The Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative began in 2005, leading to the successful completion of 19 small-scale field projects in a variety of storage complex (8 in oil and gas fields, 5 in unmineable coal seams, 5 in saline formations, 1 in basalt). The projects provided information on reservoir and seal properties of regionally significant formations, testing, and initial validation of modeling and monitoring technologies. The projects also helped establish familiarity with carbon dioxide (CO2) storage technologies among many stakeholder groups. More than 1 million metric tons (MMT) of CO2 cumulatively was stored via these RCSP Validation Phase field projects.
|Number on Map||Project Name||RCSP||Project Type||Injection Formations (Reservoir)||CO2Injected
|1||Walulla Basalt Pilot Study||BSCSP||Basalt||Interflow Zones, Grande Ronde Basalt||1,000*|
|2||Loudon Single Well Huff N Puff Project||MGSC||Huff N Puff EOR||Cypress and Mississippi Weiler Sandstone||39|
|3||Mumford Hills Project||MGSC||Enhanced Oil Recovery||Clore Sandstone||6,300|
|4||Sugar Creek Project||MGSC||Enhanced Oil Recovery||Jackson Sandstone||6,560|
|5||Tanquary Well Project||MGSC||Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery||Springfield Coal||91|
|6||Appalachian Basin Geologic Test at the R.E. Power Plant: Fegenco Fell||MRCSP||Saline Storage||Clinton Sandstone
Oriskany Sand Stone
|7||Duke Energy – East Bend Well Site||MRCSP||Saline Storage||Mt. Simon||910|
|8||Michigan Basin Geologic Test||MRCSP||Saline Storage||Bass Island Dolomite||60,000|
|9||Zama Acid Gas EOR, CO2Storage, and Monitoring Project||PCOR||Enhanced Oil Recovery||Middle Devonian Keg River Formation||133,550 acid gas|
|10||Lignite CCS Project||PCOR||ECBM||Lignite Seams in Ft. Union Formation||80|
|11||Northwest McGregor EOR Huff N Puff Project||PCOR||Huff N Puff EOR||Mission Canyon Limestone||400|
|12||Gulf Coast Stacked Storage Project||SECARB||Enhanced Oil Recovery||Tuscaloosa Formation||627,744|
|13||Plant Daniel Project||SECARB||Saline Storage||Massive Sand, Lower Tuscaloosa||2,740|
|14||Central Appalachian Basin Coal Test||SECARB||Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery||Pocahontas and Lee Formation||907|
|15||Black Warrior Project||SECARB||Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery||Pottsville Formation (coal zones)||252|
|16||Aneth EOR Sequestration Test||SWP||Enhanced Oil Recovery||Desert Creek and Ismay Formation||292,000|
|17||SACROC CO2 Injection Project||SWP||Enhanced Oil Recovery||Horseshoe Atoll and Pennsylvanian Reef/Bank Play||157,000|
|18||Pump Canyon CO2-ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration||SWP||Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery||Fruitland Coal Formation||16,700|
|19||Arizona Utilities CO2 Storage Pilot||WESTCARB||Saline Storage||Martin and Naco Formations||-|
The RCSP small-scale Validation Phase field test efforts were designed to demonstrate that regional storage formations have the capability to store CO2 and provide the foundation for larger volume, commercial-scale projects.
Experience and knowledge gained from field laboratories is key in development of the Carbon Storage Program's Best Practices Manuals (BPMs), with the original BPMs being based on Validation Phase efforts. The BPMs are intended to disseminate knowledge gained through the RCSP field efforts and to establish effective methods, reliable approaches, and consistent standards for carrying out successful geologic storage projects.