Post-Combustion CO2 Control

Post-combustion CO2 control systems separate CO2 from the flue gas produced by conventional coal combustion in air. The flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and has a CO2 concentration of 10-15 volume percent.

Capturing CO2 under these conditions is challenging because: 

  1. The low pressure and dilute concentration dictate a high total volume of gas to be treated. 
  2. Trace impurities in the flue gas tend to reduce the effectiveness of the CO2 separation processes. 
  3. Compressing captured CO2 from atmospheric pressure to pipeline pressure (1,200-2,200 pounds per square inch) represents a large parasitic energy load.

 

Plant Picture



NETL's post-combustion CO2 control technology R&D program includes projects directed at the use of solvents, solid sorbents, and membranes. Amine-based solvent systems are in commercial use for scrubbing CO2 from industrial flue gases and process gases. However, solvents have not been used to remove large volumes of CO2 as would be encountered in a pulverized coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Solid sorbents can be used to capture CO2 from flue gas through chemical adsorption, physical adsorption, or a combination of the two. Possible configurations for contacting the flue gas with solid sorbents include fixed, moving, and fluidized beds. Membrane-based capture uses permeable or semi-permeable materials that allow for the selective transport/separation of CO2 from flue gas.

NETL funds multiple post-combustion CO2 emission control projects employing each of these three approaches. These R&D efforts are performed by external research organizations and academic institutions and by NETL's Office of Research and Development (ORD), specifically the Separations and Fuels Processing Division and the Office of Computational Dynamics.

The In-House Post-combustion CO2 Control webpage provides detailed information regarding NETL’s internal R&D.

NETL's post-combustion CO2 control technology R&D includes external research projects directed at the use of solvents, solid sorbents, and membranes. Each of the sections below lists on-going and completed projects and provides a link for more information on each project.

 

Solvents

Solvents
Active and completed projects researching solvents for post-combustion CO2 control.

Active Solvent Projects
Ion Advanced Solvent CO2 Capture Pilot Project ION Engineering, LLC
DE-FE0013303
Pilot scale
 Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent GE Global Research
DE-FE0013687
Laboratory/bench scale
Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture
GE Global Research
DE-FE0013755
Pilot scale
Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants RTI International
DE-FE0013865
Laboratory/bench scale
An Advanced Catalytic Solvent for Lower Cost Post-Combustion CO2 Capture in a Coal-Fired Power Plant University of Kentucky Research Foundation
DE-FE0012926
Laboratory/bench scale
Development of Mixed-Salt Technology for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal Power Plants SRI International
DE-FE0012959
Laboratory/bench scale
Novel Flow Sheet for Low Energy CO2 Capture Enabled by Biocatalyst Delivery System Akermin, Inc.
DE-FE0012862
Laboratory/bench scale
 Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced Separation of Carbon Dioxide for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture
 Rice University
 DE-FE0007531
Laboratory/bench scale 
Research and Education of CO2 Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions
University of Cincinnati
DE-FE0001834 
Laboratory/ bench scale 
Application of a Heat-Integrated Post-combustion CO2 Capture System with Hitachi Advanced Solvent into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant University of Kentucky Research Foundation
DE-FE0007395
Pilot scale (0.7 MWe)
Slipstream Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel Amine-Based Post-combustion Process Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas Linde, LLC
DE-FE0007453
Pilot scale (1 MWe)
Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO2 Removal Southern Company Services
DE-FE0007525
Pilot scale (25 MWe)
Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE) Neumann Systems Group
DE-FE0007528
Pilot scale (0.5 MWe)
CO2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Battelle Pacific Northwest Dicision
DE-FE0007466
Laboratory/bench scale
Development of an Energy-Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Solvent for the Capture of CO2 Babcock & Wilcox
DE-FE0007716
Laboratory/bench scale
Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC
DE-FE0007567
Laboratory/bench scale
Low-Energy Solvents for CO2 Capture Enabled by a Combination of Enzymes and Ultrasonics Novozymes North America, Inc.
DE-FE0007741
Laboratory/bench scale
Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO2Capture GE Global Research
FE0007502
Laboratory/bench scale
Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-combustion COCapture

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
DE-FE0004360
Laboratory/bench scale
Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO2 Capture

Akermin, Inc.
DE-FE0004228
Laboratory/bench scale

URS Corporation
DE-FE0005654
Laboratory/bench scale
National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Southern Company Services
FC26-08NT0000749
Laboratory/bench & pilot scale (.5 MWe)
Completed Solvent Projects
Novel Solvent System for Post-combustion COCapture
ION Engineering, LLC
DE-FE0005799
Laboratory/bench scale
Post-combustion CO2 Capture for Existing PC Boilers by Self-Concentrating Amine Absorbent
3 H Company, LLC
DE-FE0004274
Laboratory/bench scale
Slipstream Development and Testing of Siemens POSTCAP Capture and Separation Technology
Siemens Energy Inc.
 DE-FE0003714
 Pilot scale (2.5 MW)
Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-combustion CO2 Capture
University of Notre Dame
FC26-07NT43091
Laboratory/bench scale
Development and Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process
Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois (ISGS)
 DE-NT0005498
Laboratory/bench scale 
Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture Georgia Tech Research Corporation
DE-NT0005287
Laboratory/bench scale
GE Global Research
DE-NT0005310
Laboratory/bench scale
Hampton University
FG26-05NT42488
Laboratory/bench scale

AIL Systems, Inc.
FG02-06ER84592 SBIR
Laboratory/bench scale

Trimeric Corporation
FG02-06ER84625 SBIR
Laboratory/bench scale

University of Notre Dame
FG26-04NT42122
Laboratory/bench scale

University of Texas at Austin
FC26-02NT41440
Laboratory/bench scale


Sorbents

Sorbents
Active and completed projects researching solid sorbents for post-combustion CO2 control.

Active Sorbent Projects
Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture
SRI International
DE-FE0013123
Pilot scale
Optimizing the Costs of Solid Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture Process Through Heat Integration
ADA-ES, Inc.
DE-FE0012914
Laboratory/ bench scale
Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
DE-FE0013127
Laboratory/ bench scale
Bench-Scale Development and Testing of Rapid PSA for CO2 Capture W.R. Grace
DE-FE0007639
Laboratory/bench scale
Novel Solid Sorbents for Post-combustion CO2 Capture RTI International
DE-FE0007707
Laboratory/bench scale
A Low-Cost, High-Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture From Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants TDA Research, Inc.
DE-FE0007580
Laboratory/bench scale
Bench-Scale Development & Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process InnoSepra, LLC
DE-FE0007948
Laboratory/bench scale
Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption Using Polymer/Supported Amine Composite Hollow Fibers Georgia Tech Research Corporation
DE-FE0007804
Laboratory/bench scale
Evaluation of CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents (CACHYS™) University of North Dakota
DE-FE0007603
Laboratory/bench scale
Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture

ADA-ES, Inc.
DE-FE0004343
Pilot scale (1 MW)
Development of Novel Carbon Sorbents for CO2Capture

SRI International
DE-NT0005578
Laboratory/bench scale
Completed Sorbent Projects
SO2-Resistent Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture
The University of Akron
DE-FE0001780
Laboratory/ bench scale
Low-Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants
TDA Research, Inc.
DE-NT0005497
Laboratory/ bench scale
CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents
Pennsylvania State University
FE0000458
Bench Scale
Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants ADA-ES, Inc.
DE-NT0005649
Laboratory/bench scale
Metal Monolithic Amine-Grafted Zeolites for CO2 Capture University of Akron
FC26-07NT43086
Laboratory/bench scale
CO2 Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks UOP, LLC
FC26-07NT43092
Laboratory/bench scale

RTI International
FC26-07NT43089
Laboratory/bench scale

UOP, LLC
FG26-04NT42121
Laboratory/bench scale


Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
FG02-04ER83885 SBIR
Laboratory/bench scale

RTI International
FC26-00NT40923
Laboratory/bench scale


Membranes

Membranes
Active and completed projects researching membranes for post-combustion CO2 control.

Active Membrane Projects
Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO2 Capture Process Membrane Technology & Research, Inc.
DE-FE0013118
Laboratory/ bench scale
Pilot Test of a Nanoporous, Super-Hydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Gas Technology Institute
DE-FE0012829
Pilot scale
Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial CO2 Extraction System Alliant Techsystems Operations, LLC
DE-FE0013122
Laboratory/ bench scale
CO2 Capture by Cold Membrane Operation with Actual Power Plant Flue Gas American Air Liquide, Inc.
DE-FE0013163
Laboratory/ bench scale
Novel Inorganic/Polymer Composite Membranes Ohio State University
DE-FE0007632
Laboratory/bench scale
Bench-Scale High-Performance Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture GE Global Research
DE-FE0007514
Laboratory/bench scale
Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation FuelCell Energy, Inc.
DE-FE0007634
Laboratory/bench scale
Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2Capture Membrane Technology and Research, Inc.
DE-FE0007553
Laboratory/bench scale
Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Gas Technology Institute
DE-FE0004787
Laboratory scale
Slipstream Testing of a Membrane CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Membrane Technology & Research, Inc.
DE-FE0005795
Pilot (1 MW) scale
Completed Membrane Projects 
CO2 Capture by Sub-Ambient Membrane Operation American Air Liquide, Inc.
DE-FE0004278
Laboratory scale
Membrane Process to Capture CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Membrane Technology & Research, Inc.
DE-NT0005312
Laboratory scale
CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas RTI International
DE-NT0005313
Laboratory scale
Novel Dual Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fueled Power Plants University of New Mexico
FG26-04NT42120
Laboratory scale
Membrane Process to Sequester CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Membrane Technology & Research, Inc.
FC26-07NT43085
Laboratory scale
Development of Biomimetric Membrane for Near-Zero PC Power Plant Emissions Carbozyme, Inc.
FC26-07NT43084
Laboratory scale
Biomimetric Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Carbozyme, Inc.
FG26-06NT42824
Laboratory scale

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources

Compact Membrane Systems, Inc.
FG02-04ER83925
SBIR
Laboratory scale
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