Carbon capture and storage (CCS), the separation and capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmospheric emissions of industrial processes and the safe, permanent storage of the CO2 in deep underground storage complexes, consists of a suite of technologies that can benefit an array of industries, including power plants and other industrial sources (e.g., biofuel, refineries, natural gas processing plants).
Geologic storage involves the injection of CO2 into storage complexes in the deep subsurface. A storage complex consists of: (1) one or more storage reservoirs, with permeability and porosity that allow injection and storage of CO2; and (2) one or more low-permeability seals, which enclose the reservoir(s) and serve as barriers to migration of CO2 out of the reservoir.
Since 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Carbon Storage Program has significantly advanced the CCS knowledge base and the development and validation of CCS technologies through a diverse portfolio of applied research projects, including:
The technologies being developed and the small- and large-scale injection projects conducted through the Carbon Storage Program help to increase our understanding of the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface and identification of the geologic reservoirs appropriate for CO2 storage, benefiting the existing and future fleet of fossil fuel power-generating facilities.
Additional information on the Carbon Storage Program can be found on the Carbon Storage Publications webpage.