|Alliant Energy Corporation
Joseph J. Pieters
|Combustion Initiative for Innovative Cost-Effective NOx Reduction
Sites: Sheboygan, WI and Portage, WI
Project Summary: Alliant Energy Corporation, Madison,
WI, proposes to achieve the same, stringent nitrogen-oxide-emissions reductions
as Selective Catalytic Reduction at a fraction of the capital cost and
with drastically lower operation and maintenance costs. Alliance uses
a computational modeling approach, its Combustion Initiative, to optimize
overall power plant performance. The Combustion Initiative will attempt
to hold NOx emissions to 0.15 lbs/mmBtu from a 340-megawatt cyclone boiler
burning coal from the Powder River Basin at the Edgewood Generating Station
in Sheboygan, WI. Cyclone boilers are especially prone to high NOx emissions;
this demonstration could help establish a target baseline for combustion-stage
NOx reductions on cyclone boilers.
The Energy Department selected this project for a partial award.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: Alliant Energy's
Combustion Initiative is a science-and-technology--driven approach to
lowering emissions and improving the performance of coal-fired power plants.
Through research and development, the company is finding innovative ways
to reduce emissions, increase thermal efficiency, and improve plant reliability.
The Combustion Initiative is a methodology that starts with developing
a deep understanding of the combustion and related processes in each piece
of equipment and in the power plant as a whole. The second step is to
push the envelope for existing NOx control technologies through re-engineering
and modeling. The use of computational modeling as a tool is key to optimizing
the system performance and maximizing the use of emission reduction technologies.
The Combustion Initiative methodology results in the potential to reduce
NOx emissions to 0.15 lb NOx /mmBtu or below, without the use of selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) technology, and at a fraction of the capital
cost and at much lower O&M costs. The ability to reach these low NOx
emission levels has been demonstrated in the pilot-scale work that Alliant
Energy has conducted at its M.L. Kapp Station in Iowa.
Alliant Energy proposes, through its Wisconsin Power & Light Company
subsidiary, to demonstrate the reduction of NOx emissions using the Combustion
Initiative methodology on three of the main coal-fired boiler types in
the United States: T-fired, cyclone-fired, and wall-fired units. The three
units include Edgewater Generating Station Unit 4 (cyclone) and Unit 5
(wall-fired) in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and Columbia Generating Station
Unit 2 (T-fired) in Portage, Wisconsin. Reduced emissions are directly
in line with the company's commitment to improving the environment for
everyone. Better thermal efficiency will mean that less fuel will be needed
to produce energy, which saves money and reduces stress on equipment.
Improved reliability will help keep customers lights on, even as demand
grows throughout the region. Finally, when costs are minimized, shareowners
will experience increased earnings. Through applied science and technology,
the Combustion Initiative is helping Alliant Energy find cost-effective
solutions to challenges the Power industry faces today and tomorrow.
|Arthur D. Little, Inc.
|Development of Hybrid FLGR/SNCR/SCR Advanced NOx Control for Orion
Avon Lake Unit 9
Site: Avon Lake, OH
Project Summary: Arthur D. Little Inc., Cambridge, MA,
proposes to develop and demonstrate a hybrid system composed of lower-cost
components from three established NOx-reduction systems that can function
as stand-alone units or as an integrated, optimized, single-control system.
Using Fuel-Lean Gas Reburn/Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, Selective
Non-Catalytic Reduction, and Selective Catalytic Reduction systems, the
hybrid seeks to lower NOx emissions to 0.15/mmBtu at lower costs than
conventional SCR, a comparatively expensive, effective way to curb NOx.
Improving performance and reducing compliance costs, the technology would
be installed on a 623-MW, wall-fired unit near Cleveland, OH, that burns
Eastern bituminous coal.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: Coal-fired power
boiler operators are facing a dual challenge to remain competitive while
adapting to deregulation and to impending stringent NOx controls. The
NOx control technologies available to coal-fired operators are not optimized
for this new set of challenges. Under deregulation, the optimum control
techniques need to have a low capital cost base, and cost basis, and cost
effective reduction over a wide operational range so that the performance
of each unit in the system can be optimized to allow maximum revenue dispatch.
The increased flexibility is needed to allow each boiler and the integrated
system to respond competitively to market conditions. Current reliance
on selective catalytic reduction, with the associated high capital cost,
will not typically give a utility sufficient dispatch flexibility to maximize
competitiveness. As an alternative, the team of Acurex Energy, Fuel Tech
and Orion Power are proposing development and demonstration of a hybrid
system of lower cost components that can be operated separately or as
an integrated, optimized single control.
The three components in the hybrid system are FLGR/SNCR, SNCR, and compact
SCR. The three components have been developed individually, but have not
been developed and optimized as a hybrid control. The objectives of this
project are to demonstrate the hybrid as a lower cost alternative to SCR
to achieve 0.15 lb/MMBtu emission levels, and to operate the hybrid system
to improve performance and reduce compliance costs to enhance operation
in system-wide dispatch in the deregulated market.
The hybrid system will be installed on Orions Avon Lake Unit 9 boiler
near Cleveland, Ohio. This is a 623 MW wall-fired unit firing eastern
bituminous coal. Acurex Energy will perform the engineering and conduct
the performance testing. Fuel Tech will supply the system hardware for
the FLGR, SNCR and SCR modules. The system will be retrofit in February
2003 and tested and optimized during the 2003 ozone season. Long-term
performance and emission monitoring will be done during the 2004 ozone
|CONSOL Energy, Inc.
South Park, PA
F. P. Burke
|Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project
Site: Torrey, NY
Project Summary: CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA,
seeks to demonstrate a multi-pollutant-control system that can reduce
NOx, SO2, acidic gas, mercury and fine particulate matter from a large
number of smaller coal plants for less money than it costs to control
NOx and SO2. This project would be the first to demonstrate 1) NOx reductions
of 0.122 lbs/mmBtu using a single bed, in-duct Selective Catalytic Reduction
combined with a low-NOx combustion technology on a unit burning coal and
biomass, 2) 95% sulfur removal using a Circulating Dry Scrubber from Environmental
Elements Corp. on a coal-fired bolier, 3) 90% mercury reduction in the
CDS, and 4) more than 95% acid gas (sulfur trioxide, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric
acids) removal in the CDS. The system is projected to offer 60% NOx removal
for one-third of the capital cost and one-fourth of the operation and
maintenance cost of conventional SCR or SNCR technology. Less complex
than a conventional flue gas desulfurization system, the CDS is projected
to cost less than half as much to install as an FGD system on a 100-MW
unit, with substantially lower operation and maintenance costs. The technology
will be demonstrated on a 104-MW unit in Torrey, NY.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: CONSOL Energy
Inc., AES Greenidge LLC, Environmental Elements Corporation (EEC), Foster
Wheeler Energy Corporation (FWEC), and AEP Pro Serv, propose to install
and test an integrated multi-pollutant control system on the 104 MW AES
Greenidge Unit 4. The 4.5-year project would be the first to demonstrate:
NOx emissions less than 0.122 lb/MM Btu using a single-bed, in-duct
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, in combination with low-NOx
combustion technology, on a unit firing coal and biomass
SO2 removal of 95% using EECs Circulating Dry Scrubber
(CDS) on a unit firing >2% sulfur bituminous coal
Mercury reduction of 90% by the addition of activated carbon into
Acid gas (SO3, HCI, HF) removal greater than 95% in the
Greenidge Unit 4 is representative of 492 coal-fired electricity generating
units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MWe. These smaller
units, almost one-quarter of the U.S. coal-fired generating capacity,
are increasingly vulnerable to fuel switching or retirement as a result
of more stringent state and federal environmental regulations. The proposed
project will demonstrate the commercial readiness of an emissions control
system that is particularly suited, because of its low capital and maintenance
costs, to meet the requirements of this large group of smaller existing
electricity generating units.
The single-bed, in-duct SCR, in combination with low-NOx combustion technology,
can achieve 60% NOx reduction for about one-third the capital cost and
one-fourth the operating and maintenance cost of a full SCR or Selective
Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on a 100 MW unit. The capital cost
of the CDS system is projected to be less than half that of a conventional
flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on a 100 MW unit. Operating and
maintenance costs are less, and reliability is better for the CDS system,
because it is less mechanically complex than a conventional FGD. Activated
carbon injection into the CDS unit is projected to use 5 to 10 times less
carbon than direct injection into flue gas duct for a given level of mercury
control, because the carbon has a greater average contact time in the
CDS bed than in the flue gas duct. Reducing the carbon feed rate results
in substantial mercury control cost savings. The CDS system will reduce
acid gases (SO3, HCl, HF) by more than 95%, with the additional
benefits of reducing plume visibility and secondary particulate formation.
Acid gases must be reported to EPA as part of the Toxic Release Inventory
(TRI). The project will also include an evaluation of the impact of biomass
co-firing (5-10% of the boiler fuel) on the performance of the SCR and
The goal of the proposed project is to demonstrate substantial improvements
in mercury, SO3 and fine particulate control, and substantial
reductions in the cost for NOx and SO2 control, compared to
conventional technologies when applied to the large number of smaller
coal-fired generating units in the U.S. This project will produce operating
and maintenance cost data, reliability and availability data, and process
performance data so that generators will accept the risk of installing
for multi-pollutant control on smaller coal-fired units. Ultimately, the
successful demonstration of these technologies will help to ensure the
future availability of low-cost electricity from a significant fraction
of the U.S. coal-fired generating fleet.
|Otter Tail Power Company
Fergus Falls, MN
|Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid
Particulate Collector Technology
Site: Big Stone City, SD
Project Summary: Otter Tail Power Company, Fergus Falls,
MN, will demonstrate, in a full-scale application, a hybrid technology
that raises the particulate matter capture of coal plants up to 99.99%
by integrating fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in a
single unit. The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector overcomes the problem
of excessive fine particle emissions that escape collection in ESPs and
the reentrainment of dust in baghouses. The AHPC would be retrofitted
into an existing 450-MW EPS structure at a low-sulfur-coal plant in Big
Stone City, SD.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: A new concept
in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector
(AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy.
The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs)
and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric
filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing
major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection
step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh
collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle
emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment
and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses.
A slipstream AHPC (9000 scfrn) has been operating at the Big Stone Power
Plant for the past 1½ years. The AHPC demonstrated ultrahigh
particulate collection efficiency for submicron particles and total particulate
mass. Collection efficiency was proven to exceed 99.99% by one to two
orders of magnitude over the entire range of particles from 0.01 to 50
µm. The flue gas exiting the AHPC was as clean as pristine ambient air
with a fine particulate matter level of 5 µg/m3. This level
of control would be well below any current particulate emission standards.
These results were achieved while operating at significantly higher air-to-cloth
ratios (12 ft/min compared to 4 ft/min) than what is used for standard
pulse-jet baghouses. In fact, preliminary economic analysis of the AHPC
compared with conventional ESPs and baghouses indicates that the AHPC
is economically competitive with either of these technologies for meeting
current standards. For meeting a possible stricter fine-particle standard
or 99.99% control of total particulate, the AHPC is the economic choice
over either ESPs or baghouses by a wide margin.
The AHPC is a superior technology not only for new installations but
as a retrofit technology as well. The AHIPC combines a high particulate
collection efficiency, with a small footprint and potential economic advantages.
Given the age and performance level of many existing ESPs, there is a
great and immediate need for this type of retrofit technology.
Therefore, Otter Tail Power Company and its partners, Montana-Dakota
Utilities and NorthWestern Public Service, is proposing to retrofit the
AHIPC technology into an existing ESP structure at the Big Stone Power
Plant. The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate the AHPC concept
in a full-scale application. Specific objectives are to demonstrate ultralow
fine particulate emissions, low pressure drop, overall reliability of
the technology and, eventually, long-term bag life.
|Sunflower Electric Power Corp.
Wayne E. Penrod
|Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards
Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan
for Boiler Combustion
Site: Garden City, KS
Project Summary: Sunflower Electric Power Corporation,
Hays, KS, will install ultra-low-NOx burners with other combustion-stage
controls with the goal to reduce NOx emissions to 0.13-0.14 lbs/mmBtu,
demonstrating a concept that has never been illustrated in plants using
subbituminous coals, including those from the Powder River Basin. Expected
to help define the extent to which combustion modifications can reduce
NOx from pulverized coal boilers, the project will be tried out on a 360-MW
wall-fired unit in Garden City, KS.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: Low-NOx Burners
(LNB) have been in development since the late 1970s and are in general
use on many steam-electric generating units. Increasing demands for overall
reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions have continued to put pressure
on manufacturers to improve burner design. Recent developments have introduced
what are generally referenced as ultra-LNB. When used with separated over-fire
air (SOFA) they have been found capable of reducing emission rates very
near the current new source performance standard (NSPS) level of about
0.16 pounds per million British thermal units (mmBtu).
The purpose of this project is to research and install the very best
of the ultra-LNB available and, further, to install with them other new
features all directed to enhancing the control of NOx during combustion
to annual emission rates of about 0.13 or 0.14 lbs/mmBtu. Naturally, vendors
are reluctant to guarantee emissions at or below the NSPS level. A practical
demonstration of the best designed and controlled equipment will reduce
the uncertainties and thus assure the availability of technology that
has much lower installed cost than the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
units that are now in favor. A portion of the technology proposed has
been installed on one 600 MW wall-fired unit and it has achieved the NSPS
level of NOx emissions, at least on a short-. term basis.
The full application of the five-elements proposed herein have never
been demonstrated in plants tiring sub-bituminous coals, especially those
from Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB). Likewise, there are no other
wall-fired units on which owners have sought to fully explore the technology
proposed to its fullest potential. The inclusion of the very latest in
distributed control systems, proposed for this unit in 2003, make this
location ideal for integration with the proposed elements. The unit on
which this technology will be applied has among the very best availabilities
and performance histories for boilers of its type. It was placed in commercial
operation in 1983 and is equipped with the latest sulfur-dioxide (SO2)
scrubber and fabric filter for particulate matter. When completed, this
will be among the cleanest non-SCR equipped coal-fired units in the United
We believe there are as many as 30 units onto which this technology can
be deployed that will be able to meet the current NSPS level, if long-term
practical demonstration can be made. A further 60 units will be able to
establish significant reductions, to levels of about 0.22 Ibs/mmBtu. This
choice of equipment, if enabled in a timely fashion, will allow a reduction
in the number of SCRs being installed, thereby reducing the overall consumer
cost; will reduce the outage duration necessary for completion, thereby
improving the electric system reliability; and will conserve the critical
manpower needed to accomplish this work, which is now in such short supply.
Overall, some improvements in operating efficiencies are certain for this
proposed unit, but the complexity of evaluating those on a fleet basis
is beyond the scope of this proposal. The existing conditions on the proposed
unit are such that additional capacity and energy may be generated with
the addition of this equipment. While this condition may exist elsewhere,
it also is beyond the scope of this proposal.
|Tampa Electric Co.
Robert N. Howell
|Polk Power Station Plant Improvement Project
Site: Mulberry, FL
Project Summary: Tampa Electric Company, Tampa, FL,
proposes to demonstrate a monitor that measures the wear pattern of refractory
liners at high temperatures, thereby increasing unit reliability and availability.
The demonstration site is a 250-MW integrated gasification combined-cycle
unit at the Polk Power Station in Mulberry, FL. The monitor is expected
to reduce costs and uncertainty related to refractory wear and replacement
for IGCCs, which are highly efficient, clean, coal-based, power-generation
The Energy Department has selected this project for a partial award.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: Coal is our nation's
most abundant fuel resource. It is used primarily in power plants. However,
coal contains up to 60% more carbon per unit of useful energy than liquid
fuels or natural gas, so coal fired power plants are normally large sources
for C02 generation and by-product source.
A new type of coal fired power plant called Integrated Gasification Combined
Cycle (IGCC) has been developed, demonstrated, and commercialized in the
United States and abroad. In IGCC plants, the coal is first converted
into a high-pressure gas before combustion. Conventional pollutants and
their precursors such as sulfur, nitrogen compounds and particulates are
much easier to remove from this high pressure low volume gas stream in
IGCC plants than from the low pressure high volume combustion products
in power plant stacks. IGCC demonstration plants funded in part by the
United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology
Program have already shown their environmental superiority in this regard.
At this time, Polk Power Station is generating 250 MW (Net) of power,
is operating at over 80% availability and is one of Tampa Electric Company's
premier baseload plants. This same attribute of IGCC plants, a high-pressure
low volume gas stream, which contains most of the fuels carbon, also offers
the best chance to minimize the cost and demonstrate CO2 capture and recovery.
The Polk Power Station project also offers an opportunity to demonstrate
the full recycling of all coal streams from the gasification process.
Within the gasification process, the ability to measure the wear pattern
of the brick liner will also be demonstrated to increase unit reliability
and availability including extended life. Tampa Electric's Polk Power
Station which was placed in-service September 30, 1996 with over 25,000
hours of run time on the gasifier, provides the platform for demonstrating
Phase I will include the complete process design and preliminary engineering.
Phase II will consist of the detailed engineering and long lead-time equipment.
Phase III will cover construction, startup, operation/demonstration and
reporting of the results and conclusions.
The demonstrations proposed herein for the Polk Power Station will provide
significant improvements to overall plant performance, plant reliability
and plant operating costs thereby assuring the gasification technologies
remain competitive for future power generation applications.
|Tampa Electric Company
Robert N. Howell
|Tampa Electric Company, Big Bend Power Station, Neural Network-Sootblower
Site: Apollo Beach, FL
Project Summary: Tampa Electric Company, Tampa, FL,
seeks to control boiler fouling on a 445-MW demonstration unit in Apollo
Beach, FL, by using a neural-network soot-blowing system in conjunction
with advanced controls and instruments. Ash and slag deposition compromise
plant efficiency by impeding the transfer of heat to the working fluid.
This leads to higher fuel consumption and higher air emissions, especially
NOx. This project is expected to reduce NOx by 30%, improve heat rate
by 2% and reduce particulate matter emissions by 5%.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: Cost effective
generation of electricity is vital to the economic growth and stability
of this nation. To accomplish this goal a balanced portfolio of fuel sources
must be maintained and established which not only addresses the cost of
conversion of these energy sources to electricity, but also does so in
an efficient and environmentally sound manner. Conversion of coal as an
energy source to produce steam for a variety of systems has been a cornerstone
of modern industry. However, the use of coal in combustion systems has
traditionally produced unacceptable levels of gaseous and particulate
emissions, albeit that recent combustion, removal and mitigation techniques
have drastically reduced these levels.
On such problem that exists with the combustion of coal, is the formation
and deposition of ash and slag within the boilers which adversely affects
the rate at which heat is transferred to the working fluid, which in the
case of electric generators is water/steam. The fouling of the boiler
leads to poor efficiencies due to the fact that heat which could normally
be transferred to the working fluid remains in the flue gas stream and
exits to the environment without beneficial use. This loss in efficiency
translates to higher consumption of fuel for equivalent levels of electric
generation, hence more gaseous emissions are also produced. Another less
obvious problem exists with fouling of various sections of the boiler
relating to the intensity of peak temperatures within and around the combustion
zone. Total NOx generation is primarily a function of both fuel and thermal
NOx production. Fuel NOx which generally comprises 20%-40% of the total
NOx generated is predominately influenced by the levels of oxygen present,
while thermal NOx which comprises the balance is a function of temperature.
As the fouling of the boiler increases and the rate of heat transfer decreases,
peak temperatures increase as does the thermal NOx production.
Due to the composition of coal, particulate matter is also a by-product
of coal combustion. Modern day utility boilers are usually fitted with
electrostatic precipitators to aid in the collection of particulate matter.
Although extremely efficient, these devices are sensitive to rapid changes
in inlet mass concentration as well as total mass loading. Traditionally,
utility boilers are equipped with devices known as sootblowers, which
use, steam, water or air to dislodge and clean the surfaces within the
boiler and are operated based upon established rules or operators judgment.
Without extreme care and due diligence, excursions or excessive soot can
overload an ESP resulting in high levels of PM being released.
The intent of this project is to apply a neural network intelligent sootblowing
system in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instruments to
optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control
boiler fouling. This optimization process is targeted to reduce total
NOx generation by +30, improve heat rate by 2%, and reduce PM emissions
by 5%. As compared to competing technologies, this could be an extremely
cost-effective technology, which has the ability to be readily and easily
adapted to virtually any pulverized coal boiler.
|Universal Aggregates, LLC
South Park, PA
David C. Kay
|Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing
Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash
Site: Birchwood, King George County, VA
Project Summary: Universal Aggregates LLC, South Park,
PA, will design, build and operate an aggregate-manufacturing plant that
converts 115,000 tons/year of spray dryer by-products into 167,000 tons
of light-weight masonry blocks or light-weight concrete. Flue gas desulfurization
systems, used to lower sulfur emissions from coal plants, often produce
a type of sludge that is landfilled; only 18% of FGD residue is recycled.
Much of that 18% pertains to recycling by-products from ?wet' FGD systems
or scrubbers. Universal Aggregates' process can be used to recycle the
by-products from wet or dry scrubbers. This plant would reduce plant disposal
costs while reducing the environmental drawbacks of landfilling. The demonstration
site is the 250-MW Birchwood Power Plant in Birchwood, VA.
Public Abstract Submitted by Proposer: Universal Aggregates,
LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate
manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia.
The project team consists of CONSOL Energy mc, P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs,
LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood facility will transform
115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being
disposed of in an off-site landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product,
lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight masonry
blocks or lightweight concrete.
In addition to the environmental
benefits, the Birchwood facility will create eight manufacturing jobs
plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the
aggregates to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration
would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities
in the United States. There are currently twenty-one spray dryer facilities
operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray
dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight
aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional
scrubbing is required, dry FGD technologies will be the technology of
choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate
that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers
are eliminated by this demonstration project.