Carbon Dioxide Use and Storage in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Projects
The Great Plains Synfuels Plant has long been gasifying coal to produce synthetic natural gas and ammonia, and capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) which is pipelined to Canada for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Weyburn oil field. Several new integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)-based projects in the United States will be greatly expanding the scope of CO2 capture and use/storage.
Kemper County Energy Facility
Mississippi Power's Kemper County facility is in late stages of construction. It will be a lignite-fuel IGCC plant, generating a net 524 MW of power from syngas, while capturing over 65% of CO2 generated. The CO2 will be sent by pipeline to depleted oil fields in Mississippi for EOR operations.
Hydrogen Energy California (HECA) Project
HECA will be a 300MW net, coal and petroleum coke-fueled IGCC polygeneration plant (producing hydrogen for both power generation and fertilizer manufacture). Ninety percent of the CO2 produced will be captured and transported to Elk Hills Oil Field for EOR, enabling recovery of 5 million additional barrels of domestic oil per year.
Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC: Texas Clean Energy Project
Summit's Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP) will be a coal-fueled, IGCC-based 400MW power/poly-gen project (also producing urea fertilizer), which will capture 90 percent of its CO2 in pre-combustion capture. The CO2 not used in fertilizer manufacture will be used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the West Texas Permian Basin.
CO2 Capture at Coffeyville Resources Nitrogen Fertilizers Plant
Notwithstanding it gasifies petroleum coke instead of coal and does not include a power generation cycle, the Coffeyville Resources Nitrogen Fertilizers Plant naturally groups with the foregoing examples because the coke gasification-derived syngas is similarly processed to capture CO2, most of which is utilized in EOR operations in northeastern Oklahoma. Originally, Coffeyville separated CO2 from the syngas because pure hydrogen is required for ammonia synthesis (and because some CO2 is required for urea synthesis) but most of the CO2 had been vented to the atmosphere. Starting in 2013, the bulk of the CO2 at the plant is now being gainfully utilized for EOR with its accompanying economic and environmental benefits.