What regulations are in place to govern CO2 injection(s)?
In December 2010, EPA finalized minimum Federal requirements under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for underground CO2 injection for the purpose of geologic storage. This final rule applies to owners or operators of wells that will be used to inject CO2 into the subsurface for the purpose of long-term storage. It establishes a new class of well, Class VI, and sets minimum technical criteria for the permitting, geologic site characterization, corrective action (if necessary), financial responsibility, well construction, operation, monitoring, well plugging, post-injection site care (PISC), and site closure of Class VI wells for the purposes of protecting underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). The elements of this rulemaking are based on the existing Underground Injection Control (UIC) regulatory framework, with modifications to address the unique nature of CO2 injection for geologic storage. This rule will help to ensure consistency in permitting underground CO2 injection at geologic storage operations across the United States and provide requirements to prevent endangerment of USDWs. In addition to these Federal requirements, many states have either enacted CCS requirements or are in the process of doing so. For example, Wyoming passed legislation in 2009 covering the general legislative framework, pore space ownership (including rights, limitations, and protections) and unitization. Liability legislation covering "post closure" and "long-term stewardship" are also covered. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has compiled all of these regulations and provides updates on their current status.
Current regulations are inadequate to address the underground CO2 injection.
There are both Federal and state regulations that govern underground CO2 injection.