Systems Analysis

DOE/NETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Carbon Capture Program consists of conducting various energy analyses that provide input to decisions on issues such as national plans and programs, resource use, environmental and energy security policies, technology options for research and development programs, and paths to deployment of energy technology. This work includes technology, benefits, and current situation and trends analyses related to CO2emissions control. Systems analyses and economic modeling of potential new processes are crucial to providing sound guidance to R&D efforts. Since the majority of new CO2 capture technologies are still at a bench scale level of development, a conceptual design is first generated with emphasis on mass and energy balances. Based on available data and/or engineering estimates, these systems are optimized, and "what-if" scenarios are evaluated to identify barriers to deployment and help the process developers establish system performance targets. Reports that have been generated describing systems analyses in support of carbon capture efforts are shown in the table below.

Carbon Capture Reports
Options for Improving the Efficiency of Existing Coal Fired Power Plants   This analysis evaluates options for improving the efficiency of existing subcritical pulverized coal electric generating units. The cost impact and extent of CO2 emission reduction are both presented.
April 2014
NETL Studies on the Economic Feasibility of CO2 Capture Retrofits for the US Power Fleet
This presentation provides the highlights from various retrofit studies including: (1) Quality Guidelines on retrofit difficulty cost factors, (2) Reference PC and NGCC plants retrofitted with post-combustion capture, and (3) Extrapolation of PC retrofit study results to the entire U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet to examine the costs of capture for each unit and determines how EOR and 2nd Generation capture technologies might incentivize CO2 capture.
January 2014

Volume 1: Bituminous Coal to Electricity Final Report
The objective of this report was to establish a cost and performance baseline for the oxycombustion process that can be used as a basis for comparison with past and future studies.
September 2013
Impact of Load Following on Power Plant Cost and Performance
This study performed a review of the public literature and interviewed industry experts to determine the impact on cost and performance of forcing fossil fuel power plants without and with carbon capture to load follow in response to changes in demand or output from renewable power generation sources.
October 2012
Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases
The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Nov 2010) establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, pulverized coal (PC) plants fueled with bituminous coal, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration.
August 2012
Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture-Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants
This analysis evaluates CO2 capture-ready supercritical pulverized coal units. Cost and performance results are presented for capture-ready coal units that achieve a 30-year average emission rate of 1,000 Lb CO2/MWh. The analysis also includes a detailed discussion of the specific elements that comprise a capture-ready unit, as well as different design strategies to minimize costs.
August 2012
A Benefits Analysis of the Existing Plants Emissions and Capture Program
This paper presents an analysis of the NETL EPEC program. The overall goal of NETL’s EPEC program is to develop carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies that limit the increase in the cost of electricity generation to 35 percent of that generated by an equivalent greenfield plant without CCUS.
June 2012
Current and Future Technologies for Power Generation with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture
The objective of this study is to support DOE’s Carbon Capture and Advanced Combustion R&D Programs by completing an "R&D Pathway” study for PC power plants that employ post-combustion carbon capture.
March 2012
QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters  This section of the Quality Guidelines provides recommended impurity limits for CO2 stream components for use in conceptual studies of CO2 carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems. These limits were developed from information consolidated from numerous studies and are presented by component.
March 2012
NEMS-CCUS: A Model and Framework for Comprehensive Assessment of CCUS and Infrastructure
This paper presents a recent application of the NETL funded NEMS-CCUS Model which enables the simulation of CO2 pipelines and pipeline networks across the forty-eight contiguous states. The model was used to assess the role of CO2 capture, utilization and storage in both carbon tax and clean energy standard (CES) cases.
February 2012
Evaluating the Impact of R&D and Learning-By-Doing on Fossil Energy Technology Cost Reductions: There Can be No Learning if There is No Doing
This analysis explores the contributions of R&D prior to deployment and learning-by-doing on fossil energy technology cost reductions. A learning curve analysis tool and cash flow model were constructed for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) capital costs to quantify these effects. The results of this analysis show that without CCUS R&D prior to deployment, the opportunity to learn-by-doing does not occur because commercial entry costs are prohibitive.
February 2012
Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Fired Power Plants
The paper highlights RD&D partnership efforts with both the Nation’s research universities and the private sector, which are focused on maximizing system efficiency and performance, while minimizing the costs of new Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies.
January 2012
Research and Development Goals for CO2 Capture Technology This document outlines the carbon capture goals set forth by DOE/NETL and provides a detailed breakdown and justification of their derivation.
December 2011
Eliminating the Derate of Carbon Capture Retrofits
Retrofitting existing PC plants with amine-based CO2 capture technology is thermally- and power-intensive. This study examines the benefit of installing a natural gas simple cycle to provide the auxiliaries required to operate the amine system such that the original power demand can still be met.
September 2011
Cost and Performance of PC and IGCC Plants for a Range of Carbon Dioxide Capture
This study establishes the cost and performance for a range of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture levels for new supercritical pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. Cost of avoiding CO2 emissions is calculated and utilized to find the optimum level of CO2 capture for each plant type.
May 2011

Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance

This paper summarizes the costing methodology employed by NETL in its costing models and baseline reports. Further, it defines the specific levels of capital cost as well as outlines the costing metrics by which NETL evaluates various power producing plants.
April 2011

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity: Combustion Cases

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 3b: Low Rank Coal to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration.
March 2011

Coal-Fired Power Plants in the United States: Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2 Capture Technology, Revision 3

This report describes the development of a database and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis of a defined population of coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to model the cost and assist in the assessment of the feasibility of retrofitting these plants with CO2 capture technology.
January 2011

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity

The Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants Study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity establishes performance and cost data for fossil energy power systems, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle, pulverized coal, and natural gas combined cycle plants all with and without carbon capture and sequestration.
November 2010

Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements

Future freshwater withdrawal and consumption from domestic thermoelectric generation sources were estimated for five cases, using AEO 2010 regional projections for capacity additions and retirements. Results demonstrate that carbon capture technologies could increase the water demand of thermoelectric power plants and indicate that consumption is expected to increase in all cases.
September 2010

Cost Performance for Low-Rank Pulverized Coal Oxycombustion Energy Plants

The objective of this report is to present an independent assessment of the cost and performance of low-rank coal oxycombustion power systems, specifically PC and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) plants, using a consistent technical and economic approach that accurately reflects current market conditions for plants starting operation in 2015
September 2010

Assessment of Hydrogen Production with CO2 Capture, Volume 1: Baseline State of the Art Plants

This study establishes performance and cost data for state-of-the-art fossil energy hydrogen production plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage. Both natural gas and bituminous coal feedstocks are assessed.
August 2010

Assessment of Power Plants That Meet Proposed Greenhouse Gas Emission Performance Standards

Technoeconomic assessment of western U.S. coal-fired power plants (greenfield IGCC and supercritical PC, and existing subcritical PC) each with three CO2 capture levels: 0%, 90%, and a level appropriate to meet California's standard of 1,100 lb CO2/MWh.
May 2010

Investment Decisions for Baseload Power Plants

This report identifies and discusses factors considered for investment decisions for base load power generation in the U.S. and their relative importance in investment decisions.
January 2010

Extending the CCS Retrofit Market by Refurbishing Coal Fired Power Plants

This report provides documentation and demonstration of a NEMS based modeling methodology to endogenously forecast trends in the refurbishment and retrofitting of coal fired power plants for carbon capture and sequestration, with special reference to the impact of NETL R&D programs.
July 2009

Database and Model of Coal-fired Power Plants in the United States for Examination of the Costs of Retrofitting with CO2Capture Technology

NETL developed a GIS database of the US coal-fired power plant fleet to analyze cost and space availability issues associated with retrofitting for carbon capture.
April 2009

Water Requirements for Existing and Emerging Thermoelectric Plant Technologies

This study provides both water consumption and cooling duty factors for Nuclear, PC (Subcritical and Supercritical), IGCC, and NGCC power plants. Data is provided for both CO2 capture and no CO2 capture configurations of each type of plant.
August 2008

CO2 Capture-Ready Coal Power Plants

This report examines the question of whether it is more cost effective to design a new plant in anticipation of future restrictions on carbon emissions so that the plant is CO2 capture-ready or to proceed with no anticipation of a future retrofit.
April 2008

Deployment of Advanced Coal Power in the U.S. under a Range of Carbon Tax Scenarios

The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) was exercised to forecast market penetration for advanced coal power with CO2capture under a range of CO2 emission tax scenarios, considering market-based incentives for low carbon emission power and improved technology performance consistent with the DOE/FE research portfolio.
January 2008

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

This study evaluates the technical and economic impacts of removing CO2 from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO2capture system.  The study investigates various levels of CO2capture (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%).
November 2007

International Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal Barriers

This document examines regulatory developments of major CCS projects to determine progress in regulation. Five case studies of CCS projects are examined, including enhanced resource recovery and direct storage options at various development stages.
July 2006