGCC Performance
This report compares the performance and cost of commercial Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants using General Electric Energy (GEE) and Shell gasifiers with conceptual IGCC plant designs using the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) compact gasifier. The PWR gasifier is also compared with the GEE gasifier in hydrogen production and carbon capture mode. With the exception of the PWR gasifier, the plants are designed with commercially available equipment to be operational in approximately 2010. All results should be considered preliminary and dictated in large part by the selected design basis.
Examining Technology Scenarios for Achieving Stabilization of GHG Concentrations: A U.S. Perspective
The purpose of this presentation is to build a U.S. emissions scenario consistent with stabilization of greenhouse (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The study utilizes CarBen modeling system to compare situational scenarios under which GHG emissions may be controlled. The discussion also reviews market and policy-based strategies to provide incentives for GHG emission abatement.
Technology Scenarios For Achieving Stabilization Of Atmospheric GHG Concentrations: A U.S. Perspective
This paper examines the expectations for U.S. GHG emissions through 2030 and specifies technology options for reducing emissions to a level that is consistent with worldwide stabilization goals of 550 ppm atmospheric GHG concentrations. The paper also suggests a portfolio of policies, actions, and technology performance improvements that achieve the stated GHG emissions goal.
Sorbents for Mercury Capture from Fuel Gas with Application to Gasification Systems
The purpose of this paper is to review the types and performance of sorbents for mercury capture in gasification power generation units. The authors also review the capacity of many of these sorbents for elemental mercury from nitrogen. Based on their assessment, the authors provide future direction for mercury sorbent development for fuel gas applications based on the requirements by the research and development agreement between the DOE NETL and Johnson Matthey.
Highlights of FY2005 FE R and D Benefit Analysis
This report describes the methodology and summarizes the results for quantifying the benefits of FE R&D programs using the NEMS model for a variety of hypothetical future domestic energy scenarios.
Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective
This study addresses concerns on the peaking of conventional oil production. These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. The model assesses the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Results indicate a high probability of peaking or constrained conventional oil production before 2025.
Addressing the Critical Link Between Fossil Energy and Water
This paper discusses the demand for water from the fossil energy sector. In addition to demand, some resource acquisition practices may contribute to adverse water impacts and contamination. This paper summarizes the current water-related RD&D activities currently sponsored by DOE/FE and implemented by NETL in the areas of fossil-fuel-based thermoelectric power generation, coal mining, and oil and natural gas production.
Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Power Plant Water Management R and D Program
This paper provides background information on the relationship between water use and thermoelectric power generation. The documents describes the R&D activities currently being sponsored by DOE/NETL's IEP program to address current and future water-energy issues.
Marginal Wells: Contribution to Future Supply
A factsheet reviewing the contributions of marginal or stripper wells in response to U.S. crude oil and natural gas demand. Marginal natural gas wells produce 60 thousand cubic feet per day (Mcf/d) or less. Yet, marginal wells accounted for about 11% of natural gas production in the contiguous states, and the analysis of this review indicates that the volume will continue to increase.
Mature Region, Youthful Potential: Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Appalachian and Illinois Basins
This document discusses the optimal use of domestic fossil fuel resources, focusing specifically on two regions with coal supply: Appalachian and Illinois Basins. This report reviews the technical and infrastructure challenges to rejuvenating these coal supply sources. The report further provides regulatory suggestions to optimizing the utilization of these regions while minimizing environmental impacts.
Use of Hydrogen for the Light Duty Transportation Fleet: Technology and Economic Analysis
This report presents results of economic modeling and scenario analyses in which the nation meets environmental and energy security goals. The 2003 federal goals include: reducing petroleum consumption by 11 million barrels per day and carbon emissions by 500 million metric tons by 2040. The paper highlights plausible technological pathways and policies needed to achieve these goals, including a scenario analysis on hydrogen or alternative fuel-based transportation fleets.
Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts
This document reports on the current status of domestic natural gas production and imports as they related to rising demands. The document discusses how the existing infrastructure can handle projected capacity needs and presents discussions on improving a global LNG market system to meet the expected demands.
Natural Gas Resources and Federal Lands
A factsheet summarizing the extent to which natural gas sources are located within federal land boundaries. This paper discusses the role of the Bureau of Land Management to manage these natural resources for recreational, conservation, and resource consumption. Finally, the access restrictions relevant to extracting and utilizing natural resources on federal lands is presented.
A Forecast of Marginal Natural Gas and Oil Well Data
This document presents the methodology and results of an analysis conducted by Northrop Grumman Mission Systems for the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) of the U.S Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The goal of this analysis was to develop a forecast of marginal oil and natural gas production and well counts through the year 2025.
The Need for Effective and Forthright Communication Planning for LNG Facility Sitting: A Checklist for State Public Utility Commissions
This document aims to familiarize state regulatory commissions and other federal and state policy-makers with the activities LNG developers should take in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) pre-filing period for certification of proposed LNG terminals.
Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview of the Issues for State Public Utility Commissions
This white paper presents an overview of the major issues related to the import and use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a reliable energy source. The report focuses on the modes of maintaining a strong LNG supply, including: The Role of Public Utility Commissions, Regional Issues, Economics and Contracting, and Environmental Impacts. The report concludes by suggesting guidelines for state PUCs considering LNG expansion.
The Top Ten Most-Asked Questions and How to Answer Them
This presentation reviews the top questions relevant to carbon dioxide emissions, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon capture and sequestration. The purpose of this presentation is to open discussion on DOE strategies to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through a portfolio of programs and alternatives.
Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization: Task 3 Final Report
This study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.
Alternative Approaches to Reducing Petroleum Use and CO2 Emissions By Means of a Hydrogen Economy: Technology and Economic Modeling and Scenario Analysis
This presentation discusses the executive goals to reduce petroleum consumption and CO2 emissions by 2040. Current trends in fossil fuel consumption are presented in relation to the level of carbon dioxide emitted from each source. The presentation suggests alternative scenarios to achieve these goals, including alternative fuels and fuel efficiency improvements. AMIGA runs are used to demonstrate optimal outcomes under various scenarios.
Highlights of FY2004 FE R and D Benefit Analysis
This brochure describes the methodology and summarizes the results for quantifying the benefits of FE R&D programs using the NEMS model for a variety of hypothetical future domestic energy scenarios.
Geosequestration Field Experiments
A factsheet concerning existing carbon geosequestration projects and demonstrations in the U.S. These programs include: Mountaineer Project-American Electric Power (AEP), West Pearl Queen-Strata Production, Frio-University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Central Appalachian Basin-Consol Energy, Tiffany-Burlington Resources, and Weyburn-Alta Energy.
Task 3 Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization
This study evaluates the application of Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed UGAS® gasifier at the industrial application. The first of the three subtasks in this study examines the use of the gasifier for an upstate New York industrial setting using a Southeastern Ohio coal. Both air-blown and oxygen-blown gasifier schemes are evaluated for this subtask. The next subtask of the study is to develop an advanced design for an air-blown case based on the first subtask. The third subtask of the study investigates the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota.
Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Hydrogen Fuel Production in the USA from LNG and Coal
This presentation reviews a study that estimates life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for producing hydrogen from natural gas and coal. GHG emissions from all process steps are considered and comparisons were made between applications with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The study also discusses methane emissions and provides scenario analysis of coal-mine methane mitigation options.
Produced Water from Oil and Natural Gas Operations
This factsheet summarizes the management concerns and environmental impacts of produced water sources from oil and natural gas operations.
Risk Assessment for Long-term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations
A factsheet presenting the US DOE Office of Fossil Energy's long-term goals for the safe and environmentally-sound operation of geologic CO2 storage facilities. This includes the DOE's risk assessment R&D component called 'Monitoring, Mitigation, and Verification (MM&V)". The document summarizes trapping and mitigation techniques supported in the safe management goals.
Coalbed Natural Gas Coalbed Methane
A factsheet discussing the increasing role of coalbed methane or "CBM" as part of the national energy portfolio. CBM production has increased during the last 15 years and now accounts for about 1/12th of the U.S. natural gas production. The document also summarizes potential development issues in utilizing the resource.
Oil Shale Development in the United States, Prospects and Policy Issues
This report presents an updated assessment of the viability of oil shale resources in the United States. The report describes the oil shale resources in the western United States and examines the suitability, cost, and performance of available technologies for developing these resources. Other topics include energy, environmental, land-use, and socio-economic policy issues that must be addressed by government decision makers in the future.
A Primer on Perceptions of Risk, Risk Communication and Building Trust
This paper provides outreach and education information for carbon sequestration activities. The paper addresses communication methods for discussing potential risks and benefits of geologic carbon sequestration to the public. The document also presents effective diagnostic tools to help practitioners identify problems, communicate effectively, and engage the public.
DOE-NETL's Power Plant Water Management R and D Program Responding to Emerging Issues
This presentation provides an overview of the water needs of fossil energy power generation technologies and the methods used to project future water consumption levels. A final review is also provided on the NETL Power Plant Water R&D Program research objectives.
Coal-to-Power and Coal-to-Liquid Fuels Technologies Used in a Technoeconomic Study of the Hydrogen Economy
The purpose of this presentation is to review the executive goals of 2005 to make progress on a hydrogen economy that will reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Using NEMS runs and extrapolation of future trends, the presentation discusses on-going trends in carbon emissions and fuel consumption by each economic sector. Additional runs are developed to demonstrate how these projections change should the executive goals be successfully implemented in the future.
Carbon Sequestration Role in State and Local Actions
The purpose of this report is to summarize existing carbon sequestration activities at the state level to inform decision makers, planners, and others who may be interested in the progress of carbon sequestration development in the United States.
Polygeneration of SNG, Hydrogen, Power, and Carbon Dioxide from Texas Lignite
The intent of this study is to investigate the feasibility of siting a lignite conversion plant in Texas at the mine mouth of the Wilcox lignite deposit. The concept is to coproduce at least three products: electric power, hydrogen or substitute natural gas (SNG), and carbon dioxide. The electric power would be sold to the grid, the hydrogen would be sent by pipeline to the Gulf Coast petroleum refineries, the SNG would be sold as a natural gas supplement, and the carbon dioxide would be pipelined to the West Texas oil fields for enhanced oil recovery.
Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass Industry: A Scoping Analysis
The objective of this study is to explore the economic viability of producing coal-derived fuel gases for use in the glass manufacturing industry as an alternative to natural gas. In this study small-size gasification systems that suffer adversely from economics of scale were not considered. Instead, full-scale commercial gasification systems were analyzed that could produce enough fuel gas and electric power for several manufacturing plants. The possibility exists to gather a number of large manufacturers in a geographically centralized location in an Industrial Gasification Island (IGI) complex so that a central coal gasification plant could economically provide fuel and power to all of these industries.
Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies: Appendices
A collection of Appendices for "Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies, 2004."
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems
The research in this study conducts Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). The efficiency of these two methods is reviewed under specific scenarios.
Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies: Final Report
This study reviews the market potential for a typical coal-based IGCC technology in the U.S. from 2004 to 2025. It identifies a number of recommendations designed to enhance IGCC market penetration opportunities given the uncertainties of the future. The study is based upon the latest views and data from experts in the industry. The study provides detailed economic and financial modeling/analyses of recent relevant investment decisions. Several future scenarios are assessed using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).
Coal-Based Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies
This study looks at the market potential for typical coal-based IGCC technology in the U.S. from 2004 to 2025. Future scenarios are assessed using the Energy Information Administration (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The financial impacts of future technology improvements are further refined using a power pricing model. The results of this document identify market entry options and recommend methods for market sustainability.
BLM Safety Net Royalty Relief Analysis of Natural Gas and Oil Production and Public Sector Revenues for United States Onshore Federal Lands
A study to evaluate the costs and benefits of proposed royalty relief scenarios on Federal oil and gas leases. Key findings demonstrate that existing royalty relief is not cost-effective at current prices. Similarly, incremental production due to safety net royalty relief proposals is relatively small and gas production is not nearly as sensitive as oil production to lower prices in the study range.
An Assessment of a Hydrogen Cities Concept Applied to a Representative Community
This report presents a study on SOFC-based DG plant configurations. The performance of each plant configuration was analyzed, considering first a simple-cycle SOFC and comparing these results to a gas turbine hybrid with SOFC. Issues pertaining to siting, waste heat utilization, and improve costs and efficiency are also reviewed. The performance model uses an hour-by-hour analysis to estimate Overall Cost of Electricity (COE), energy savings, and emissions impacts.
Deploying IGCC in this Decade with 3Party Covenant Financing: Volume I
Volume I describes IGCC technology, and its importance as an advanced clean coal technology for generating electricity. This report reviews the near-term deployment challenges and present the 3Party Covenant financing and regulatory program as a means of stimulating IGCC economic competitiveness.
Deploying IGCC in this Decade with 3Party Covenant Financing: Volume II
Volume II provides a detailed legal analysis of the federal and state regulatory mechanisms for implementing the 3Party Covenant. This includes a review of traditional electric utility regulatory systems and the regulatory systems in 5 specific states. Finally, the report concludes with a model regulatory mechanism that can be used to review and approve IGCC projects under the 3Party Covenant.
South-Central Alaska Natural Gas Study
The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate the options that will meet south-central Alaska's natural gas demand and provide for economic growth. The opportunities for ensuring adequate future supply of natural gas include: Development of additional gas reserves in existing Cook Inlet fields, exploration and development of new gas fields in the Cook Inlet Basin, and development of a spur pipeline to bring Alaska North Slope gas to the region. Each of these options is assessed for feasibility.
The Impact of Future Diesel Fuel Specifications and Engine Emissions Standards on SOFC
This study begins by characterizing the relevant diesel specifications and related regulations with respect to their timing and effect on diesel fuel and its uses. Using this obtained information, the study evaluates and quantifies possible effects on the SECA program technology targets, timing, and likelihood of success. The report concludes with an evaluation of the possible effects on the market size and benefits of the SECA program, considering the impact on both diesel-fueled SOFC technology and CIE technology.
Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet 2025 Electricity Generating Capacity Forecasts
An analysis estimating the impact of thermoelectric power plants on freshwater resources through 2025. Using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2004 Annual Energy Outlook's reference case forecast for electricity generating capacity, future freshwater requirements for both total and coal-based thermoelectric generation were estimated. These results are compared to historical water use by the power sector.
Sequestration in the Media: Changes in Public Perception
The purpose of this presentation is to review carbon sequestration literature and historical record of the topic's discussion in the media. Using the reference concentrations and topic discussions as data points, this analysis quantifies trends, themes, and areas of emphasis within the carbon sequestration research community.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR
This factsheet discusses the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) as a source of natural resources for domestic needs and the contrasting concerns of preserving the natural state of the environment.
Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement
This presentation provides an overview of the Carbon Sequestration Programs and related research supported by DOE. This review includes discussion on the mechanisms behind CCS methodologies. The presentation also provides background on the structure of US fuel consumption and energy supplies, as these sources contribute to emissions.
NETL Carbon Sequestration Program: US Perspective on CO2 Capture and Separation
This presentation outlines the NETL Carbon Sequestration Program and the pre- and post-combustion technologies under which CO2 capture is proposed. The presentation also discusses the modeling and assessment tools used to evaluate the performance of each technology. The final section reviews ongoing R&D projects and highlights their progress.
Delivering Alaskan North Slope Gas to Market
A factsheet reviewing how increased demand has renewed interest in a transportation infrastructure for the Alaskan North Shore (ANS) natural gas resource. The document reviews current progress to develop the ANS infrastructure and reviews the steps necessary to achieve these proposed pipeline expansion goals in the future.
An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives-Appendices
Appendices in support of: "An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives, 2004."
An Analysis of the Institutional Challenges to Commercialization and Deployment of IGCC Technology in the U.S. Electric Industry: Recommended Policy, Regulatory, Executive and Legislative Initiatives
This report discusses the institutional challenges to the rapid commercialization and deployment of coal gasification technologies in the U.S. The document also provides recommendations for overcoming each challenge. Focus is on Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology and recommended policies to aid in the advancement of the technology.
Review of Non-Technical Issues Related to Commercial Methane Hydrate Production: Final Report
This report identifies and analyzes operational, environmental or policy issues that could impact the commercial production of methane hydrates as an unconventional source of natural gas. The report itemizes potential barriers and proposes methods to facilitate commercialization of methane hydrate supplies.
Stabilizing Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2: Role of Carbon Sequestration
The paper analyzes a scenario for reducing U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that is consistent, in the near term, with the President's Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) and, in the longer term, atmospheric stabilization at 550 ppm. The purpose for formulating and evaluating such a stabilization scenario is to define the role and expectations for performance of carbon sequestration technologies in a future, speculative carbon-constrained world.
The Convergence of Environmental Issues from Ecosystem Impacts to Technology Solutions
This paper discusses the need for foresight and long-term planning goals in complex systems; specifically electricity generation systems. The paper provides an overview of complex systems and the need for adaptivity. This report also presents specific examples of how, in electricity generation systems, planners can take advantage of complexities and manage multiple problems with one solution.
A White Paper Describing Produced Water from Production of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal Bed Methane
The white paper evaluates produced water from oil production, conventional natural gas production, and coal bed methane production. The document includes information on producing water, including its constituents, how much is generated, and how it is regulated in different cost settings. This report also serves as a baseline for future research programs or policy initiatives considering produced water and provides detailed information relative to produced water and potential impacts on the environment.